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Design diversity

Algirdas Avizienis
1984 Proceedings of the July 9-12, 1984, national computer conference and exposition on - AFIPS '84  
Diversity of design is discussed as a means to attain fault tolerance with respect to latent design faults in software and hardware.  ...  Some potential advantages of this approach in software versus a single design protected by fault avoidance (verification, validation, and proofs) are presented.  ...  in the investigation of design fault-tolerance in software and in hardware. 22 ,23 The following software specification languages were examined as candidates for use in the experiment: OBJ,19 SPE-CIAL  ... 
doi:10.1145/1499310.1499331 dblp:conf/afips/Avizienis84 fatcat:gbiupssltnarzjkbysrv5imkq4

The Multiple Facets of Software Diversity

Benoit Baudry, Martin Monperrus
2015 ACM Computing Surveys  
It broadens this standard scope of diversity, to include the study and exploitation of natural diversity and the management of diverse software products.  ...  This survey includes classical work about design and data diversity for fault tolerance, as well as the cybersecurity literature that investigates randomization at different system levels.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank Paul Amman, Benoit Gauzens and Sebastian Banescu, as well for their valuable feedback on this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2807593 fatcat:2fgpoch6ibajtnbajbdnsseb7u

Redundancy and Diversity in Security [chapter]

Bev Littlewood, Lorenzo Strigini
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Redundancy and diversity are commonly applied principles for fault tolerance against accidental faults.  ...  Their use in security, which is attracting increasing interest, is less general and less of an accepted principle.  ...  Economic factors, with the increasing common dependence on off-the-shelf products, naturally push towards greater application of fault tolerance for all aspects of dependability [11, 12] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-30108-0_26 fatcat:7oxrfdpcobgphczqxbxei5ll2m

Functional Diversity Design of Safety-Related Systems

2018 The Educational Review, USA  
Avoidance of redundant complexity with limitation the number of system's internal states is naturally led to functional diversity with residual and common cause faults are decreased to achievable level  ...  ; therefore necessity of functional diversity is become essential.  ...  It could be seen in software, where developer has no idea how his source code would be implemented into machine language.  ... 
doi:10.26855/er.2018.01.004 fatcat:e7ivpgjqzbgkhp5jodtkpejlhm

Functional Diversity Design of Safety-Related Systems

Ivan Malynyak
2015 International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies in Education, Research, and Industrial Applications  
Well known diversity approach for similar erroneous results mitigation is widely used, but combined software and hardware techniques to achieve necessary safety system requirements without enlarged implementation  ...  system reliability as a whole, therefore necessity of functional diversity design is become essential.  ...  It could be seen in software, where developer has no idea how his source code would be eventually implemented into assembler language.  ... 
dblp:conf/icteri/Malynyak15 fatcat:zaocoxhb4ffj7azejimoqxy6tq

Modeling software design diversity: a review

Bev Littlewood, Peter Popov, Lorenzo Strigini
2001 ACM Computing Surveys  
Design diversity has been used for many years now as a means of achieving a degree of fault tolerance in software-based systems.  ...  introduction to the probabilistic issues in decisions about design diversity.  ...  resulting in design faults has increased.  ... 
doi:10.1145/384192.384195 fatcat:inqycefbuvczvdlbtfh2kawdhu

SoK: Automated Software Diversity

Per Larsen, Andrei Homescu, Stefan Brunthaler, Michael Franz
2014 2014 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy  
Precise knowledge of the target software provides the underpinning for a wide range of attacks. This makes diversity a broad rather than narrowly focused defense mechanism.  ...  The idea of automatic software diversity is at least two decades old.  ...  Greg Morrisett, Stephen Crane, and Mark Murphy for their insightful reviews, helpful suggestions, and proofreading.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp.2014.25 dblp:conf/sp/LarsenHBF14 fatcat:2z54gsh6cbhk3ihyaq4i6he7h4

Soil microbial diversity and litter decomposition increase along a recovery gradient in tropical montane forests of Malaysian Borneo [article]

Renee Sniegocki, Jessica B. Moon, Abby Rutrough, Jude gireneus, Jaya S. S. Sathiya, David C. Weindorf, Michael C. Farmer, Kusum Naithani
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Direct links between microbial diversity and soil properties such as pH are well established; however, the indirect impacts of logging and forest conversion on microbial diversity and litter decomposition  ...  These disturbances alter soil chemistry and microbial diversity, and disrupt carbon cycling through shifts in litter decomposition.  ...  R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. 2017. R 511 Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. 512 37. Chao A, Ma KH, Hsieh TC, Chiu C-H.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.096883 fatcat:k32iz3csxvgftjzempemmzkfba

Diversity in software engineering research

Meiyappan Nagappan, Thomas Zimmermann, Christian Bird
2013 Proceedings of the 2013 9th Joint Meeting on Foundations of Software Engineering - ESEC/FSE 2013  
We introduce algorithms to compute the sample coverage for a given set of projects and to select the projects that increase the coverage the most.  ...  In this paper, we combine ideas from representativeness and diversity and introduce a measure called sample coverage, defined as the percentage of projects in a population that are similar to the given  ...  The recent review of fault prediction performance by Hall et al.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2491411.2491415 dblp:conf/sigsoft/NagappanZB13 fatcat:jkek7ne6snbt3cuuwx6ubtgicm

Choosing Effective Methods for Diversity — How to Progress from Intuition to Science [chapter]

Peter Popov, Lorenzo Strigini, Alexander Romanovsky
1999 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Design diversity is a popular defence against design faults in safety critical systems.  ...  We focus on what we think is the standard basis for most recommendations: the belief that project decisions should be aimed at causing "diversity" among the faults of the various versions, and that this  ...  For a start, this requires one to define "fault diversity" in a similar way for both links, and this definition to be such that "fault diversity" and its effect on failure diversity can be measured by  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-48249-0_24 fatcat:tzkgq7pg2newdcob357wbgtbve

Geomorphometry -diversity in quantitative surface analysis

Richard J. Pike
2000 Progress in physical geography  
Acknowledgements I thank Paul Gessler and Peter Guth for reviews and Takashi Oguchi for the many Japanese articles. Guth's comments provoked a much-needed shift of emphasis.  ...  Other software is licensed; for example, Mike Hutchinson's ANUDEM (http://cres.anu.edu.au/software/anudem.html) creates a 'hydrologically sound' DEM from irregularly spaced elevations, contour lines, and  ...  VII Soil-landscape relations As the world's population and its need for food increase, so does morphometric research in agriculture.  ... 
doi:10.1177/030913330002400101 fatcat:sg4ndevjjjgixn346gstewsdce

Geomorphometry - diversity in quantitative surface analysis

R.J. Pike
2000 Progress in physical geography  
Acknowledgements I thank Paul Gessler and Peter Guth for reviews and Takashi Oguchi for the many Japanese articles. Guth's comments provoked a much-needed shift of emphasis.  ...  Other software is licensed; for example, Mike Hutchinson's ANUDEM (http://cres.anu.edu.au/software/anudem.html) creates a 'hydrologically sound' DEM from irregularly spaced elevations, contour lines, and  ...  VII Soil-landscape relations As the world's population and its need for food increase, so does morphometric research in agriculture.  ... 
doi:10.1191/030913300674449511 fatcat:btym7wl5zjhhnimfceuna64gsa

DeepMetis: Augmenting a Deep Learning Test Set to Increase its Mutation Score [article]

Vincenzo Riccio, Nargiz Humbatova, Gunel Jahangirova, Paolo Tonella
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Deep Learning (DL) components are routinely integrated into software systems that need to perform complex tasks such as image or natural language processing.  ...  The adequacy of the test data used to test such systems can be assessed by their ability to expose artificially injected faults (mutations) that simulate real DL faults.  ...  Abstract-Deep Learning (DL) components are routinely integrated into software systems that need to perform complex tasks such as image or natural language processing.  ... 
arXiv:2109.07514v1 fatcat:5polcwmdlveqphjv56pchacy4a

Designing fault-tolerant SOA based on design diversity

Amanda S Nascimento, Cecília MF Rubira, Rachel Burrows, Fernando Castor, Patrick HS Brito
2014 Journal of Software Engineering Research and Development  
Over recent years, software developers have been evaluating the benefits of both Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and software fault tolerance techniques based on design diversity.  ...  review of existing solutions for designing fault-tolerant compositions using design diversity.  ...  not able to tolerate software faults (Gärtner 1999; Lee and Anderson 1990 ). • Solutions for fault-tolerant SOAs based on data diverse software fault tolerance techniques. • Solutions for fault-tolerant  ... 
doi:10.1186/s40411-014-0013-7 fatcat:z7k7w5wjm5dgrevho2byybugui

Tailored source code transformations to synthesize computationally diverse program variants

Benoit Baudry, Simon Allier, Martin Monperrus
2014 Proceedings of the 2014 International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis - ISSTA 2014  
For all these programs we identified one type of program analysis that systematically increases the density of sosies; we measured computation diversity for sosies of 3 programs and found diversity in  ...  This work addresses two objectives: comparing different transformations for increasing the likelihood of sosie synthesis (densifying the search space for sosies); demonstrating computation diversity in  ...  Acknowledgements: We thank Ioannis Kavvouras for his participation to the experimentation, Westley Weimer and Eric Schulte for their expert feedback on this paper, as well as our colleagues for insightful  ... 
doi:10.1145/2610384.2610415 dblp:conf/issta/BaudryAM14 fatcat:27nqt6cv2javjgdm3ccgggto3i
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