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Individual differences in GABA content are reliable but are not uniform across the human cortex

Ian Greenhouse, Sean Noah, Richard J. Maddock, Richard B. Ivry
2016 NeuroImage  
We asked whether individual differences in MRS estimates of GABA are uniform across the cortex or vary between regions.  ...  GABA estimates within each region were stable across weeks, with low coefficients of variation. Despite this stability, the GABA estimates were not correlated between regions.  ...  in GABA levels are uniform throughout the cortex or are region-specific.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.06.007 pmid:27288552 pmcid:PMC5148727 fatcat:q4lmt4yhtvg7pg4rzznu7guxle

Individual Differences in Resting Corticospinal Excitability Are Correlated with Reaction Time and GABA Content in Motor Cortex

Ian Greenhouse, Maedbh King, Sean Noah, Richard J. Maddock, Richard B. Ivry
2017 Journal of Neuroscience  
Interestingly, larger MEPs were associated with higher levels of GABA in M1, but not in three other cortical regions.  ...  Here, we examined the relationship between individual differences in intrinsic corticospinal excitability, local cortical GABA levels, and reaction time (RT) in a group of 20 healthy human adults.  ...  This regional specificity is in accord with our previous work showing that individual differences in GABA concentration are reliable within a voxel but exhibit, at best, a modest correlation between regions  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3129-16.2017 pmid:28179557 pmcid:PMC5354322 fatcat:7y6ptucbi5dd7ppfz7gvd3asxa

Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Reduces Psychophysically Measured Surround Suppression in the Human Visual Cortex

Daniel P. Spiegel, Bruce C. Hansen, Winston D. Byblow, Benjamin Thompson, Hans O. p. de Beeck
2012 PLoS ONE  
It has been reported that anodal tDCS can reduce both GABA mediated inhibition and GABA concentration within the human motor cortex.  ...  The aim of this study was to assess whether anodal tDCS could reduce inhibitory interactions within the human visual cortex.  ...  These results are consistent with recent work demonstrating that anodal but not cathodal tDCS can reduce GABA mediated inhibition within the human motor cortex [6, 7, 8, 16] and are the first to demonstrate  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036220 pmid:22563485 pmcid:PMC3341359 fatcat:4roghoeenng63h4adstmgfzalq

Multi-Regional Investigation of the Relationship between Functional MRI Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) Activation and GABA Concentration

Ashley D. Harris, Nicolaas A. J. Puts, Brian A. Anderson, Steven Yantis, James J. Pekar, Peter B. Barker, Richard A. E. Edden, Xi Luo
2015 PLoS ONE  
Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed.  ...  In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear.  ...  The inter-individual relationships between the peak BOLD signal within the MRS voxel and GABA concentration are shown in Fig. 4 .  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117531 pmid:25699994 pmcid:PMC4336183 fatcat:pqzh36suwfdjrd5kpcrdhzt2gu

Non-uniformity of Neocortex: Areal Heterogeneity of NADPH-diaphorase Reactive Neurons in Adult Macaque Monkeys

P. Barone
2000 Cerebral Cortex  
Consideration of individual layers shows significant differences in 13/15 comparisons.  ...  Areal densities of type 1 neurons are minimal in areas V1 and V2, and twice as dense in the frontal cortex.  ...  An analysis of variance (ANOVA) across areas was performed for all NADPH-d-positive neurons, * 0.65/n.s. 0.15/n.s. Area 6 ***  ... 
doi:10.1093/cercor/10.2.160 pmid:10667984 fatcat:s24a3ehxsrg4jpko6mzafne7mi

Effects of Diazepam on Reaction Times to Stop and Go

Swagata Sarkar, Supriyo Choudhury, Nazrul Islam, Mohammad Shah Jahirul Hoque Chowdhury, Md Tauhidul Islam Chowdhury, Mark R. Baker, Stuart N. Baker, Hrishikesh Kumar
2020 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
The selective effect of diazepam on ocSSRT but not simple RT suggests that GABAergic neurons may play a critical role in movement-stopping.  ...  Conclusion: Our results confirm that a single therapeutic adult dose of diazepam can alter motor inhibition in drug naïve healthy individuals.  ...  Changes in ocSSRT and RT from before to after placebo or drug ingestion were not distributed significantly differently from normal across the population (Shapiro-Wilk test statistic; p < 0.8 in all cases  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2020.567177 pmid:33132880 pmcid:PMC7573484 fatcat:x5b5gvwswngbbedimsqvhtsbou

Imaging the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder - from localist models to circuit-based analysis

Michael T Treadway, Diego A Pizzagalli
2014 Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders  
In light of this challenge, the focus of the current review is to provide a critical summary of key findings from different neuroimaging approaches in MDD research, including structural, functional and  ...  Frustratingly little movement has been achieved on this front, however, and the 'gold-standard' of diagnostic validity and reliability remains expert consensus.  ...  The authors declare no competing interests. Over the past three years, Dr.  ... 
doi:10.1186/2045-5380-4-5 pmid:24606595 pmcid:PMC3995947 fatcat:pn5yomeuwfdrffkq5vpx6hfmgq

Gad67 haploinsufficiency reduces amyloid pathology and rescues olfactory memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

Yue Wang, Zheng Wu, Yu-Ting Bai, Gang-Yi Wu, Gong Chen
2017 Molecular Neurodegeneration  
We and others have recently found that GABA content is elevated in AD brains and linked to cognitive deficits in AD mouse models.  ...  However, whether Gad67 is involved in AD pathology has not been well studied.  ...  Availability of data and materials All data generated in this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s13024-017-0213-9 pmid:29017573 pmcid:PMC5633901 fatcat:prybip3hq5hcrjkslbmncy5hxi

Dorsolateral prefrontal γ-aminobutyric acid in patients with treatment-resistant depression after transcranial magnetic stimulation measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Jennifer G. Levitt, Guldamla Kalender, Joseph O'Neill, Joel P. Diaz, Ian A. Cook, Nathaniel Ginder, David Krantz, Michael J. Minzenberg, Nikita Vince-Cruz, Lydia D. Nguyen, Jeffry R. Alger, Andrew F. Leuchter
2019 Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience  
We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to assess changes in GABA levels at the site of rTMS in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).  ...  The therapeutic mechanism of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) may involve modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels.  ...  Finally, we found that the use of GABA agonists was not associated with changes in GABA levels, but was associated with inferior treatment response.  ... 
doi:10.1503/jpn.180230 pmid:31199104 pmcid:PMC6821508 fatcat:bics7eqlkze6xhywk5ww3q5a7e

Glutamate and GABA in autism spectrum disorder—a translational magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in man and rodent models

Jamie Horder, Marija M. Petrinovic, Maria A. Mendez, Andreas Bruns, Toru Takumi, Will Spooren, Gareth J. Barker, Basil Künnecke, Declan G. Murphy
2018 Translational Psychiatry  
Abnormalities in glutamate and GABA signaling have been hypothesized to underlie ASD symptoms, and may form a therapeutic target, but it is not known whether these abnormalities are recapitulated in humans  ...  In humans with ASD, glutamate concentration was reduced in the striatum and this was correlated with the severity of social symptoms. GABA levels were not altered in either brain region.  ...  We are grateful to L. Ozmen and her team for maintaining animal colonies.  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41398-018-0155-1 pmid:29802263 pmcid:PMC5970172 fatcat:dxrguk5i4rdfjftmotyeli5oie

The contribution of [1H] magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the study of excitation-inhibition in autism

Laura A Ajram, Andreia C Pereira, Alice M S Durieux, Hester E Velthius, Marija M Petrinovic, Grainne M McAlonan
2018 Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry  
In addition, there are no means to identify biologically responsive individuals who may benefit from specific interventions.  ...  There is hope however, and in this review we consolidate how findings from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) add to the evidence that differences in the brain's excitatory glutamate and inhibitory  ...  Using [1H]MRS, we found that the anti-glutamate and pro-GABA drug riluzole increased the proportion of GABA+ relative to the total level of GABA+ and Glx metabolites in the prefrontal cortex in ASD, but  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2018.09.010 pmid:30248378 fatcat:t55w3z2wqzdljcnrnnblmbvdv4

The Human Brain Revisited Opportunities and Challenges in Postmortem Studies of Psychiatric Disorders

D Lewis
2002 Neuropsychopharmacology  
Studies of the postmortem human brain have become an increasingly essential element of the effort to understand the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders, especially in light of advances in our knowledge  ...  This Perspective reviews some of the opportunities afforded by investigations of the postmortem human brain, and offers suggestions for improving the quality of future studies through the use of wellcharacterized  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Although the author assumes full responsibility for the content of this article, he wishes to acknowledge and thank the participants in an NIMH-sponsored workshop on "Postmortem Brain Analysis  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0893-133x(01)00393-1 pmid:11790510 fatcat:gejkbi2gxrerrlcqz5rz3dupve

The relationship between pubertal hormones and brain plasticity: Implications for cognitive training in adolescence

Corinna Laube, Wouter van den Bos, Yana Fandakova
2020 Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience  
We build on existing age-comparative cognitive training studies to explore how the potential for change in neural resources and behavioral repertoire differs across age groups.  ...  As the age of pubertal onset is decreasing across developed societies, this may also have important educational and clinical implications, especially with respect to the effects that earlier puberty has  ...  Acknowledgments Y.F. was supported by a grant within the Priority Program, SPP 1772, from the German Research Foundation (Grant No. FA 1196/2-1).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2020.100753 pmid:32072931 pmcid:PMC7005587 fatcat:gbyj57lvdbacpk7dyrfb56bnfm

Synaptic patterning and the timescales of cortical dynamics

Renato Duarte, Alexander Seeholzer, Karl Zilles, Abigail Morrison
2017 Current Opinion in Neurobiology  
The modular and hierarchical organization of this selectivity mirrors anatomical and physiological relations throughout the cortex and is likely determined by the regional electrochemical composition.  ...  Being consistently patterned and actively regulated, the expression of molecules involved in synaptic transmission constitutes the most significant source of laminar and regional variability.  ...  Nicola Palomero-Gallagher for providing the receptor density data. We acknowledge partial support by the Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctoral Program EuroSPIN, the German Ministry for Education and Research  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.conb.2017.02.007 pmid:28407562 fatcat:6txavj7aynhn5irin5yslf2p2u

Organizational Principles of Human Visual Cortex Revealed by Receptor Mapping

Simon B. Eickhoff, Claudia Rottschy, Milenko Kujovic, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Karl Zilles
2008 Cerebral Cortex  
This receptorarchitectonic study of the human visual cortex investigated interareal differences in mean receptor concentrations and laminar distribution patterns of 16 neurotransmitter receptors in the  ...  that a receptorarchitectonic distinction between the ventral and dorsal visual cortices is present in but not specific to V3.  ...  Human Brain Project/ Neuroinformatics research.  ... 
doi:10.1093/cercor/bhn024 pmid:18321873 pmcid:PMC2733321 fatcat:uvcmuz5wjngrbk7agqizbo3zsu
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