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We propose a novel hierarchical online intrusion detection system (HOIDS) for supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks based on machine learning algorithms. By utilizing the server-client topology while keeping clients distributed for global protection, high detection rate is achieved with minimum network impact. We implement accurate models of normal-abnormal binary detection and multi-attack identification based on logistic regression and quasi-Newton optimization algorithmarXiv:1611.09418v1 fatcat:xkpuqbe5xfcbxlocwczgm6ltoq
more »... ing the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno approach. The detection system is capable of accelerating detection by information gain based feature selection or principle component analysis based dimension reduction. By evaluating our system using the KDD99 dataset and the industrial control system dataset, we demonstrate that HOIDS is highly scalable, efficient and cost effective for securing SCADA infrastructures.
As an important epigenetics related enzyme, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) has been confirmed as an anticancer therapeutic target in recent years. Among all the reported PRMT5 inhibitors, two small molecules (GSK-3326595 and JNJ-64619178) are currently being assessed in clinical trial. In this study, 40 PRMT5 inhibitor candidates were purchased from SPECS database supplier according to the pharmacophore and molecular docking based virtual screening results. Alpha linkeddoi:10.1248/cpb.c18-00980 fatcat:7pr4cox75bbxlehdsq6npt3w5e
more »... nt assay (LISA) methylation assay was performed to test their inhibitory activity against PRMT5. The in vitro enzymatic assay results indicated that four compounds (2, 4, 10 and 37) showed PRMT5 inhibitory activity, while 4 and 10 displayed the most potent activity with IC 50 values of 8.1 1.1 and 6.5 0.6 µM, respectively. The inhibitory activity results of 20 extra analogs of 4 further confirmed the potency of this scaffold. As expected, compounds 4 and 10 exhibited moderate anti-proliferative activity against mantle cell lymphoma Jeko-1 and leukemia cell MV4-11. Besides, Western blot assay results showed that 4 could reduce the H4R3me2s level in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that it could inhibit the activity of PRMT5 in cellular context. Detailed interactions between 4 and PRMT5 were characterized by binding mode analysis through molecular docking. The compounds discovered in this study will inspire medicinal chemists to further explore this series of PRMT5 inhibitors.
Background Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal with potentially deleterious effects on different organisms. The organisms have evolved sophisticated defense system to alleviate heavy metal toxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) effectively alleviates heavy metal toxicity in plants and reduces oxidative stress in mammals. However, the function of H2S for alleviating heavy metal toxicity in aquatic organisms remains less clear. Tetrahymena thermophila is an important model organism to evaluatedoi:10.1186/s12864-020-07337-9 pmid:33407108 fatcat:fsqi7h5g3ff5db2mkbbt7idume
more »... xic contaminants in an aquatic environment. In this study, the molecular roles of exogenously H2S application were explored by RNA sequencing under Cd stress in T. thermophila. Results The exposure of 30 μM Cd resulted in T. thermophila growth inhibition, cell nigrescence, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content considerably increase. However, exogenous NaHS (donor of H2S, 70 μM) significantly alleviated the Cd-induced toxicity by inhibiting Cd absorbtion, promoting CdS nanoparticles formation and improving antioxidant system. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that the expression levels of 9152 genes changed under Cd stress (4658 upregulated and 4494 downregulated). However, only 1359 genes were differentially expressed with NaHS treatment under Cd stress (1087 upregulated and 272 downregulated). The functional categories of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by gene ontology (GO) revealed that the transcripts involved in the oxidation–reduction process, oxidoreductase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and cell redox homeostasis were the considerable enrichments between Cd stress and NaHS treatment under Cd stress. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) indicated that the carbon metabolism, glutathione metabolism, metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, and ABC transporters were significantly differentially expressed components between Cd stress and NaHS treatment under Cd stress in T. thermophila. The relative expression levels of six DEGs were further confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Conclusion NaHS alleviated Cd stress mainly through inhibiting Cd absorbtion, promoting CdS nanoparticles formation, increasing oxidation resistance, and regulation of transport in free-living unicellular T. thermophila. These findings will expand our understanding for H2S functions in the freshwater protozoa.
Validation of the snow process model is an important preliminary work for the snow parameter estimation. The snow grain growth is a continuous and accumulative process, which cannot be evaluated without comparing with the observations in snow season scale. In order to understand the snow properties in the Asian Water Tower region (including Xinjiang province and the Tibetan Plateau) and enhance the use of modeling tools, an extended snow experiment at the foot of the Altay Mountain was designeddoi:10.3390/rs12030507 fatcat:gn3oquwb7vcfrmudmr2535oce4
more »... to validate and improve the coupled physical Snow Thermal Model (SNTHERM) and the Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS). By matching simultaneously the observed snow depth, geometric grain size, and observed brightness temperature (TB), with an RMSE of 1.91 cm, 0.47 mm, and 4.43 K (at 36.5 GHz, vertical polarization), respectively, we finalized the important model coefficients, which are the grain growth coefficient and the grain size to exponential correlation length conversion coefficients. When extended to 102 meteorological stations in the 2008–2009 winter, the SNTHERM predicted the daily snow depth with an accuracy of 2–4 cm RMSE, and the coupled SNTHERM-MEMLS model predicted the satellite-observed TB with an accuracy of 13.34 K RMSE at 36.5 GHz, vertical polarization, with the fractional snow cover considered.
Objective. This study is to explore key immune markers and changes of immune microenvironment in neuropathic pain (NeuP). Method. The data sets of GSE145199 and GSE145226 in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was used to analyze, and the key immune markers were verified by GSE70006 and GSE91396, and the infiltration degree of immune cells in different samples were analyzed by CIBERSORT analysis package. Results. In this study, we found a key immune marker, namely, LANCL1. Regulatory axisdoi:10.1155/2022/9762244 pmid:35510269 pmcid:PMC9061068 fatcat:gvnrt6ccjnctpiuh2k2v42wu7a
more »... sely related to LANCL1 has also been found, namely, miR-6325/LANCL1 axis. In the immune infiltration analysis, we also found that the LANCL1 is positively correlated with T cells CD4 naïve ( r = 0.880 , p < 0.05 ). Conclusion. In this study, we found that LANCL1 may be a protective factor for NeuP, and the miR-6325/LANCL1 axis may be involved in the occurrence and development of NeuP. Cascade reactions including mast cells, macrophages, and T cells may be an important reason for the aggravation of nerve damage.
Water and energy are two indispensable resources in national economic production. Water is circulated among economic sectors through products or services; however, indirect water consumption calculated by the input-output method fails to reflect the implied water utilised during energy consumption. This study combined the ecological input-output method with a complex network model to analyse the embodied energy intensity (EEI) and the implied water intensity of embodied energy (IWIEE), and thendoi:10.3390/w10070834 fatcat:jos4fhxxlzbjhjg3eeokpgckqu
more »... constructed and analysed the implied water circulation network (IWCN) of 40 sectors in The results indicate that the energy consumption of all of the sectors is mainly embodied in the transfer of the external provinces of China, and the variation trend of the implied water intensity of the embodied energy is consistent with the embodied energy intensity. The implied water circulation networks had small-world characteristics, indicating that water-saving effects in key sectors can quickly spread to other sectors. However, this may also result in a corresponding negative impact if water shortages occur in these sectors, due to the same spreading effect. The node strength, eigenvector centrality, key edge, and key indirect water flow path were selected as indicators to measure key sectors. Finally, water-saving measures and suggestions were proposed according to the complex network characteristics. Previous studies on resource consumption in industrial sectors have mainly focussed on the input-output method     , which analyses the indirect consumption that is circulated within products or services among different regions and sectors. However, there is typically a deficiency in this type of research, because the simulation results can only be applied to the final consumption product; they cannot be applied to the analysis of the intermediate input and output. Based on this idea, Chen et al. proposed an ecological input-output method that is fundamentally different from the traditional environmental input-output method  . This method accounts for the resource intensity of sectors based on the balance and flow of resources in the system, and it effectively overcomes the drawbacks of the traditional environmental input-output method. The results obtained can not only be used to calculate the resources embodied in the final consumption, they can also can be used to calculate the resources embodied in the intermediate input. This greatly expands the scope of application of the input-output simulation, and provides a more complete and reliable theoretical method for resource accounting at various scales  . This method was originally used to calculate the carbon emissions of buildings  , and then was widely used in calculations of various ecological embodied resources such as greenhouse gas emissions [11, 14] , water resources [15,16], energy consumption [17,18] and emergy [19,20]. The research scale involves macroeconomies at different levels, such as at the world scale [21,22], national scale [23-25], provincial scale , and city scale [15,26]. Resources circulate among various sectors and regions through products or services, and evolve into networks with complicated circulation relationships. The results of the ecological input-output method cannot reflect the structural characteristics of the circulation network; however, system structural analysis can effectively identify key sectors and interdependence among the sectors during resource consumption, which is a prerequisite for solving resource-related problems  . The complex network model is a powerful tool in system structure analyses that regards industrial sectors as nodes, and flows between the sectors as edges. To gain a better understanding of the nature of the network    , it can find collectors and distributors that play a major role in the network, and explore potential dependencies among sectors to better manage and control the allocation of limited resources. This model has reached maturity in its application in the field of resource trade, such as in the world-scale virtual water trade , international oil trade [32-34], international natural gas trade [35,36], fossil energy trade [37,38], comprehensive energy trade , national scale embodied exergy trade , and embodied rare earths trade . The input-output method and the complex network model provide appropriate solutions for the quantitative and structural analysis of energy and water consumption. However, most studies have focussed on a single aspect of water or energy; none of these studies have considered the indirect water consumption or explored the inherent impacts of regional energy consumption on water. Beijing is the capital of China, and the country's political, economic, and cultural centre. It is located in the Haihe River basin, which has experienced the most serious water resource shortage of the seven river basins, because water resource shortages and water quality shortages coexist in this basin. The total amount of water resource is unstable due to factors such as human activities and the fluctuation of climatic conditions. The amount of groundwater resource in 2016 was 2.1 billion m 3 , which was a notable reduction from the 1980 amount of 9.1 billion m 3 . The per capita water resource was 161 m 3 , which was far below the global water shortage warning line of 1000 m 3 . As a severe water shortage area, Beijing's economic and social development is severely restricted by a lack of water resources. In terms of energy consumption, the total energy consumption increased from 27.1 Mtce in 1990 to 69.6 Mtce in 2016 , with an average annual growth rate of 6.1%. Energy consumption in the tertiary industry and the public sector has increased year to year. Both primary energy and fossil energy consumption make up large proportions of the total energy consumption. Energy efficiency has improved in recent years, but there is still a gap between China and other developed countries. Recently, the increase in widespread haze and energy consumption have been inextricably linked. Therefore, this study selected Beijing as the study area, and combines the ecological input-output
Cystic lymphangioma mainly occurs in children. Cystic mediastinal lymphangioma (CML) originates from mediastinal tissues and is an extremely uncommon cystic lymphangioma that develops from the lymphatic vessels. The present study reports the case of 46-year-old male patient with a giant CML that was surgically resected by video-assisted thoracoscopy. The largest diameter of the CML was 18.0 cm, and ~400 ml of pale yellow fluid was removed from the cystic cavity during surgery. The postoperativedoi:10.3892/ol.2014.2320 pmid:25120699 pmcid:PMC4114701 fatcat:occ3rexnifaavburyfrl5ml52m
more »... pathological reports on the cystic wall showed that the neoplasm was a CML. At present, at the one-year postoperative follow-up, there are no signs of recurrence. In conclusion, complete surgical resection may prevent recurrence. Discussion Mainly occurring in childhood, cystic lymphangiomas are extremely rare, with 90% being diagnosed prior to two years
Here we reported the investigation of enhanced performance for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) by a new microbial fuel cell (MFC) with natural pyrrhotite-coated cathode. By comparisons of the graphite-cathode, the MFCs equipped with a pyrrhotite-coated cathode generated the maximum power density of 45.4 mW·m −2 that was 1.3 times higher than that of with bare graphite cathode (35.5 mW·m −2 ). Moreover, the Cr (VI) removal efficiency of 97.5% achieved after 4.5 h compared with onlydoi:10.3390/w9120979 fatcat:ts634sobmncjbiqfhseezzyntm
more »... 6.1% by graphite cathode MFC. In addition, Cr (VI) removal rate with different initial Cr (VI) concentrations for 10 mg/L and 30 mg/L was investigated and a decreased removal percentage with increasing Cr (VI) concentration was observed. Batches of experiments of different pH values from 3.0 to 9.0 in catholyte were carried out to optimize system performance. The complete Cr (VI) removal was achieved at pH 3.0 and 99.59% of Cr (VI) was removed after 10.5 h, which met the requirement of the Cr (VI) National Emission Standard. When the value of pH was decreasing, the removal rate was obviously increased and Cr (VI) could be removed successfully with a broad pH range indicating pyrrhotite-coated cathode MFC had more extensive usage scope. Furthermore, cathode treatment products were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Cr 2 O 3 , Cr (III)-acetate were detected on the cathode by the XPS Cr2p spectra and no Cr (VI) founded, indicating that the Cr on the surface of cathode was Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were reduced. On cathode, pyrrhotite not only played a significant role for catalyst of MFCs, but also acted as reactive sites for Cr (VI) reduction. Our research demonstrated that pyrrhotite, an earth-abundant and low-cost natural mineral was promised as an effective cathode material. Which had great potential applications in MFCs for reduction of wastewater containing heavy metals and other environmental contaminants in the future. Water 2017, 9, 979 2 of 11 with the high toxicity and solubility of Cr (VI), the Cr (III) is less toxic and mobile . Thus, it is of great value to reduce Cr (VI) to Cr (III) in the wastewater treatment. Over the past decades, many of technologies have been developed to remove Cr (VI) from solutions, which include adsorption, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical precipitation and photoelectrochemical process, etc.     . Currently, the Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) system has become a new technology for the disposal of the wastewater containing heavy metals (such as copper, silver, mercury, etc.) due to promising biotechnology that utilizes microorganisms as catalysts to decompose organic matter and harvest electricity simultaneously    . They are used for removing of Cr (VI) as well    . Li et al. first showed that potassium dichromate was a favorable electron acceptor in the cathode of MFC . At the meantime, 99.5% Cr (VI) was removed by the reduction of Cr (VI) in the cathode chamber. Moreover, Wang et al. reported the maximum open circuit voltage was 0.91 V with Cr (VI) concentration for 200 mg/L as electron acceptor in the MFC . Biocathode MFCs, which have attracted much attention as well. Tandukar et al. reported that Cr (VI) reduced in a biocathode MFC with graphite plate electrodes  . Moreover, enhanced of Cr (VI) reduction rate and power production were achieved using indigenous bacteria  . Then, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 used as a biocatalyst and which realized current production and Cr (VI) reduction with the help of electron shuttles. In addition, the effect of set potentials and special structure of biocathodes were investigated as well    . Nowadays, with the aim to improving the performance and decreasing the cost of microbial fuel cells, most near-term attention is focused on the alternative of cathode Pt-based catalysts by inexpensive minerals. Some metal oxides have been used for cathode catalysts which including MnO 2 , PbO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 and TiO 2        . Roche et al. investigated the performance of manganese oxide used as the cathode catalyst  and the performances of MFCs was easily improved. Zhang et al. prepared three different forms of MnO 2 (α, β and γ) by hydrothermal method. Then, pure culture tests were made and good volumetric power densities were observed with the help of MnO 2  . The performances of cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve with cerium, copper and cobalt doped catalysts were studied as well  and promoted power generation was also realized by PbO 2 . Moreover, even some earth-abundant natural minerals such as hematite, pyrrhotite and rutile were employed as novel cathode catalysts, and which were proved could be act as alternative material for MFCs    . It is worth mentioning that the MFCs equipped with a natural pyrrhotite-coated cathode was used to treat an old-aged landfill leachate  . The results demonstrated that with the help of pyrrhotite, both power generation of MFCs and oxidation rate of biorefractory pollutants was increased  . Notably, natural iron sulfide minerals such as pyrite and pyrrhotite shows great potential and attracts the attention for the field of environmental mineralogy, which has been proven to be effective for removing dissolved Cr (VI) from solutions     . However, to the best of our knowledge, reduction of Cr (VI) by using a MFC with pyrrhotite-coated graphite cathode has not been reported at present. In this study, a natural environmental mineralogy material-pyrrhotite and the MFC technology was combined together for improving performance of electricity generation and removing Cr (VI) from solution was investigated. In addition, the treatment ability with a broad pH range and different initial Cr (VI) concentration were studied in detail. Furthermore, the final solid byproduct was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the mechanisms of Cr (VI) removal was discussed as well. This study demonstrated that natural pyrrhotite was well suitable for MFCs application, allowing sufficiently high current densities, wide availability of raw materials, low cost, easy preparation as well as friendly operating condition. This MFCs performs great prospects for research and application for the chromium reduction and electricity production in the future. Materials and Methods Manufacture of Pyrrhotite-Coated Graphite Cathode The mineralogical characteristics of the natural pyrrhotite were well studied and the results can be found in a previous study  . Nowadays, the price of natural pyrrhotite is $0.02 per kilogram, which
Objective: Post-stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms with high prevalence, however, the mechanism of the brain network in PSD and the relationship between the structural and functional network remain unclear. This research applies graph theory to structural networks and explores the relationship between structural and functional networks.Methods: Forty-five patients with acute ischemic stroke were divided into the PSD group and post-stroke withoutdoi:10.3389/fnagi.2021.728622 pmid:34707489 pmcid:PMC8542668 fatcat:54x2ajj46ngpbiifte4qv66npm
more »... n (non-PSD) group respectively and underwent the magnetic resonance imaging scans. Network construction and Module analysis were used to explore the structural connectivity-functional connectivity (SC-FC) coupling of multi-scale brain networks in patients with PSD.Results: Compared with non-PSD, the structural network in PSD was related to the reduction of clustering and the increase of path length, but the degree of modularity was lower.Conclusions: The SC-FC coupling may serve as a biomarker for PSD. The similarity in SC and FC is associated with cognitive dysfunction, retardation, and desperation. Our findings highlighted the distinction in brain structural-functional networks in PSD.Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03256305, NCT03256305.
Authors' contributions LY, QL and ZL designed research; XS, QT, GC, TR, DB, and HC (Hongrui Cui) performed research; HC (Hongjun Chen), TR and XL analyzed data; LY, QL and ZL wrote the paper. ...doi:10.1186/s13567-016-0352-y pmid:27342800 pmcid:PMC4919838 fatcat:spkia6h7kvfb5erq7ki3omweky
H3 subtype influenza A virus is one of the main subtypes that threats both public and animal health. However, the evolution and pathogenicity of H3 avian influenza virus (AIV) circulating in domestic birds in China remain largely unclear. In this study, seven H3 AIVs (four H3N2 and three H3N8) were isolated from poultry in live poultry market (LPM) in China. Phylogenetic analyses of full genomes showed that all viruses were clustered into Eurasian lineage, except N8 genes of two H3N8 isolatesdoi:10.1038/srep27360 pmid:27270298 pmcid:PMC4895239 fatcat:gczatomeanferl3vp36nxdsovq
more »... ll into North American lineage. Intriguingly, the N8 gene of one H3N8 and PB2, PB1, NP and NS of two H3N2 isolates have close relationship with those of the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses circulating in Korea and United States, suggesting that the H3-like AIV may contribute internal genes to the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses. Phylogenetic tree of HA gene and antigenic cross-reactivity results indicated that two antigenically different H3 viruses are circulating in LPM in China. Most of the H3 viruses replicated in mice lung and nasal turbinate without prior adaptation, and the representative H3 viruses infected chickens without causing clinical signs. The reassortment of H3 subtype influenza viruses warrants continuous surveillance in LPM in China.
The cost-effective exfoliation of layered materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides into mono- or few- layers is of significant interest for various applications. This paper reports the preparation of few-layered MoS2 from natural SiO2-containing molybdenite by exfoliation in isopropanol (IPA) under mild ultrasonic conditions. One- to six-layer MoS2 nanosheets with dimensions in the range of 50-200 nm are obtained. By contrast, MoS2 quantum dots along with nanosheets are produced usingdoi:10.3390/nano8100843 pmid:30336546 pmcid:PMC6215130 fatcat:gul5o77xxfbnphfmwrfi4cggg4
more »... N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) and an aqueous solution of poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (propylene glycol)-block-poly (ethylene glycol) (P123) as exfoliation solutions. Compared with molybdenite, commercial bulk MoS2 cannot be exfoliated to nanosheets under the same experimental conditions. In the exfoliation process of the mineral, SiO2 associated in molybdenite plays the role of similar superfine ball milling, which significantly enhances the exfoliation efficiency. This work demonstrates that isopropanol can be used to exfoliate natural molybdenite under mild conditions to produce nanosheets, which facilitates the preparation of highly concentrated MoS2 dispersions or MoS2 in powder form due to the volatility of the solvent. Such exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets exhibit excellent photoconductivity under visible light. Hence, the direct mild exfoliation method of unrefined natural molybdenite provides a solution for low-cost and convenient production of few-layered MoS2 which is appealing for industrial applications.
The role of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in peritoneal fibrosis remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of HDAC6 inhibition on the epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells and development of peritoneal fibrosis. Treatment with tubastatin A, a highly selective HDAC6 inhibitor, or silencing of HDAC6 with siRNA inhibited transforming growth factor β1-induced EMT, as evidenced by decreased expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I and preserveddoi:10.18632/oncotarget.20982 pmid:29179471 pmcid:PMC5687641 fatcat:ngjow7h7tve67aindlbzdslo2u
more »... ression of E-cadherin in cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells. In a mouse model of peritoneal fibrosis induced by high glucose dialysate, administration of TA prevented thickening of the submesothelial region and decreased expression of collagen I and α-SMA. Mechanistically, tubastatin A treatment inhibited expression of TGF-β1 and phosphorylation of Smad-3, epidermal growth factor receptor, STAT3, and NF-κBp65. HDAC6 inhibition also suppressed production of multiple inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and reduced the infiltration of macrophages to the injured peritoneum. Moreover, tubastatin A was effective in inhibiting peritoneal increase of CD31(+) blood vessels and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the injured peritoneum. Collectively, these results suggest that HDAC6 inhibition can attenuate peritoneal fibrosis by inhibiting multiple pro-fibrotic signaling pathways, EMT, inflammation and blood vessel formation.
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, Yafeng Niu and Chengqi Xue; methodology, Guorui Ma and Wei Xue; software, Tao Jin; validation, Guorui Ma, Wei Xue and Tao Jin; investigation, Hongrui Zuo; resources ...doi:10.3390/ijgi9070420 fatcat:6kbceskagnghrhtg3b3p4rtufm
Copyright © 2021 Liu, Hao, Bian, Ge, Lu, Xie, Wang, Tao, Yuan, Zhang, Zhang, Jiang and Zhu. ...doi:10.3389/fchem.2021.639279 pmid:33763406 pmcid:PMC7982526 fatcat:c6xu65qjtzfl5cwkuld6xabn2m
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