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How to send a real number using a single bit (and some shared randomness) [article]

Ran Ben-Basat, Michael Mitzenmacher, Shay Vargaftik
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We consider the fundamental problem of communicating an estimate of a real number x∈[0,1] using a single bit. A sender that knows x chooses a value X∈0,1 to transmit.  ...  We then show how a small amount of shared randomness, which can be as low as a single bit, reduces the cost in both cases.  ...  Acknowledgements We thank the anonymous reviewers, Moshe Gabel, and Gal Mendelson for their helpful feedback and comments.  ... 
arXiv:2010.02331v4 fatcat:6juicw3si5expa444d5cqqftje

Quantum cryptography

C. Elliott
2004 IEEE Security and Privacy  
Alice sends a series of single photons to Bob, each modulated with a random basis (here, a two-sided card) and a random value.  ...  Alice sends a series of single photons to Bob, each modulated with a random basis. Bob demodulates them with a random basis.  ... 
doi:10.1109/msp.2004.54 fatcat:tnjp4annnjgtronmfoapyadjom

High-Throughput Secure Three-Party Computation for Malicious Adversaries and an Honest Majority [chapter]

Jun Furukawa, Yehuda Lindell, Ariel Nof, Or Weinstein
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
(ACM CCS 2016) in which the parties communicate only a single bit per AND gate, and modify it to be secure in the presence of malicious adversaries.  ...  We also present an improved combinatorial analysis for this cut-and-choose which can be used to achieve improvements in other protocols using this approach.  ...  Next, the parties reconstruct the shared secret to the dealer, who can then send a single bit to "correct" the random share to its actual input.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-56614-6_8 fatcat:pfnbs3o27fauxdjszi7tykvh2q

Efficient anonymous multicast and reception [chapter]

Shlomi Dolev, Rafail Ostrovsky
1997 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this work we examine the problem of efficient anonymous broadcast and reception in general communication networks.  ...  In contrast, all previous solutions require polynomial (in the size of the network and security parameter) arnortized communication complexity.  ...  Acknowledgment: We thank Oded Goldreich and Ron Rivest for helpful remarks.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bfb0052251 fatcat:d2eblwaokveqhfnhrnpalap5jy

Protocols for Multiparty Coin Toss with Dishonest Majority [chapter]

Amos Beimel, Eran Omri, Ilan Orlov
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Coin-tossing protocols are protocols that generate a random bit with uniform distribution. These protocols are used as a building block in many cryptographic protocols.  ...  The bias of our protocol is proportional to 1/r and depends on the gap between the number of malicious parties and the number of honest parties in the protocol.  ...  We are grateful to Yehuda Lindell for many helpful discussions and great advice. We thank Oded Goldreich and Gil Segev for suggesting this problem and for useful conversations.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-14623-7_29 fatcat:5r6wm4o2pbfcnbg3ji55n4lf3i

Protocols for Multiparty Coin Toss with a Dishonest Majority

Amos Beimel, Eran Omri, Ilan Orlov
2013 Journal of Cryptology  
Coin-tossing protocols are protocols that generate a random bit with uniform distribution. These protocols are used as a building block in many cryptographic protocols.  ...  The bias of our protocol is proportional to 1/r and depends on the gap between the number of malicious parties and the number of honest parties in the protocol.  ...  We are grateful to Yehuda Lindell for many helpful discussions and great advice. We thank Oded Goldreich and Gil Segev for suggesting this problem and for useful conversations.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00145-013-9168-3 fatcat:2s5cqxswkzazfhgsevmmb2hwlm

Use Your Brain! Arithmetic 3PC for Any Modulus with Active Security

Hendrik Eerikson, Marcel Keller, Claudio Orlandi, Pille Pullonen, Joonas Puura, Mark Simkin, Daniel Wichs, Yael Tauman Kalai, Adam D. Smith
2020 Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography  
In particular, we are interested in solutions which allow to evaluate arithmetic circuits over real-world CPU word sizes, like 32- and 64-bit words.  ...  Concretely, we achieve a throughput of 1 million 64-bit multiplications per second with parties located in different continents and 3 million in one location.  ...  If b i = 0, then F bcast sendsto P i . Additive Secret Sharing We recall what additive secret sharing is and how to perform some basic operations on it.  ... 
doi:10.4230/lipics.itc.2020.5 dblp:conf/icits/EeriksonKOPP020 fatcat:fpk766fhjzfnpn7s2q2ngcsq5q

Exploiting Multiple-Antenna Diversity for Shared Secret Key Generation in Wireless Networks

Kai Zeng, Daniel Wu, An Chan, Prasant Mohapatra
2010 2010 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM  
Multiple-antenna devices have the potential to provide more randomness for key generation than single-antenna ones.  ...  Generating a secret key between two parties by extracting the shared randomness in the wireless fading channel is an emerging area of research. Previous works focus mainly on single-antenna systems.  ...  We interleave the bits from different bit strings in time sequence, and XOR a certain number of bits together to enhance the randomness of the final key.  ... 
doi:10.1109/infcom.2010.5462004 dblp:conf/infocom/ZengWCM10 fatcat:auyh6julqvc3pa2qmhxbmie65u

Preprocessing Based Verification of Multiparty Protocols with Honest Majority

Peeter Laud, Alisa Pankova, Roman Jagomägis
2017 Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies  
In the preprocessing phase, each party generates and shares a sufficient amount of verified multiplication triples that will be later used to assist that party's proof.  ...  Our construction performs best with a small number of parties, and its main benefit is the total cost of the online and the offline phases.  ...  Let λ be the number of bits used for randomness seeds.  ... 
doi:10.1515/popets-2017-0038 dblp:journals/popets/LaudPJ17 fatcat:xndwkfj2gvacxfu5eaecb23qse

The Phish-Market Protocol: Securely Sharing Attack Data between Competitors [chapter]

Tal Moran, Tyler Moore
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Using complete lists of phishing URLs obtained from two large take-down companies, our elliptic-curve-based implementation added a negligible average 5 second delay to securely share URLs.  ...  as use the feeds to poach clients.  ...  At the end of some previously agreed period (or number of transactions), the Buyer reveals to the Seller how many 'real' payments were sent, and proves that this is indeed the case (without revealing which  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-14577-3_18 fatcat:pmv7d3mok5hb5kvtk6i6frqny4

High-Throughput Semi-Honest Secure Three-Party Computation with an Honest Majority

Toshinori Araki, Jun Furukawa, Yehuda Lindell, Ariel Nof, Kazuma Ohara
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS'16  
The protocol has very minimal computation and communication; for Boolean circuits, each party sends only a single bit for every AND gate (and nothing is sent for XOR gates).  ...  This enables the use of Kerberos while protecting passwords. Our implementation is able to support a login storm of over 35,000 logins per second, which suffices even for very large organizations.  ...  Acknowledgements We express our thank to Assi Barak and Felipe Zimmerle for their crucial help and contribution to the implementation and experimental results.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2976749.2978331 dblp:conf/ccs/ArakiFLNO16 fatcat:h5tasgt7mzefrocw2zzq7jvgey

Secure Multiparty Computation Goes Live [chapter]

Peter Bogetoft, Dan Lund Christensen, Ivan Damgård, Martin Geisler, Thomas Jakobsen, Mikkel Krøigaard, Janus Dam Nielsen, Jesper Buus Nielsen, Kurt Nielsen, Jakob Pagter, Michael Schwartzbach, Tomas Toft
2009 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We also report on the novel cryptographic protocols that were used.  ...  In this note, we report on the first large-scale and practical application of multiparty computation, which took place in January 2008.  ...  Random Bits For the RandomBit, we borrow a trick from [13] : All servers secret share a random value, and add all shares locally, to form a sharing [u] of a random unknown u.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03549-4_20 fatcat:24mya4i32bd63lemlxhnef7fxm

Xor-trees for efficient anonymous multicast and reception

Shlomi Dolev, Rafail Ostrobsky
2000 ACM Transactions on Privacy and Security  
We present algorithms that achieve anonymous communication with O1 amortized communication complexity on each link and low computational complexity and is protected against tra c analysis.  ...  In this work we examine the problem of e cient anonymous multicast and reception in general communication networks.  ...  Proof: We prove the lemma for the transmission of the seeds from the sender to P 1 . Note that one of the last k +1 real processors must be non-faulty.  ... 
doi:10.1145/354876.354877 fatcat:7o2z6khuw5dv7a5akkpsi6b5xi

Secrecy without one-way functions

Dima Grigoriev, Vladimir Shpilrain
2013 Groups - Complexity - Cryptology  
We also show how our unconditionally secure (bit) commitment scheme for 3 parties can be used to arrange an unconditionally secure (bit) commitment between just two parties if they use a "dummy" (e.g.,  ...  Finally, we propose a secret sharing scheme where an advantage over Shamir's and other known secret sharing schemes is that nobody, including the dealer, ends up knowing the shares (of the secret) owned  ...  Both authors are grateful to Max Planck Institut für Mathematik, Bonn for its hospitality during the work on this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1515/gcc-2013-0002 fatcat:ax7zjmlhzbfcpkjw37zed4lpe4

Secrecy without one-way functions [article]

Dima Grigoriev, Vladimir Shpilrain
2013 arXiv   pre-print
We also show how our (bit) commitment scheme for 3 parties can be used to arrange an unconditionally secure (bit) commitment between just two parties if they use a "dummy" (e.g., a computer) as the third  ...  In this paper, we suggest protocols for secure computation of the sum, product, and some other functions, without using any one-way functions.  ...  Both authors are grateful to Max Planck Institut für Mathematik, Bonn for its hospitality during the work on this paper.  ... 
arXiv:1301.5069v1 fatcat:t6jxeajomrbzjcloc54ttym2qm
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