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Improved Linear Distinguishers for SNOW 2.0 [chapter]

Kaisa Nyberg, Johan Wallén
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we present new and more accurate estimates of the biases of the linear approximation of the FSM of the stream cipher SNOW 2.0.  ...  to distinguish the output keystream of SNOW 2.0 of length 2 174 words from a truly random sequence with workload 2 174 .  ...  Acknowledgements We wish to thank Jukka Valkonen for implementing all mask searches needed to complete this work and the Krypto project of the Finnish Defence Forces for making it possible.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11799313_10 fatcat:dx4zyytn4bcqxfauiaafkixu44

A Distinguishing Attack of SNOW 2.0 with Linear Masking Method [chapter]

Dai Watanabe, Alex Biryukov, Christophe De Cannière
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
SNOW 2.0 was developed by Johansson and Ekdahl in 2002, as a modified version of SNOW 1.0. In this paper we present the application of linear (masking) attack to SNOW 2.0 stream cipher.  ...  Our attack requires 2 225 output words (2 230 bits) and 2 225 steps of analysis to distinguish the output of SNOW 2.0 from a truly random bit sequence.  ...  The Discussion Our evaluation confirmed that SNOW 2.0 is well improved.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24654-1_16 fatcat:nhchu6rks5cffmn7l5rztqmtwq

Fast Implementation of KCipher-2 for Software and Hardware

Yuto NAKANO, Kazuhide FUKUSHIMA, Shinsaku KIYOMOTO, Tsukasa ISHIGURO, Yutaka MIYAKE, Toshiaki TANAKA, Kouichi SAKURAI
2014 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
It is listed as a CRYPTREC cryptographic algorithm for Japanese governmental use. It consists of two feedback shift registers and a non-linear function.  ...  However, KCipher-2 is the fastest of the feasible algorithms, as SNOW 2.0 has been shown to have a security flaw.  ...  SNOW 2.0 [26] 2 174 distinguishing SOSEMANUK [7] 2 148 linear HC-256 [27] 2 276.8 distinguishing Salsa20 [28] 2 224 related-cipher SNOW 3G † 2 320 guess-and-determine † this paper Security Comparison  ... 
doi:10.1587/transinf.e97.d.43 fatcat:pacd55be4nbybizshdvxeho2ai

Comparing Large-unit and Bitwise Linear Approximations of SNOW 2.0 and SNOW 3G and Related Attacks

Xinxin Gong, Bin Zhang
2021 IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology  
for SNOW 2.0 and SNOW 3G.  ...  In this paper, we study and compare the byte-wise and bitwise linear approximations of SNOW 2.0 and SNOW 3G, and present a fast correlation attack on SNOW 3G by using our newly found bitwise linear approximations  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank all reviewers for providing valuable comments to the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.46586/tosc.v2021.i2.71-103 fatcat:nhsec2ggifel7fzgl7u6hfuuta

A New Version of the Stream Cipher SNOW [chapter]

Patrik Ekdahl, Thomas Johansson
2003 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In 2000, the stream cipher SNOW was proposed. A few attacks followed, indicating certain weaknesses in the design. In this paper we propose a new version of SNOW, called SNOW 2.0.  ...  Design Differences from SNOW 1.0 In this section we highlight the differences between SNOW 2.0 and SNOW 1.0 and their expected security improvements. We start with the choice of feedback polynomial.  ...  The unconditional XOR also seems to improve speed, by removing the possible branch prediction error in a pipelined processor. The FSM in SNOW 2.0 now takes two inputs.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-36492-7_5 fatcat:6v6qeufxibhs3pdfgqo3dpubl4

The application of σ-LFSR in Key-Dependent Feedback Configuration for Word-Oriented Stream Ciphers [article]

Subrata Nandi, Srinivasan Krishnaswamy, Behrouz Zolfaghari, Pinaki Mitra
2021 arXiv   pre-print
As a test case, we have applied this method on SNOW 2.0 and have studied its impact on resistance to various attacks.  ...  In this paper, we propose and evaluate a method for generating key-dependent feedback configurations (KDFC) for σ-LFSRs. σ-LFSRs with such configurations can be applied to any stream cipher that uses a  ...  Pillai, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay for his valuable guidance and Associate Prof. Gaurav Trivedi, Department of Electronics and Electrical  ... 
arXiv:2003.09381v2 fatcat:gad22zfc6jfuhadk7a7rhmgcey

Fast Correlation Attacks over Extension Fields, Large-Unit Linear Approximation and Cryptanalysis of SNOW 2.0 [chapter]

Bin Zhang, Chao Xu, Willi Meier
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Our results have been verified by experiments on a small-scale version of SNOW 2.0.  ...  ., SNOW 2.0, SNOW 3G [6, 8] and Sosemanuk [2], aiming to combine the merits from the thoroughly studied LFSR theory with a fast implementation in software.  ...  The application of our approaches to SNOW 2.0 is given in Section 5. The improved attack using finite field linear masks is described in Section 6 with the experimental results.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-47989-6_31 fatcat:f3m35llwyjgavmwwlwtg7wfwte

Vectorized linear approximations for attacks on SNOW 3G

Jing Yang, Thomas Johansson, Alexander Maximov
2020 IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology  
SNOW 3G is a stream cipher designed in 2006 by ETSI/SAGE, serving in 3GPP as one of the standard algorithms for data confidentiality and integrity protection.  ...  In this paper we derive vectorized linear approximations of the finite state machine in SNOW3G.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank all reviewers for providing valuable comments to the manuscript, and the Ericsson Research Data Center team for their help with compute resources that we used to  ... 
doi:10.46586/tosc.v2019.i4.249-271 fatcat:bdqdcouyejcefl2jtews7fm46e

Vectorized linear approximations for attacks on SNOW 3G

Jing Yang, Thomas Johansson, Alexander Maximov
2020 IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology  
SNOW 3G is a stream cipher designed in 2006 by ETSI/SAGE, serving in 3GPP as one of the standard algorithms for data confidentiality and integrity protection.  ...  In this paper we derive vectorized linear approximations of the finite state machine in SNOW3G.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank all reviewers for providing valuable comments to the manuscript, and the Ericsson Research Data Center team for their help with compute resources that we used to  ... 
doi:10.13154/tosc.v2019.i4.249-271 dblp:journals/tosc/YangJM19 fatcat:qfiiwkhyovf3daxy6hojgw5y4i

Comparative Study of Vulnerabilities in LTE Cryptographic Algorithm

Fatma Nilofer, Jihad Qaddour
2018 International Journal of Computer Applications  
Even LTE has complex and a vigorous set of security mechanisms, but there is still need for improvement.  ...  Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile and data terminals based on Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications  ...  Linear attacks-The report described general strategies for distinguishing attacks based on linear approximations and argued that they are most likely unsuccessful in building a distinguisher for SNOW3G  ... 
doi:10.5120/ijca2018916587 fatcat:claswkciwvcgxh4alvly6yqrni

Three Snakes in One Hole: The First Systematic Hardware Accelerator Design for SOSEMANUK with Optional Serpent and SNOW 2.0 Modes

Goutam Paul, Anupam Chattopadhyay
2016 IEEE transactions on computers  
SNOW 2.0.  ...  The best throughput achieved by the combined design is 67.84 Gbps for SOSEMANUK, 33.92 Gbps for SNOW 2.0 and 2.12 Gbps for Serpent.  ...  S (3) eno,u → S (3) eno,uu LFSR unrolling for SNOW 2.0 reduces the area efficiency for SOSEMANUK and improves the same for SNOW 2.0.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tc.2015.2435775 fatcat:23vkvsrpjjccjgpdkvbvnqvbxi

Algebraic Description and Simultaneous Linear Approximations of Addition in Snow 2.0 [chapter]

Nicolas T. Courtois, Blandine Debraize
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We apply these results to analyse the resistance of the stream cipher Snow 2.0 against algebraic attacks.  ...  We show that the addition modulo 2 n can be partly or totally linearized when the output is fixed, and this for a large family of outputs.  ...  Previous Work The best known attacks on Snow 2.0 are distinguishing attacks.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-88625-9_22 fatcat:xidwkdttsjdttjbjkicue4tgku

SOSEMANUK: a fast software-oriented stream cipher [article]

Come Berbain, Anne Canteaut (INRIA Rocquencourt), Nicolas Courtois, Henri Gilbert, Louis Goubin, Aline Gouget, Louis Granboulan, Cedric Lauradoux, Marine Minier, Thomas Pornin, Herve Sibert
2008 arXiv   pre-print
Sosemanuk aims at improv- ing SNOW 2.0 both from the security and from the efficiency points of view. Most notably, it uses a faster IV-setup procedure.  ...  The Sosemanuk cipher uses both some basic design principles from the stream cipher SNOW 2.0 and some transformations derived from the block cipher SERPENT.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Matt Robshaw for valuable comments.  ... 
arXiv:0810.1858v1 fatcat:767recg345h27jsr5cfor3tfjm

Cryptanalysis of Sosemanuk and SNOW 2.0 Using Linear Masks [chapter]

Jung-Keun Lee, Dong Hoon Lee, Sangwoo Park
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We also mount a correlation attack on SNOW 2.0 with complexity 2 204.38 .  ...  Sosemanuk is a software oriented stream cipher proposed by Berbain et al. to the eSTREAM call for stream cipher and has been selected in the final portfolio.  ...  Though SNOW 2.0 is a highly reputed stream cipher, it is vulnerable to linear distinguishing attacks using linear masks [14, 15] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-89255-7_32 fatcat:ojtwtl2wfrgsnhcsj4hvz55a4e

Differential Attacks on Reduced-RoundSNOW 3G and SNOW 3G⊕

Sudong Ma, Jie Guan
2020 IET Information Security  
Firstly, they show a distinguisher for 12-round SNOW 3G and 255 distinguishers for 13-round SNOW 3G ⊕ , respectively.  ...  The stream cipher SNOW 3G is the core of the 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) for implementing a confidentiality algorithm and data integrity algorithm.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1049/iet-ifs.2019.0478 fatcat:rgxiupmwkzc65pcpvkjm33mbie
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