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The first is 'inference-based' comprehension, where the programmer derives meaning from clichéd implementations in the code. ... The second is 'expectation-based' comprehension, where the programmer has pre-generated expectations of the code's meaning. ... Chris Douce for his valuable suggestions and constructive criticism on earlier versions of the paper. They would also like to thank Alan Sheahan and Dr. Oliver Hyde, for their statistical expertise. ...doi:10.1109/wpc.2001.921715 dblp:conf/iwpc/OBrienB01 fatcat:fndjzhyfirhjhoqtrn7pj5ckl4
"expectation in use of reasoning", and the effects of code review were then analyzed. ... We aim to identify how code review, which helps integrate information in C programming learning, affects the knowledge of reasoning divided into three categories. ... Table 1 : 1 Programming Inference and Code review QuestionnaireIQ1: I know that the programming process is related to reasoning.IQ2: I know that programming is a problem with deductive, inductive, and ...doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2021.03.113 fatcat:s5kid23ttvg4dotc3ojppshlxe
The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. ... Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. ... Inferencing and Prior Knowledge Another major advance in reading comprehension research concerns the central role of inference processes and the role of prior knowledge in these processes. ...doaj:eecfd854011840aa91f43031cff1ab44 fatcat:nkq33aye2vaqjcs36rt5dnlx6i
Dawley et al (see PA, Vol 79:11041), there was a greater rate of participation in the smoking cessation program with the comprehensive program. ... regard ing organizational and unit values and expectations, and their experiences with the grievance process. ...
programs. ... The model consists of a theoretical construct with three basic components (processing of narrative, processing of educational content, and distance--the degree to which the educational content is integral ... Inferences. Another way in which prior knowledge plays a role is in facilitating the generation of inferences to aid in comprehension. ...doi:10.1207/s1532785xmep0201_4 fatcat:qus2pnszfzbhrjririanplkpwy
However, individual neuroimaging studies of program comprehension often provided inconsistent results and made it difficult to identify the neural bases. ... These findings suggest that program comprehension mainly recycles the language-related networks and partially employs other domain-general resources in the human brain. ... Peitek for sharing their data of peak voxel coordinates in Siegmund et al. (2017) and A. A. Ivanova for helping the replication of two contrast maps in Ivanova et al. (2020). ...doi:10.1101/2021.04.15.439937 fatcat:fditq7eujra6xmfx37lb7vxgru
draw script-based and invited infer- ences than logical inferences. ... Preschool children’s event knowledge allows them to make script-based inferences in text comprehension before they are able to make either invited or logical inferences. 986. ...
The three groups differed in vocabulary and higher level processes. Vocabulary breadth and depth distinguished between the unexpected poor comprehenders and the expected average comprehenders. ... Inference, strategy, listening comprehension, summary writing, and morphological awareness distinguished between the expected average comprehenders and the unexpected good comprehenders. ... Wei Zhao and Mengmeng Liu for their assistance with data collection and the principal, teachers, and students of the school for their support and participation in this study. We also thank Drs. ...doi:10.1080/10888438.2013.775130 fatcat:pjrojh7kqfd4bncrpqgdvl3quu
Psychology of Programming
The topic of this chapter is the role of expert programming knowledge in the understanding activity. ... In the "schema-based approach", the role of semantic structures is emphasized whereas, in the "control-flow approach", the role of syntactic structures is emphasized. ... First, as shown in Pennington's chapter, the same kind of knowledge is used by the processes of program composition and program comprehension. ...doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-350772-3.50018-5 fatcat:7n6ucqobireonhvrvlh7kffmli
We focus on the inductive inference mechanism's role behind the automatic program construction activities and software evolution. ... This paper highlights the role of the inductive inference principle in software engineering. ... Acknowledgment This work is supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant Agency: KEGA 040TUKE-4/2011: Modern software engineering in education -structure and implementation of software engineering subjects ...doi:10.5277/e-inf120106 dblp:journals/eInformatica/Samuelis12 fatcat:akacjf4k2rbclewgkjieoduza4
This research aims to find out the students' problems in listening comprehension and identify the factors contributing to the problems. ... The results of the research showed that the students still have low listening comprehension. The most difficult indicator of listening comprehension is making inference. ... RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Based on the observation on the teaching and learning process in Listening Comprehension class at the Second Semester of English Study Program of University of Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai ...doi:10.21070/jees.v4i1.1722 fatcat:hk6qmzc4qvb3nh5w6prg57zshy
Our first experimental study investigated the effect of those two factors (cohesion and signaling) on three levels of comprehension (text based, local inferences, global inferences). ... The results showed no effect of conditions on comprehension performances but confirmed differences in processing behaviors. ... ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank teachers of French from the ECG Ella Maillart (Geneva, Switzerland), for their collaboration and precious help in the recruitment of participants. ...doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.592509 pmid:33536969 pmcid:PMC7847939 fatcat:rvdghm6o5rfntfhhgslagjgrya
The results are discussed in terms of dual process theories of text comprehension. ... These results suggest that open-ended and multiple-choice format questions measure different aspects of comprehension processes. ... , accurate general knowledge based inference, accurate domain knowledge based inference, and accurate near-and far-bridging inference) were present, and then we averaged the count across the seven target ...doi:10.1037/a0032918 pmid:24041303 fatcat:bjx65dnuwjho3fut3zaef4jixe
Journal of Education
The current study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of a task-based program in developing listening comprehension and listening self-efficacy among EFL General Diploma students. ... The participants received the task-based program for twelve weeks. ... The higher-level processes (top-down) are related to the listener's expectation and understanding of the text, and the perception of the world. ...doi:10.21608/edusohag.2020.120307 fatcat:3t2himlcpngwjlvqyeahkzocby
Feigenbaum, Rule-based understanding of signals (pp. 483-501); Walter Reitman and Bruce Wilcox, Pattern recognition and pattern- directed inference in a program for playing Go (pp. 503-523); Stanley J. ... World-knowledge for language-understanding: Eugene Char- niak, Inference and knowledge in language comprehension (pp. 541-574); Roger Schank, Representation and understanding of text (pp. 575-619); Subject ...
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