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Improving ENIGMA-Style Clause Selection While Learning From History [article]

Martin Suda
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We re-examine the topic of machine-learned clause selection guidance in saturation-based theorem provers.  ...  The central idea, recently popularized by the ENIGMA system, is to learn a classifier for recognizing clauses that appeared in previously discovered proofs.  ...  We also thank the anonymous reviewers for suggesting numerous improvements.  ... 
arXiv:2102.13564v2 fatcat:y6quvmnrkncvvfw5xyz6hdxaku

Improving ENIGMA-style Clause Selection while Learning From History [chapter]

Martin Suda
2021 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
AbstractWe re-examine the topic of machine-learned clause selection guidance in saturation-based theorem provers.  ...  The central idea, recently popularized by the ENIGMA system, is to learn a classifier for recognizing clauses that appeared in previously discovered proofs.  ...  We also thank the anonymous reviewers for suggesting numerous improvements.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-79876-5_31 fatcat:t75bhcntqnao7nt4g4drb4qq5m

Make E Smart Again (Short Paper) [chapter]

Zarathustra Amadeus Goertzel
2020 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
combination of the clause weight and FIFO (first in first out) clause evaluation functions.  ...  We experimentally demonstrate that ENIGMA can learn to guide E as well as the smart, evolved strategies even without these standard automated theorem prover functionalities.  ...  This probably means equipping the learning with more history and knowledge of the proof state in the saturation-style setting.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-51054-1_26 fatcat:gtgi2j77mnbadp4fpjkn27pobq

Make E Smart Again [article]

Zarathustra Amadeus Goertzel
2020 arXiv   pre-print
combination of the clause weight and FIFO (first in first out) clause evaluation functions.  ...  We experimentally demonstrate that ENIGMA can learn to guide E as well as the smart, evolved strategies even without these standard automated theorem prover functionalities.  ...  This probably means equipping the learning with more history and knowledge of the proof state in the saturation-style setting.  ... 
arXiv:2004.08858v1 fatcat:c5fshlxnubarzlrz2k5gqaaaqi

Learning Theorem Proving Components [article]

Karel Chvalovský, Jan Jakubův, Miroslav Olšák, Josef Urban
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In this work, we describe several algorithms and experiments with ENIGMA, advancing the idea of contextual evaluation based on learning important components of the graph of clauses.  ...  This has changed recently by equipping the E/ENIGMA system with a graph neural network (GNN) that chooses the next given clause based on its evaluation in the context of previously selected clauses.  ...  Clause selection heuristics have a long history of research, going back to a number of experiments done with the Otter system [24] .  ... 
arXiv:2107.10034v1 fatcat:kh5y3nebt5gbnhkfgvmjquq2dm

Vampire With a Brain Is a Good ITP Hammer [article]

Martin Suda
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The resulting system shows good learning capability and improves on the state-of-the-art performance on the Mizar library, while proving many theorems that the related ENIGMA system could not prove in  ...  In particular, we employ a recently proposed recursive neural network classifying the generated clauses based only on their derivation history.  ...  The idea to improve clause selection by learning from past prover experience goes (to the best of our knowledge) back to [9, 34] and has more recently been successfully employed by the ENIGMA system  ... 
arXiv:2102.03529v2 fatcat:h47yw3qpvfdzfas2ml2umv4kry

Fast and Slow Enigmas and Parental Guidance [article]

Zarathustra Goertzel, Karel Chvalovský, Jan Jakubův, Miroslav Olšák, Josef Urban
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We describe several additions to the ENIGMA system that guides clause selection in the E automated theorem prover.  ...  The methods are evaluated on a large benchmark coming from the Mizar Mathematical Library, showing good improvements over the state of the art.  ...  The ENIGMA system [3, 7, [10] [11] [12] 14] applies various machine learning methods for given clause selection, learning from a large number of previous successful proof searches.  ... 
arXiv:2107.06750v1 fatcat:457ja3rb3veexkqruc55f5wmpy

Racial Revisionism

Shaun Ossei-Owusu
2021 Michigan law review  
A Review of The Enigma of Clarence Thomas. by Corey Robin.  ...  Enigma grapples more thoroughly with other inputs-conservatism, constitutional clauses, life history-but Black nationalism gets short shrift.  ...  City of Chicago. 39 While the Court used the Due Process Clause to incorporate the Second Amendment against the states, Thomas believed that the Privileges or Immunities Clause was a better constitutional  ... 
doi:10.36644/mlr.119.6.racial fatcat:rjucej26tffvfntjpnguc4fitu

Tactic Learning and Proving for the Coq Proof Assistant [article]

Lasse Blaauwbroek, Josef Urban, Herman Geuvers
2020 arXiv   pre-print
To do this, it learns from previous tactic scripts and how they are applied to proof states. The performance of the system is evaluated on the Coq Standard Library.  ...  We present a system that utilizes machine learning for tactic proof search in the Coq Proof Assistant.  ...  In E, given-clause selection has been guided by learning in systems such as ENIGMA and its variants [17, 27, 18, 7, 13] .  ... 
arXiv:2003.09140v1 fatcat:vozpbh5w4fgrboqnrkju7odxza

The Overlooked French Influence on the Intellectual Property Clause

Sean M. O'Connor
2014 Social Science Research Network  
Using entries from the Encyclop~die on "art," "science," "discoveries," "inventions," "writers/authors," and other relevant topics, I propose a new interpretation of the IP Clause that is more coherent  ...  The Intellectual Property Clause ("7P Clause') of the US Constitution has long been a puzzle for courts and commentators.  ...  CONCLUSION The IP Clause has been an enigma for courts and commentators.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2409796 fatcat:4wk3ialtkbfgnc4rot5uunfdfy

Coherence in Translation: from Reader's Cognition- With Ulysses as Case Study

Yu Diao
2016 Theory and Practice in Language Studies  
The method used is to examine the two existing translations of Ulysses and suggest for improvements.  ...  This paper aims to study the coherence in the translation of Ulysses from the view of reader's cognition.  ...  CASE STUDY AND DISCUSSIONS Before studying the translation of Ulysses, a paragraph from The Pilgrim's Progress is selected to demonstrate the style of coherence in traditional English novels.  ... 
doi:10.17507/tpls.0602.14 fatcat:5hhuu22emndb3ahmbpjig7aona

Page 19 of Leslie's Weekly Vol. 2, Issue 39 [page]

1856 Leslie's Weekly  
You forgot to insert a clause pro- viding for enigmas. Fully believing that you will at once repair your neglect by an ex- tra prize, I enter the following—Enigma No, 2.  ...  The meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science is at this time about being held, and doubtless prevents many of the learned men of England from at- tending here.  ... 

Book Reviews

1961 The Modern Language Journal  
It is rather a collection of exercises from which a teacher may make selections at his discretion.  ...  The work itself has a history shrouded in many erudite shiboleths and enigmas, but its provenience is almost certainly German, and the adventures of its eponymous hero are most probably intended to provide  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1961.tb04424.x fatcat:hz3t2uzug5hrplvs5k654l77p4

Language learning and teaching – theory and practice

1992 Language Teaching  
SLA can be phrased as a continuum from theory to results; teaching as a continuum from styles to techniques.  ...  Learning style differences: gifted vs. regular language students.  ...  Children often do not know how to read literature and to cope with myth in literature; they can be helped by starting, not from the distant past, but from their own experience and knowledge and popular  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0261444800007011 fatcat:frryebkp6fhebdlbtltl2bucmm

ORGANIZATION OF A BIT DATA PROCESSING FOR RECONFIGURABLE COMPUTING SYSTEMS USING HIGH-LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
ORGANIZATsIIa BITOVOI OBRABOTKI DANNYKh DLIa REKONFIGURIRUEMYKh VYChISLITEL''NYKh SISTEM NA IaZYKE PROGRAMMIROVANIIa VYSOKOGO UROVNIa

I. I. Levin, E. E. Semernikova
2015 Vestnik komp iuternykh i informatsionnykh tekhnologii  
The forward selection operator (@) starts counting from the beginning, while the backward selection operator (!) starts from the end.  ...  The shift function is defined locally in the where clause.  ...  Exercise Enigma simulator In this appendix we present the Cryptol code for the enigma machine in its entirety for reference purposes.  ... 
doi:10.14489/vkit.2015.05.pp.003-008 fatcat:rtrtrpeomjcrpj2lyz7qegu6dm
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