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What the user interface field thinks of the software copyright "look and feel" lawsuits (and what the law ought to do about it)

Pamela Samuelson, Robert F. J. Glushko
1990 ACM SIGCHI Bulletin  
Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank Gary Perlman and Jonatha n Grudin for reviewing a draft of the survey ; Jonathan Grudin for his help in production of the survey ; Jack Brown and Thomas Hemnes  ...  Lynn for dat a entry and preliminary analysis ; Dan Sewell for statistical advice ; Bill Curtis for encouraging the idea of the legal debate and CHI and the survey ; and Mark Hall , editor-in-chief of  ...  copyright protection for user interfaces and regard such protection as very likely t o be harmful to the field, rather than helpful to it .  ... 
doi:10.1145/122475.122477 fatcat:dctcbo5icrgezfil6gcstpu7wi

Visual and textual consistency checking tools for graphical user interfaces

R. Mahajan, B. Shneiderman
1997 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering  
Designing a user interface with a consistent visual design and textual properties with current generation GUI development tools is cumbersome.  ...  SHERLOCK, a family of consistency checking tools, has been designed to evaluate visual design and textual properties of interface, make the GUI evaluation process less arduous, and aid usability testing  ...  We would also like to thank Ren Stimart of GE for his help.  ... 
doi:10.1109/32.637386 fatcat:76mnhm4adve3njxaliq2zkena4

Supporting Adaptable Consistency Control in Structured Collaborative Workspaces

YI YANG, DU LI
2005 Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)  
We model data and protocols in a way such that they are cleanly separated and can be dynamically bound at run time to achieve flexible control.  ...  Consistency control is a critical issue in collaborative systems. Supporting flexible consistency control in particular matches the dynamic and situated needs of cooperative work.  ...  As shown in Table V , we assume every consistency protocol implements a method getDescription to describe itself, e.g., how it works, where it should be used, and what the user experience and interface  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10606-005-9003-y fatcat:dzmuiqnowzadnichsr7ursyk3q

User Interface Consistency across End-User Applications: The Effects on Mental Models

John W. Satzinger, Lorne Olfman
1998 Journal of Management Information Systems  
For a complete discussion of the types of interface consistency, see Grudin [18] Relatively few empirical studies have addressed user interface consistency.  ...  AND THE TYPES of user interface consistency to provide a foundation for this research.  ... 
doi:10.1080/07421222.1998.11518190 fatcat:nfp252a7h5epzeen2jfem7nu4e

Learning consistent, interactive, and meaningful task-action mappings: A computational model

A Howes
1996 Cognitive Science  
Similarly, consistent interfaces are easier to learn and use than inconsistent ones.  ...  The model, called TAL, is of a user who is familior with the basic operations of a keyboord and mouse. but unfamiliar with the particular menu structures, words, and actions required to use the device.  ...  There are many ways in which a computer interface can be consistent. It can be consistent with the underlying system model, or with the user's task model (Gentner & Grudin, 1990) .  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0364-0213(99)80009-3 fatcat:qqfv7cp4vzbmtirvwqqbugyzoy

Learning Consistent, Interactive, and Meaningful Task-Action Mappings: A Computational Model

Andrew Howes, Richard M. Young
1996 Cognitive Science  
Similarly, consistent interfaces are easier to learn and use than inconsistent ones.  ...  The model, called TAL, is of a user who is familior with the basic operations of a keyboord and mouse. but unfamiliar with the particular menu structures, words, and actions required to use the device.  ...  There are many ways in which a computer interface can be consistent. It can be consistent with the underlying system model, or with the user's task model (Gentner & Grudin, 1990) .  ... 
doi:10.1207/s15516709cog2003_1 fatcat:d6m2zfovhrcfransik5dkxbs64

The effect of Interface Consistency and Cognitive Load on user performance in an information search task

Jeremy Mendel, Richard Pak
2009 Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting  
Although interface consistency is theorized to increase performance and user satisfaction, previous research has found mixed and often non-significant results.  ...  Interface consistency was manipulated along with intrinsic cognitive load and extraneous cognitive load.  ...  Interface consistency is central to design because it allows users to generalize knowledge and transfer it to other aspects of a system or even to other systems (Bayer, 1992) .  ... 
doi:10.1518/107118109x12524444081557 fatcat:anv3lj7m6jdl7kf6htl2f7chsq

The Effect of Interface Consistency and Cognitive Load on User Performance in an Information Search Task

Jeremy Mendel, Richard Pak
2009 Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting  
Although interface consistency is theorized to increase performance and user satisfaction, previous research has found mixed and often non-significant results.  ...  Interface consistency was manipulated along with intrinsic cognitive load and extraneous cognitive load.  ...  Interface consistency is central to design because it allows users to generalize knowledge and transfer it to other aspects of a system or even to other systems (Bayer, 1992) .  ... 
doi:10.1177/154193120905302206 fatcat:4wybkjsg7nhjxley3uiucbuns4

An Approach to Ensuring Consistency in Peer-to-Peer Real-Time Group Editors

Du Li, Rui Li
2006 Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)  
Realtime group editors allow distributed users to edit a shared document at the same time over a computer network.  ...  SDT is the first and the only OT algorithm proved to converge in peer-to-peer group editors.  ...  Especially we thank Chengzheng Sun for his valuable comments and discussions on an early draft. We are profoundly grateful to the Associate Editor, Prasun Dewan, for coordinating the review process.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10606-005-9009-5 fatcat:2jdc3uopmnas3eklfskcgr5qma

Organizational obstacles to interface design and development: two participant-observer studies

Steven E. Poltrock, Jonathan Grudin
1994 ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction  
Grudin ment had its own source of information about users; and this group con- tributed significantly to product requirements.  ...  That still doesn't mean it's going to be a good user interface at the end of the day and it still doesn't mean that it's going to turn out to be the interface that you thought you were writing down when  ...  ., AND COHEN, S. 1969  ... 
doi:10.1145/174630.174633 fatcat:tt2auxr57vbwhk3bgpnx7kw4oe

Systematic Sources of Suboptimal Interface Design in Large Product Development Organizations

Jonathan Grudin
1991 Human-Computer Interaction  
For these features, methods such as user involvement in iterative design with prototyping, the use of checklists and guidelines, and even formal evaluation can be of great help.  ...  However, there are strong forces present in development environments that block the use of such methods and distort interface designs in a systematic way.  ...  Wang Laboratories and MCC provided opportunities to experience and study these phenomena, and Aarhus University provided the time to put this together.  ... 
doi:10.1207/s15327051hci0602_3 fatcat:bm36i7vwdvghnlxhql62agvwq4

The User Centred Design (UCD) and User Experience Design (UXD) Practice In Industry: Performance Methods and Practice Constraints

2019 International journal of recent technology and engineering  
This study reviews the methods used in investigating user centred design (UCD) practice in industry as well as the constraints to the practice of UCD and user experience design (UXD) in industry using  ...  Most software development studies also found constraints between developers and users.  ...  Grudin (1991) disagreed with the term "user" at first because it refers to a drug addict from a layman's perspective.  ... 
doi:10.35940/ijrte.b1032.0782s219 fatcat:cvhgf2euwvcqzkxjmajsqa2ixq

QUID: a quick user-interface design method using prototyping tools

D.G. Novick, S.A. Douglas
1992 Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences  
However, it a bottom-up approach and thus in inherent conflict with more traditional software engineering techniques, which are top-down and specification-driven.  ...  Rapid prototyping is a design method for user interface development that emphasizes usability.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank one of the anonymous reviewers, who provided extensive, helpful comments and suggestions for improving this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hicss.1992.183322 fatcat:cvj4dhhw7zgkfj7nt3trdj2usq

Extending the scope of PAC-Amodeus to cooperative systems

Daniel Salber, Laurence Nigay, Joëlle Coutaz
1995 ACM SIGOIS Bulletin  
Coupled with the responsibility axis, it means that responsibility for modification may (or may not) migrate dynamically between the users, or between the users and the system, or even between the components  ...  INTRODUCTION Software tools for the construction of interactive systems such as user interface toolkits, application skeletons, and user interface generators, alleviate the activity of programming but  ... 
doi:10.1145/201947.201970 fatcat:qn7oak34j5f35nijs24qyb4rvu

Page 924 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 80, Issue 2 [page]

1993 Psychological Abstracts  
—Describes an experiment in 3D graphical interfaces to a binary relational database. 3D repre- sentations are useful for users who wish to explore the data topology, enter virtual reality, and manipulate  ...  The principle of natural affordances says that a computer screen display should clearly indicate the possible be- haviors/responses available and that the user should be able to learn conceptual models  ... 
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