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Supporting Multitasking in Video Conferencing using Gaze Tracking and On-Screen Activity Detection

Daniel Avrahami, Eveline van Everdingen, Jennifer Marlow
2016 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces - IUI '16  
We describe two alternative implementations of our solution (RGB-only, and a combination of RGB and RGB-D cameras).  ...  We present an approach to improve a sense of eye contact over videoconferencing in dual-monitor setups.  ...  In those cases, the range of possible head poses is often too great for synthetic gaze correction.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2856767.2856801 dblp:conf/iui/AvrahamiEM16 fatcat:psv2oyw7nvdnha4lq6gpjso7ni

Mutual Gaze Support in Videoconferencing Reviewed

Holger Regenbrecht, Tobias Langlotz
2015 Communications of the Association for Information Systems  
In this paper, we review technical concepts and implementations for mutual gaze support in videoconferencing, classify them, evaluate them according to a defined set of criteria, and give recommendations  ...  Mutual gaze support plays a central role in those high coordination need scenarios but generally lacks adequate technical support from videoconferencing systems.  ...  This can be implemented in desktop videoconferencing and in room-like systems.  ... 
doi:10.17705/1cais.03745 fatcat:gcdxrudtrjfilkttf3dfbhtvfi

Gaze-corrected view generation using stereo camera system for immersive videoconferencing

Sang-beom Lee, In-yong Shin, Yo-sung Ho
2011 IEEE transactions on consumer electronics  
In this paper, we present an immersive videoconferencing system that enables gaze correction between users in the internet protocol TV (IPTV) environment.  ...  The entire system is implemented with parallel programming that is executed on the GPU for realtime processing. Finally, the user can observe the gaze-corrected image through display.  ...  GAZE-CORRECTED VIEW SYNTHESIS With the disparity map of the virtual viewpoint, we can synthesize the gaze-corrected image. The detailed process of view synthesis is depicted in Fig. 8 .  ... 
doi:10.1109/tce.2011.6018852 fatcat:a76pwfwafbgi5lck5glmogmxsi

Eye Gaze Correction with a Single Webcam Based on Eye-Replacement [chapter]

Yalun Qin, Kuo-Chin Lien, Matthew Turk, Tobias Höllerer
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this work, we implemented a gaze correction system that can automatically maintain eye contact by replacing the eyes of the user with the direct looking eyes (looking directly into the camera) captured  ...  It would be preferable to perform gaze correction only when the user is looking directly at the screen, or design a gaze correction approach that takes into account the actual gaze correction.  ...  In this paper, we present a gaze correction system that relies only on a single webcam, and thus can be integrated in current videoconferencing systems running on various consumer level devices, ranging  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-27857-5_54 fatcat:rgzqvl5yefgrfoavurg7dc6jdy

Eye-to-eye contact for life-sized videoconferencing

H. Regenbrecht, L. Müller, S. Hoermann, T. Langlotz, M. Wagner, M. Billinghurst
2014 Proceedings of the 26th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference on Designing Futures the Future of Design - OzCHI '14  
In this work, we present lifesized videoconferencing solution supporting mutual gaze and report on the experiences made with our system in empirical evaluations.  ...  This issue is known as the lack of mutual gaze.  ...  The projection is sized and keystone-corrected appropriately. Projector and camera are connected to a PC running the videoconferencing software.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2686612.2686632 dblp:conf/ozchi/RegenbrechtMHLW14 fatcat:qmywihza4jc2poavdveyhsflpy

LookAtChat: Visualizing Gaze Awareness for Remote Small-Group Conversations [article]

Zhenyi He, Ruofei Du, Ken Perlin
2021 arXiv   pre-print
gaze awareness visualization into existing videoconferencing systems.  ...  Informed by formative interviews with 5 participants who regularly use videoconferencing software, we explored the design space of gaze visualization in both 2D and 3D layouts.  ...  module implemented with the three.js 1 .  ... 
arXiv:2107.06265v3 fatcat:g2z5lwi7bvel7ng5hfjm6kzbr4

User interface for a better eye contact in videoconferencing

Aleš Jaklič, Franc Solina, Luka Šajn
2017 Displays (Guildford)  
One of the most important reasons for this situation is that it is almost impossible to establish eye contact between distant parties on the most common hardware configurations of such videoconferencing  ...  The 3D model is then used for gaze correction of the head and the corresponding face region is again merged into the original image.  ...  A more conclusive demonstration of the practical value of the proposed solution could be achieved by developing a dedicated open-source videoconferencing application, implementing the functionality of  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.displa.2016.12.002 fatcat:oedyxaxp4nhf7f7avbgmxwd7o4

Cascading Hand and Eye Movement for Augmented Reality Videoconferencing

Istvan Barakonyi, Helmut Prendinger, Dieter Schmalstieg, Mitsuru Ishizuka
2007 2007 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces  
We have implemented an augmented reality videoconferencing system that inserts virtual graphics overlays into the live video stream of remote conference participants.  ...  User studies prove that our user interface enriches remote collaboration by offering hitherto unexplored ways for collaborative object manipulation such as gaze controlled raypicking of remote physical  ...  gaze was not implemented and no collaborative scenarios were considered in their work.  ... 
doi:10.1109/3dui.2007.340777 dblp:conf/3dui/BarakonyiPSI07 fatcat:suum5rkvjvb7xj3472ddr7z4u4

Restoring Eye Contact to the Virtual Classroom with Machine Learning [article]

Ross Greer, Shlomo Dubnov
2021 arXiv   pre-print
user's video feed with a display of the estimated gaze target and thereby restoring nonverbal communication of directed gaze.  ...  Inference time and accuracy meet benchmarks for videoconferencing applications, and quantitative and qualitative results of pilot experiments include improved success of cue interpretation and student-reported  ...  A technology review by Regenbrecht and Langlotz evaluates the benefits of mutual gaze in videoconferencing and presents proposed alterations of workstation setups and hardware to make gaze correction possible  ... 
arXiv:2105.10047v1 fatcat:mkyr6ehrdbhpnne44f4fhcitei

Robust Correspondenceless 3-D Iris Location for Immersive Environments [chapter]

Emanuele Trucco, Tom Anderson, Marco Razeto, Spela Ivekovic
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The system implements a robust active ellipse search based on a multi-scale contour detection model.  ...  Robust iris location is the basis for gaze estimation and tracking, and, as such, an essential module for augmented and virtual reality environments.  ...  Fig. 1 . 1 Left: an immersive videoconferencing session. Right: active ellipse located around correct iris contour, and segments used to sample intensities.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11553595_15 fatcat:twe3sxi2tbfvlce5746lvlaisu

Motion and Attention in a Kinetic Videoconferencing Proxy [chapter]

David Sirkin, Gina Venolia, John Tang, George Robertson, Taemie Kim, Kori Inkpen, Mara Sedlins, Bongshin Lee, Mike Sinclair
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Compared to collocated interaction, videoconferencing disrupts the ability to use gaze and gestures to mediate interaction, direct reactions to specific people, and provide a sense of presence for the  ...  We developed a kinetic videoconferencing proxy with a swiveling display screen to indicate which direction that the satellite participant was looking.  ...  Gaze Awareness in Videoconferencing There is a long series of research prototypes that have tried to improve gaze awareness in videoconferencing.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-23774-4_16 fatcat:7oeta7ko3ndrlm5l4dttem6mlq

Generation of eye contact image using depth camera for realistic telepresence

Sang-Beom Lee, Yo-Sung Ho
2013 2013 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference  
The entire system is implemented through GPU-based parallel programming for real-time processing. Finally, we obtain the gaze-corrected user.  ...  Fig. 7 Results of gaze-correction. Fig. 8 8 Zoom-in images of users' face. Fig. Fig. 7 shows the results of gaze-correction.  ...  By matching the optical axis of the depth camera and user gaze, we display the gaze-corrected user model to the distant user.  ... 
doi:10.1109/apsipa.2013.6694351 dblp:conf/apsipa/LeeH13 fatcat:3nukksrftvb2ne3qk37nwz4pka

Learning to look up: Realtime monocular gaze correction using machine learning

Daniil Kononenko, Victor Lempitsky
2015 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)  
We revisit the well-known problem of gaze correction and present a solution based on supervised machine learning.  ...  Unlike many previous solutions to gaze problem in videoconferencing, ours is purely monocular, i.e. it does not require any hardware apart from an in-built web-camera of a laptop.  ...  Introduction The problem of gaze in videoconferencing has been attracting researchers and engineers for a long time.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cvpr.2015.7299098 dblp:conf/cvpr/KononenkoL15 fatcat:yexeoftanvgg5e423ewdp3y33e

Implementing three-party desktop videoconferencing

Jian Sun, Holger Regenbrecht
2007 Proceedings of the 2007 conference of the computer-human interaction special interest group (CHISIG) of Australia on Computer-human interaction: design: activities, artifacts and environments - OZCHI '07  
We describe the implementation and test of a novel three-party desktop videoconferencing system.  ...  To allow for gaze and workspace awareness between the participating partners a special quasi-spatial arrangement of cameras and graphical user interface elements is chosen.  ...  They describe an eye-gaze correction system using a pair of calibrated stereo cameras and a personalized face model to track the head pose in 3D. Both of these approaches are expensive to set up.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1324892.1324910 dblp:conf/ozchi/SunR07 fatcat:d7mzjar6dvhj3iqeoezd3fja5u

Uncovering the affective affordances of videoconference technologies

Simeon Vidolov
2022 Information Technology and People  
PurposeThe purpose of this study is to examine the role of videoconferencing technologies for mediating and transforming emotional experiences in virtual context.Design/methodology/approachDrawing on empirical  ...  identifies four different body–technology–other relations that provide different action possibilities, both disclosing and concealing, for navigating emotional experiences in virtual encounters of mutual gazing  ...  McGrath (2006) contends that emotions often become subsumed within discussion of the political processes surrounding IS implementation.  ... 
doi:10.1108/itp-04-2021-0329 fatcat:ahbg674uhvb7xfliuhy5tbqrym
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