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Implementing hardware Trojans: Experiences from a hardware Trojan challenge

Georg T. Becker, Ashwin Lakshminarasimhan, Lang Lin, Sudheendra Srivathsa, Vikram B. Suresh, Wayne Burelson
2011 2011 IEEE 29th International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD)  
In this work, we present a set of novel hardware Trojans aimed at evading detection methods, designed as part of the CSAW Embedded System Challenge 2010.  ...  Hardware Trojans have become a growing concern in the design of secure integrated circuits.  ...  In this paper, we present the hardware Trojans we implemented during the CSAW Embedded Security Challenge 2010. The challenge included two parts.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iccd.2011.6081414 dblp:conf/iccd/BeckerLLSSB11 fatcat:dsg7ez5yabcbpghahsfa2yvgie

Experiences in Hardware Trojan design and implementation

Yier Jin, Nathan Kupp, Yiorgos Makris
2009 2009 IEEE International Workshop on Hardware-Oriented Security and Trust  
We report our experiences in designing and implementing several hardware Trojans within the framework of the Embedded System Challenge competition that was held as part of the Cyber Security Awareness  ...  To this end, we present eight distinct attack techniques employing Register Transfer Level (RTL) hardware Trojans to compromise the security of an Alpha encryption module implemented on a Digilent BASYS  ...  In this paper, we described our experiences in designing and implementing such hardware Trojans for the purpose of this competition.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hst.2009.5224971 dblp:conf/host/JinKM09 fatcat:7m2fbyq5nfbwba2uir7h6mmpxu

Side-Channel Hardware Trojan for Provably-Secure SCA-Protected Implementations [article]

Samaneh Ghandali, Thorben Moos, Amir Moradi, Christof Paar
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The underlying concept is based on modifying a securely-masked hardware implementation in such a way that running the device at a particular clock frequency violates one of its essential properties, leading  ...  Hardware Trojans have drawn the attention of academia, industry and government agencies.  ...  demonstrated by practical experiments that the proposed hardware Trojan and the presented implementation techniques are valid on FPGA-based platforms.  ... 
arXiv:1910.00737v1 fatcat:hzlhjnztzzg7pmzqoefrs26jxu

A case study in hardware Trojan design and implementation

Alex Baumgarten, Michael Steffen, Matthew Clausman, Joseph Zambreno
2010 International Journal of Information Security  
The 2008 Computer Security Awareness Week (CSAW) Embedded Systems Challenge at the Polytechnic Institute of NYU highlighted some of the vulnerabilities of the IC supply chain in the form of a hardware  ...  hacking challenge.  ...  Nasir Memon at the Polytechnic Institute of NYU for creating the Computer Security Awareness Week, and specifically the Embedded Systems Challenge.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10207-010-0115-0 fatcat:k65ss4ovubep7bq3wldz26xt3i

On hardware Trojan design and implementation at register-transfer level

Jie Zhang, Qiang Xu
2013 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware-Oriented Security and Trust (HOST)  
There have been a number of hardware Trojan (HT) designs at register-transfer level (RTL) in the literature, which mainly describe their malicious behaviors and trigger mechanisms.  ...  Consequently, a stealthy HT not only requires to be hard to trigger, but also needs to be able to evade those hardware trust verification techniques based on "unused circuit identification (UCI)".  ...  CONCLUSION In this paper, we propose a systematic hardware Trojan design and implementation methodology.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hst.2013.6581574 dblp:conf/host/ZhangX13 fatcat:lc3pkt3gmnglnplyogreoqaura

Hardware Trojans. Part2: examples of implementation, methods of insertion and activation
Аппаратные трояны. Часть 2: примеры реализации, способы внедрения и активации

E. Kuznetsov, A. Saurov
2016 Nanoindustry Russia  
In the second part of a series of articles devoted to hardware Trojan examples of their implementation and insertion into integrated circuits are given.  ...  Various methods of hardware Trojan activating in electronic system are considered. Военные и космические технологии * НПК "Технологический центр"/ SMC "Technological Centre"  ...  Hardware Trojans wiTH exTernal acTivaTion External activation involves an interaction of a hardware Trojan with an external environment that is different from the system in which the Trojan is embedded  ... 
doi:10.22184/1993-8578.2016.70.8.12.20 fatcat:54wtz3zlnvd5tovnb6v3cmmwdq

Hardware Trojans

K. Xiao, D. Forte, Y. Jin, R. Karri, S. Bhunia, M. Tehranipoor
2016 ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems  
In this article, we examine the research on hardware Trojans from the last decade and attempt to capture the lessons learned.  ...  We also identify the most critical lessons for those new to the field and suggest a roadmap for future hardware Trojan research.  ...  ICs that are "infected" by a hardware Trojan may experience changes to their functionality or specification, may leak sensitive information, or may experience degraded or unreliable performance.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2906147 fatcat:24ffmzsrnbgkrkjq3ooztg4fbe

Neural Trojans [article]

Yuntao Liu, Yang Xie, Ankur Srivastava
2017 arXiv   pre-print
The re-training approach is able to prevent 94.1% of Trojan triggers from triggering the Trojan although it requires that the neural IP be reconfigurable.  ...  As a result, the effort needed to train a network also increases dramatically.  ...  from an ideal Trojan-free implementation.  ... 
arXiv:1710.00942v1 fatcat:5h7rnyd7vvb6daisn3e4jhhrdm

Towards a Hardware Trojan Detection Cycle

Adrian Dabrowski, Heidelinde Hobel, Johanna Ullrich, Katharina Krombholz, Edgar Weippl
2014 2014 Ninth International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security  
We therefore propose in this work a secure hardware development life cycle that assembles methods from trustworthy software engineering.In addition to full traceability from specification to implementation  ...  Intentionally inserted malfunctions in integrated circuits, referred to as Hardware Trojans, have become an emerging threat.  ...  Thereby we rely on test implementations of malware from a Hardware Trojan Kit [6] . We exemplify the evaluation of one Hardware Trojan implementation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ares.2014.45 dblp:conf/IEEEares/DabrowskiHUKW14 fatcat:6n7dbitosrdlthrksdgfftus5y

Electromagnetic circuit fingerprints for Hardware Trojan detection

Josep Balasch, Benedikt Gierlichs, Ingrid Verbauwhede
2015 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)  
We propose a Hardware Trojan detection technique based on fingerprinting the electromagnetic emanations of integrated circuits.  ...  Integrated circuit counterfeits, relabeled parts and maliciously modified integrated circuits (so-called Hardware Trojan horses) are a recognized emerging threat for embedded systems in safety or security  ...  The results show that our method is able to detect most of our test Hardware Trojans but also highlight the difficulty of measuring emanations of unrealistically tiny Hardware Trojans.  ... 
doi:10.1109/isemc.2015.7256167 fatcat:almrucbsprgm5aw3tgsxldpvci

Hardware Trojan Attacks: Threat Analysis and Countermeasures

Swarup Bhunia, Michael S. Hsiao, Mainak Banga, Seetharam Narasimhan
2014 Proceedings of the IEEE  
This paper is a survey of the state-of-the-art Trojan attacks, modeling, and countermeasures.  ...  Hardware Trojan attacks raise a new set of challenges for trusted operation of electronics in field [15] .  ...  evading the access control protection mechanisms implemented in the hardware.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jproc.2014.2334493 fatcat:kxnyfwrk6jgqrmdpga33odvofq

Concurrent hardware Trojan detection in wireless cryptographic ICs

Yu Liu, Georgios Volanis, Ke Huang, Yiorgos Makris
2015 2015 IEEE International Test Conference (ITC)  
Therefore, they can be easily evaded by a hardware Trojan which remains dormant at all times except during normal operation.  ...  We introduce a Concurrent Hardware Trojan Detection (CHTD) methodology for wireless cryptographic integrated circuits (ICs), based on continuous extraction of a side-channel fingerprint and evaluation  ...  This research was partially supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF 1149465: THWART: Trojan Hardware in Wireless ICs: Analysis & Remedies for Trust).  ... 
doi:10.1109/test.2015.7342386 dblp:conf/itc/LiuVHM15 fatcat:ydezmf2oybczbheqkvm7yhhcpy

FPGA Trojan Detection Using Length-Optimized Ring Oscillators

Paris Kitsos, Artemios G. Voyiatzis
2014 2014 17th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design  
Hardware Trojan horses are a realistic threat for both ASIC and FPGA systems. Ring Oscillators (ROs) can be used to detect the presence of malicious hardware functionality.  ...  The length of an RO is a significant parameter for detecting efficiently malicious logic (sensitivity) while maintaining a low space and power profile.  ...  This trend creates new challenges in the design flow, focusing on the trustworthiness of the deployed hardware [12] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/dsd.2014.74 dblp:conf/dsd/KitsosV14 fatcat:yzuascqwnfht5kipekalz5e2fy

Hardware-Implemented Security Processing Unit for Program Execution Monitoring and Instruction Fault Self-Repairing on Embedded Systems

Zhun Zhang, Xiang Wang, Qiang Hao, Dongdong Xu, Jiqing Wang, Jiakang Liu, Jinhui Ma, Jinlei Zhang
2022 Applied Sciences  
Therefore, this paper presents a hardware-enhanced embedded system with the integration of a Security Processing Unit (SPU) in which integrity signature checking and checkpoint-rollback mechanisms are  ...  Unlike conventional hardware detection technologies that require manual handling to recovery program executions, the CPU–SPU collaborative SoC is a resilient architecture equipped with instruction tampering  ...  For resisting hardware Trojan attacks, existing techniques using standard functional validation [11] and side-channel analysis [12, 13] can analyze and detect hardware for a hardware Trojan.  ... 
doi:10.3390/app12073584 fatcat:ily2r6x45vhyhle36a65kfori4

Randomization Based Probabilistic Approach to Detect Trojan Circuits

Susmit Jha, Sumit Kumar Jha
2008 2008 11th IEEE High Assurance Systems Engineering Symposium  
Authors perform experiments on RSA implementations with 3 different sized Trojans HOST Hardware Trojans III ECE 495/595 ECE UNM 23 (9/15/09)  ...  HOST Hardware Trojans III ECE 495/595 ECE UNM 2 (9/15/09) Proposed Trojan Detection Methods (Wolff et al) They define a trojan test vector as a trigger vector that propagates the payload to the circuit  ...  projection which projects process noise signals from genuine ICs to a subspace where signals from Trojans and genuine ICs differ Challenge is guessing how the Trojan may change the genuine signal, otherwise  ... 
doi:10.1109/hase.2008.37 dblp:conf/hase/JhaJ08 fatcat:t6apt3nx5zc5bkv4sfjmxliuoi
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