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Imperatives as Obligatory and Permitted Actions [chapter]

Miguel Pérez-Ramírez, Chris Fox
2003 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Under the view that imperatives prescribe actions and unlike the so-called "standard solution" (Huntley, 1984) these operators act over actions rather that over statements.  ...  Then by distinguishing obligatory from non obligatory actions we tackle the paradox of Free Choice Permission (FCP).  ...  These sets contains all actions which are permitted and obligatory respectively arranged in each possible world. The sets of permitted and obligatory actions at a world can be defined as follows.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-36456-0_6 fatcat:mu54bmda2rc3lpf27ufwxrscue

Page 176 of The Philosophical Review Vol. 53, Issue 2 [page]

1944 The Philosophical Review  
This is the case only if the imperatives have already been identified with statements about the ethical propriety or obligatoriness of the actions ordered.  ...  (as in “Honor thy father and thy mother”), or when there is other evidence that the speaker’s desire for the performance of the action ordered is connected with and based upon ethical beliefs—under such  ... 

The Gaps in Legal Systems: A Deontic Assesment

Vadim Verenich
2017 Law Journal of the Higher School of Economics  
We introduce logical principles underlying two main types of legalism -Anglo-Saxon and continential ones.  ...  The paper compares the similarities and differences between different approaches to the studies of legal gaps.  ...  α is obligatory' is to be understood as 'what morality prescribes necessitates an action α' .  ... 
doi:10.17323/2072-8166.2017.4.59.72 fatcat:enol5pzelbemljgmiay76s2j7m

Deontic sentences, possible worlds and norms

Jan Woleński
2018 Revus  
From definition of P-operator it follows that an action A is permitted, if A is obligatory or indifferent and, hence, the semantic condition for permission is an adequate claim.  ...  function of normative regulation (shortly -normation) is stating what is obligatory, what is forbidden, and what is indifferent -the permitted sphere is a sum of spheres: obligatory and indifferent.  ... 
doi:10.4000/revus.4179 fatcat:xyjas4wofvaf7gqgokdqokbxwu

Soft Law Instruments in Public Law [chapter]

Alexandre Flückiger
2018 Swiss Public Administration  
The instruments available to the state, and through which it acts, are laws, decisions, and contracts, along with the actions it takes to plan and coordinate individuals working together.  ...  In Switzerland, the principle of legality establishes that state activity is based on, and limited by, law (Article 5, Swiss Constitution).  ...  -and many non-binding state acts do not need to be legally binding to be regarded as politically imperative.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-92381-9_7 fatcat:firfluhykfgn7crngniy6b7ope

Page 911 of The American Political Science Review Vol. 24, Issue 4 [page]

1930 The American Political Science Review  
IMPERATIVE MANDATE IN THE SPANISH CORTES 911 The limitations placed upon the Catalonian syndics, to en- sure compliance with the will of the municipality and at the same time to permit a breadth of action  ...  Only the obligatory element could offend our modern susceptibilities, or, indeed, those of Burke.  ... 

Empty, Useless, and Dangerous? Recent Kantian Replies to the Empty Formalism Objection

Fabian Freyenhagen
2011 Hegel Bulletin  
Like two heavyweight boxers exchanging punches, but neither landing the knock-out blow, Kantians and Hegelians seem to be in a stand-off on what in contemporary parlance is known as the Empty Formalism  ...  This is partly because of constraints of space, and partly because many of the contemporary Kantian replies — for better or for worse — treat the Empty Formalism Objection as a self-standing philosophical  ...  Insofar as humanity as an end in itself is an objective end contained in the idea of the categorical imperative itself and insofar as the two obligatory ends follow from this idea (at least in conjunction  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0263523200000215 fatcat:vikpyekurfgodjdnc5zlnzjmoe

Page 268 of Missouri Supreme Court: Reports Vol. 78, Issue [page]

1883 Missouri Supreme Court: Reports  
But under the statutes it was his duty to order a change without one, and that duty was as imperative upon him as in a case of prejudice or undue influence, evi- denced by affidavit.  ...  Under the act of 1877 he felt authorized to allow an election of a special judge instead of ordering a change, and his action in doing so has been recognized as legal.  ... 

On the Definition and Policies of Confidentiality

Johs Hansen Hammer, Gerardo Schneider
2007 Third International Symposium on Information Assurance and Security  
We discuss central aspects of confidentiality and their relation with norms and policies, and we introduce a language, with a deontic flavor, to express such norms and policies.  ...  Our language may be regarded as a first step towards a formal specification of security policies for confidentiality.  ...  OK where Action, and Activity, are as in Fig. 1 .  ... 
doi:10.1109/ias.2007.20 dblp:conf/IEEEias/HammerS07 fatcat:y6f5kavoxzfppizuxgjugepkhy

On the Definition and Policies of Confidentiality

Johs Hansen Hammer, Gerardo Schneider
2007 Third International Symposium on Information Assurance and Security  
We discuss central aspects of confidentiality and their relation with norms and policies, and we introduce a language, with a deontic flavor, to express such norms and policies.  ...  Our language may be regarded as a first step towards a formal specification of security policies for confidentiality.  ...  OK where Action, and Activity, are as in Fig. 1 .  ... 
doi:10.1109/isias.2007.4299796 fatcat:pkdefucemrfohc52xwnkdhk6b4

Page 1133 of Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts: LLBA Vol. 24, Issue 3 [page]

1990 Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts: LLBA  
The first form, ga, indicates the choice of one person among others to take action; the second form, wa, is used to specify a particular person to do some- thing as distinguished from another person doing  ...  It is claimed that these three factors are independent & permit gradation in their properties. B.  ... 

Defending a Kantian Conception of Duties to Self and Others

Keith Bustos
2008 Journal of Value Inquiry  
Instead, we are only permitted to ''limit one maxim of duty by another (e.g., love of oneÕs neighbor in general by love of oneÕs parents).'' 17 As long as our freedom in pursuing obligatory ends is limited  ...  She states, ''categorical imperatives are those that command some action regardless of the contingent subjective states of the agent…categorical imperatives can also be tied to the promotion of objective  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10790-008-9102-3 fatcat:x4vykj2btnakjm2uy4pcnt625y

Page 2745 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 97E [page]

1997 Mathematical Reviews  
The obligatory is contrasted with the imper- missible. The logical residue, the optional, is divided between the morally indifferent and the morally significant but optional.  ...  In ordinary discourse, such examples usually involve the passage of time and human action, and the violated obligation may sometimes be read as defeasi- ble.  ... 

An integrated framework for ought-to-be and ought-to-do constraints

P. D'Altan, J-J.Ch. Meyer, R. J. Wieringa
1996 Artificial Intelligence and Law  
We also want to thank the participants of the AAAI 1993 Spring Symposium, held at Stanford University, and those of the Workshop on Deontic and Nonmonotonic Logics, held in 1993 at EURIDIS, Rotterdam,  ...  agentless and have by themselves nothing to do with imperatives.  ...  A state qo is obligatory iff all the necessary and sufficient actions that lead to it are obligatory as well.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf00116787 fatcat:5ge57spfk5f3xdz33zrg7yoony

Blueprint for a dynamic deontic logic

Krister Segerberg
2009 Journal of Applied Logic  
In accordance with this insight we outline in Section 1 a logic of action, admittedly fairly meagre: it avoids a number of important but difficult topics, such as agency, causality and intentionality.  ...  In a second step we distinguish between what we call real and deontic actions.  ...  In particular we will discuss four: ordering, permitting, forbidding, and making-omissible a real action or event a: • to order a: to make a obligatory ("a must be done!")  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jal.2009.04.001 fatcat:qosnnl5dgnecplwt7phsugvzsu
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