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Inferring Causality from Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Cognitive Neuroscience

Til Ole Bergmann, Gesa Hartwigsen
2020 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience  
Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation, are advocated as measures to enable causal inference  ...  in cognitive neuroscience experiments.  ...  CAUSAL INFERENCE FROM NEUROIMAGING VS. NIBS IN COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Causal inference refers to the process of inferring causeeffect relationships based on the observed changes of an Figure 2 .  ... 
doi:10.1162/jocn_a_01591 pmid:32530381 fatcat:f2p3lmudj5brzdsyocoqy3mxia

Why the Assessment of Causality in Brain–Behavior Relations Requires Brain Stimulation

Juha Silvanto, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
2012 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience  
■ A central aim in cognitive neuroscience is to explain how neural activity gives rise to perception and behavior; the causal link of paramount interest is thus from brain to behavior.  ...  In contrast, brain stimulation techniques enable us to directly modulate brain activity as the source of behavior and thus establish causal links. ■  ...  It is precisely this direction of causality, from brain to behavior, that makes brain stimulation a unique methodology by allowing a manipulation of the source of behavior.  ... 
doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00193 pmid:22264196 fatcat:mwfpaf6wp5ftffmycbgsawpw6y

Hyperscanning Alone Cannot Prove Causality. Multibrain Stimulation Can

Giacomo Novembre, Gian Domenico Iannetti
2020 Trends in Cognitive Sciences  
This question cannot be answered by simply recording from multiple brains (hyperscanning). It instead requires causal protocols entailing their simultaneous stimulation (multibrain stimulation).  ...  Brains that work together, couple together through interbrain synchrony. Does interbrain synchrony causally facilitate social interaction?  ...  Inferring Causality in Neuroscience Dissecting causal from correlational relationships is a central problem in neuroscience.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tics.2020.11.003 pmid:33293210 pmcid:PMC7994246 fatcat:ses2e4wqjfaftkkcvta2qnzbpq

Optogenetics and the Circuit Dynamics of Psychiatric Disease

Karl Deisseroth, Amit Etkin, Robert C. Malenka
2015 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)  
stimulation (TMS), with which centimeter-scale brain regions can be stimulated noninvasively, can be integrated with functional MRI and electroencephalography, creating an opportunity in which activity  ...  Over the next decade, guided by deliberate alignment of circuit-based methods from basic and clinical neuroscience, advances in genetics, brain imaging, and neurostimulation will continue to translate  ... 
doi:10.1001/jama.2015.2544 pmid:25974025 pmcid:PMC4775737 fatcat:kpvjvq66r5bbvb2f7t7mkbmgyq

Three Research Strategies of Neuroscience and the Future of Legal Imaging Evidence

Jinkwon Jun, Soyoung Yoo
2018 Frontiers in Neuroscience  
In contrast, the data-driven and brain manipulation approaches, which are state-of-the-art approaches, have overcome the limitations of cognitive subtraction.  ...  Nevertheless, we here discuss how neuroscience is expected to improve the use of NIE in the legal system.  ...  Joon Seo Lim from the Scientific Publications Team at Asan Medical Center for his editorial assistance in preparing this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnins.2018.00120 pmid:29545740 pmcid:PMC5837991 fatcat:ijhaouvpr5euhjuxv3iljac734

Toward personalized brain stimulation: Advances and challenges

Hanna Lu, Linda Chiu Wa Lam, Yuping Ning
2019 CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics  
stimulation (VNS) are mainly employed as experimental tools in cognitive and clinical neuroscience, with some successful therapeutic applications in clinical trials. 4,5 In addition, novel stimulation  ...  ies should be noted as well: (a) Heterogeneity: due to the increased inter-individual and intra-individual variability in developing, aging, and clinical populations, causal inference with observational  ... 
doi:10.1111/cns.13251 pmid:31696643 pmcid:PMC6834681 fatcat:gqkym2cw3betzpy5trrqzpdspq

The cognitive neuroscience toolkit for the neuroeconomist: A functional overview

Joseph W. Kable
2011 Journal of Neuroscience Psychology and Economics  
and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior.  ...  In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity  ...  At one end of the spectrum, when examining the relationship between stimuli and brain activity, causal inference is clearly warranted.  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0023555 pmid:21796272 pmcid:PMC3142554 fatcat:35wglaxhojhmphufarrmpkpcle

Studying Implicit Social Cognition with Noninvasive Brain Stimulation

Maddalena Marini, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
2018 Trends in Cognitive Sciences  
Social and cognitive scientists are increasingly using noninvasive brain-stimulation techniques (NBS) to explore the neural mechanisms underlying implicit attitudes and stereotyping.  ...  NBS methods, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS), can interfere with ongoing brain activity in targeted brain areas and distributed networks  ...  The search was limited to the title, abstract, and keywords of publications included in the PsycINFO database from Figure 2 . 2 Noninvasive Brain Stimulation (NBS) Publications in Social Neuroscience  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tics.2018.07.014 pmid:30181079 fatcat:wecao3bkovacxfwesn2b4i6o24

In Search of Causal Mechanisms Underlying Bistable Perception

Stefan Rach, René J. Huster
2014 Journal of Neuroscience  
New techniques for noninvasive human brain stimulation like rhythmic TMS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) have recently become available, allowing modulation of brain oscillations  ...  Future studies should complement this important work by using combined recording and analysis of fMRI and EEG, as well as noninvasive brain stimulation methods to further our understanding of how the brain  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.4811-13.2014 pmid:24431426 pmcid:PMC6608347 fatcat:d4gt6yh4cbcf5lan5nr6ji7anq

Using fMRI to study reward processing in humans: past, present, and future

Kainan S. Wang, David V. Smith, Mauricio R. Delgado
2016 Journal of Neurophysiology  
We contend that future work using fMRI will profit from using a multimodal approach, such as combining fMRI with noninvasive brain stimulation tools (e.g., transcranial electrical stimulation), that can  ...  Using fMRI to study reward processing in humans: past, present, and future. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive tool used to probe cognitive and affective processes.  ...  Brain connectivity findings could potentially be combined with noninvasive brain stimulation to draw causal inferences regarding the mechanistic links between corticostriatal pathways and reward.  ... 
doi:10.1152/jn.00333.2015 pmid:26740530 pmcid:PMC4808130 fatcat:qr3jeecm2fdh7h7kf74p5eevxu

Study and Implementation of Advanced Neuroergonomic Techniques

B.F Momin
2012 Advanced Computing An International Journal  
As an interdisciplinary endeavor, neuroergonomics will continue to benefit from and grow alongside developments in neuroscience, psychology,  ...  Research in the area of neuroergonomics has blossomed in recent years with the emergence of noninvasive techniques for monitoring human brain function that can be used to study various aspects of human  ...  As noninvasive brain stimulation research and technology continues to evolve and researchers answer fundamental questions, the neuroergonomics community should strive to apply brain stimulation techniques  ... 
doi:10.5121/acij.2012.3402 fatcat:ebyni7ailzgeplxaunhdtqyn3y

Using causal methods to map symptoms to brain circuits in neurodevelopment disorders: moving from identifying correlates to developing treatments

Alexander Li Cohen
2022 Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders  
Specifically, methods like lesion network mapping can identify brain networks involved in the generation of complex symptomatology, both from acute onset lesion-related symptoms and from focal developmental  ...  These novel circuits, after validation in large-scale highly characterized research cohorts and tested prospectively using noninvasive neuromodulation and neurofeedback techniques, may represent a new  ...  Inferring causality in brain images: a perturbation approach. 144.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s11689-022-09433-1 pmid:35279095 pmcid:PMC8918299 fatcat:u4gfwj6h5bgk3oxg2i5xlyalzy

Under the Mind's Hood: What We Have Learned by Watching the Brain at Work

Anna Christina Nobre, Freek van Ede
2019 Journal of Neuroscience  
Around the same time as the Society for Neuroscience was being established in the 1960s, the first tools for measuring the human brain at work were becoming available.  ...  Noninvasive human brain imaging and neurophysiology have continued developing at a relentless pace ever since.  ...  No matter how far along noninvasive methods for watching the brain at work have come, complementary approaches are required for testing the causal contribution of activity in brain networks to human cognition  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.0742-19.2019 pmid:31630115 pmcid:PMC6939481 fatcat:l7spqjrqsfgyzm2cxgvachvpw4

Brain network analyses in clinical neuroscience

Arseny A. Sokolov, Cristina Granziera, Elda Fischi-Gomez, Maria Giulia Preti, Philippe Ryvlin, Dimitri Van De Ville, Karl J. Friston
2019 Swiss Archives of Neurology, Psychiatry and Psychotherapy  
Network analyses are now considered fundamental for understanding brain function. Nonetheless neuroimaging characterisations of connectivity are just emerging in clinical neuroscience.  ...  (Figure 2.F is adapted with permission from [7].)  ...  systems neuroscience -from functional segregation to integration.  ... 
doi:10.4414/sanp.2019.03074 fatcat:6xdn3ey6xrfzpb3w74naeewj4y

Non-invasive brain stimulation in the detection of deception: Scientific challenges and ethical consequences

Bruce Luber, Carl Fisher, Paul S. Appelbaum, Marcus Ploesser, Sarah H. Lisanby
2009 Behavioral sciences & the law  
Tools for noninvasive stimulation of the brain, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have provided new insights in the study of brain-behavior  ...  Here we review the existing literature on the application of noninvasive brain stimulation in the study of deception.  ...  Columbia University has applied for a patent for novel TMS technology developed in Dr. Lisanby's laboratory, for work unrelated to the topic presented here.  ... 
doi:10.1002/bsl.860 pmid:19266592 fatcat:kcmalelmefgz5azupaqs643ume
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