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Packing bag-of-features

Herve Jegou, Matthijs Douze, Cordelia Schmid
2009 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision  
In this paper, we first evaluate how the memory usage is reduced by using lossless index compression.  ...  Coupled with a proper indexing structure, an image is represented by a few hundred bytes. A distance expectation criterion is then used to rank the images.  ...  Hence, using a state-of-the-art indexing algorithm such as locality-sensitive hashing [3] is less efficient than using an inverted file structure, which computes the exact distances by visiting only  ... 
doi:10.1109/iccv.2009.5459419 dblp:conf/iccv/JegouDS09 fatcat:wxhtpqtwvrd3xpts5oxi72yyla

To Aggregate or Not to aggregate: Selective Match Kernels for Image Search

Giorgos Tolias, Yannis Avrithis, Herve Jegou
2013 2013 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision  
This paper considers a family of metrics to compare images based on their local descriptors. It encompasses the VLAD descriptor and matching techniques such as Hamming Embedding.  ...  Making the bridge between these approaches leads us to propose a match kernel that takes the best of existing techniques by combining an aggregation procedure with a selective match kernel.  ...  Unless stated otherwise, we use a vocabulary of 65k visual words. Inverted files.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iccv.2013.177 dblp:conf/iccv/ToliasAJ13 fatcat:fpigvtwjtjc5lnjpdldpk755be

Large Scale Image Retrieval Using Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors [chapter]

Giuseppe Amato, Paolo Bolettieri, Fabrizio Falchi, Claudio Gennaro
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Vector of locally aggregated descriptors (VLAD) is a promising approach for addressing the problem of image search on a very large scale.  ...  However, text search engines have not be used yet for indexing VLAD given that it is not a sparse vector of occurrence counts.  ...  Efficiency and memory constraints have been recently addressed by aggregating local descriptors into a compact vector representation In particular, Fisher Vector (FV) [20] and VLAD [15] have shown  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-41062-8_25 fatcat:ahvujtoj4zctvkx2lqez5oywxu

Image Search with Selective Match Kernels: Aggregation Across Single and Multiple Images

Giorgos Tolias, Yannis Avrithis, Hervé Jégou
2015 International Journal of Computer Vision  
This paper considers a family of metrics to compare images based on their local descriptors. It encompasses the VLAD descriptor and matching techniques such as Hamming Embedding.  ...  Making the bridge between these approaches leads us to propose a match kernel that takes the best of existing techniques by combining an aggregation procedure with a selective match kernel.  ...  For the aggregated methods descriptors of database images are aggregated off-line and then stored in the inverted file. On query time, query descriptors are aggregated in the same way.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11263-015-0810-4 fatcat:jyhamggwonfb3gob75ufyykzoe

Using Apache Lucene to Search Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors [article]

Giuseppe Amato, Paolo Bolettieri, Fabrizio Falchi, Claudio Gennaro, Lucia Vadicamo
2016 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we propose to extend the Surrogate Text Representation to specifically address a class of visual metric objects known as Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors (VLAD).  ...  This approach is based on representing the individual sub-vectors forming the VLAD vector with the STR, providing a finer representation of the vector and enabling us to get rid of the reordering phase  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was partially supported by EAGLE, Europeana network of Ancient Greek and Latin Epigraphy, co-founded by the European Commision, CIP-ICT-PSP.2012.2.1 -Europeana and creativity  ... 
arXiv:1604.05576v1 fatcat:rg6gushwpzdczkoeqjwuoso34q

Enhanced VLAD

2016 KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems  
Recently, Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors (VLAD) has been proposed to index image by compact representations, which encodes powerful local descriptors and makes significant improvement on search  ...  In addition, hierarchical-codebooks are used to construct multiple inverted files for more accurate non-exhaustive search.  ...  In recent years, another image index scheme was provided [14] [15] , i.e., Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors (VLAD) which is a simplified version of Fisher Vector (FV) [16] [17] .  ... 
doi:10.3837/tiis.2016.07.022 fatcat:n7kg67dyszhxbhovs4kxihq4hu

Recent Advance in Content-based Image Retrieval: A Literature Survey [article]

Wengang Zhou, Houqiang Li, Qi Tian
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR), which makes use of the representation of visual content to identify relevant images, has attracted sustained attention in recent two decades.  ...  The explosive increase and ubiquitous accessibility of visual data on the Web have led to the prosperity of research activity in image search or retrieval.  ...  Inverted File Indexing Inspired by the success of text search engines, inverted file indexing [164] [165] .  ... 
arXiv:1706.06064v2 fatcat:m52xwsw5pzfzdbxo5o6dye2gde

Research and Application of Image Retrieval Improved Algorithm Based on BOF

Hai Hong Lu, Zhi Xiang Zhu
2015 International Journal of Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition  
paper proposes the BOF-based image retrieval improved algorithm, and combines with VLAD and soft assignment it generates the soft assignment local aggregation descriptor (SA-VLAD) which has a better ability  ...  When the index mechanism IVFADC is at query time, to ensure the recall ratio and precision rate of the result, the candidates inverted index chain are increased, which leads to the problems of distance  ...  VLAD (Vectors of Locally Aggregated Descriptors) is the improvement of BOF method, by using the Fisher Kernel thoughts it produces the more simple aggregated descriptors with better query performances.  ... 
doi:10.14257/ijsip.2015.8.3.14 fatcat:bb2x6gy43fc3lfxotemyjavw4e

Holons Visual Representation for Image Retrieval

Le Dong, Yan Liang, Gaipeng Kong, Qianni Zhang, Xiaochun Cao, Ebroul Izquierdo
2016 IEEE transactions on multimedia  
Due to the intrinsic mechanism, state-of-the-art Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors (VLAD) has a few limits. Based on this, we propose a new descriptor named Holons Visual Representation (HVR).  ...  It also takes advantages of local features of each image and computes their distribution with respect to the entire local descriptor space.  ...  Using an inverted file index of visual words, it can avoid directly storing and comparing high-dimensional local descriptors, and reduce the number of target images since only those images sharing the  ... 
doi:10.1109/tmm.2016.2530399 fatcat:7lpfxs7mireu7lyirin467zw5a

Scalar quantization for large scale image search

Wengang Zhou, Yijuan Lu, Houqiang Li, Qi Tian
2012 Proceedings of the 20th ACM international conference on Multimedia - MM '12  
Our quantizer is independent of collections of images. In addition, the result of scalar quantization naturally lends itself to adapt to the classic inverted file structure for image indexing.  ...  Feature quantization plays a crucial role in BoW model, which generates visual words from the high dimensional SIFT features, so as to adapt to the inverted file structure for indexing.  ...  Tian by ARO grant W911NF-12-1-0057, NSF IIS 1052851, Faculty Research Awards by Google, NEC Laboratories of America and FXPAL, UTSA START-R award, respectively.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2393347.2393377 dblp:conf/mm/ZhouLLT12 fatcat:7ooq2xwp7rdq3hajjji4b5b4ye

Binary SIFT

Wengang Zhou, Houqiang Li, Meng Wang, Yijuan Lu, Qi Tian
2012 Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Internet Multimedia Computing and Service - ICIMCS '12  
Most state-of-the-art approaches are based on the Bag-of-Visual-Words model with local features, such as SIFT. Visual matching between images is obtained by vector quantization of local features.  ...  The L 2 -distance between original SIFT descriptors is demonstrated to be well kept with the metric of Hamming distance between the corresponding binary SIFT.  ...  Tian by ARO grant W911NF-12-1-0057, NSF IIS 1052851, Faculty Research Awards by Google, NEC Laboratories of America and FXPAL, UTSA START-R award, respectively.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2382336.2382338 dblp:conf/icimcs/ZhouLWLT12 fatcat:4aolapxt2zcqjmmzaopluictey

SIFT-based local image description using sparse representations

Joaquin Zepeda, Ewa Kijak, Christine Guillemot
2009 2009 IEEE International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing  
The sparse approximation yields a sparse vector per local SIFT descriptor, and helps preserving local description properties by using each sparse-transformed descriptor independently in a voting system  ...  However, aggregating local descriptors into a single histogram decreases the discerning power of the system when performing local queries.  ...  This approach allows using the inverted file index of the text search community [5] for content-based image retrieval with tractable complexity.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mmsp.2009.5293301 dblp:conf/mmsp/ZepedaKG09 fatcat:tmidm2ubfvdxjpd2x7h2pyexra

An Efficient Video Copy Detection Method Combining Vocabulary Tree and Inverted File [chapter]

Xuan Li, Bing Li, Weiming Hu, Jinfeng Yang
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Using two different local features, vocabulary trees and inverted files are built respectively to get keyframes matching result.  ...  In this paper, we present an efficient content-based video copy detection method based on vocabulary tree and inverted files.  ...  We use local features and their Bag-of-Words representations, and then index the similar frames with inverted files.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36669-7_75 fatcat:ycilgjssffahtbzaz65faklmvu

Asymmetric hamming embedding

Mihir Jain, Hervé Jégou, Patrick Gros
2011 Proceedings of the 19th ACM international conference on Multimedia - MM '11  
The approach is used in combination with an inverted file structure that offers high efficiency, comparable to that of a regular bag-of-features retrieval systems.  ...  This paper proposes an asymmetric Hamming Embedding scheme for large scale image search based on local descriptors.  ...  This is done by exploiting the vector-to-hyperplane distances. The improvement is obtained at no additional cost in terms of memory.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2072298.2072035 dblp:conf/mm/JainJG11 fatcat:rdn3hjids5e4thebeddxcus2yq

Scalable Image Search with Multiple Index Tables

Junjie Cai, Qiong Liu, Francine Chen, Dhiraj Joshi, Qi Tian
2014 Proceedings of International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval - ICMR '14  
In this paper, without explicit codeword construction, we explore the use of partial binary descriptors as direct codebook indices (addresses).  ...  The experimental results demonstrate the indexing efficiency and retrieval accuracy of our approach.  ...  [5] proposed the Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors(VLAD) which are derived from local descriptors to replace the bag-of-words histogram.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2578726.2578780 dblp:conf/mir/CaiLCJT14 fatcat:rxc6t47kpjgcrjkcvevilxpuwe
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