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Knowledge of vertical air motion in the atmosphere is important for both meteorological and climate studies due to its impact on clouds, precipitation and the vertical transport of air masses, heat, momentum, and composition. The vertical velocity (VV) of air is among the most difficult and uncertain quantities to measure due to its generally small magnitude and high temporal and spatial variability. In this study, a descending radiosonde system is developed to derive VV at the low and middledoi:10.3390/rs11131538 fatcat:de4qsng46jcftalcvnbwqgxfki
more »... oposphere in north China during the summer months. The VV is estimated from the difference between the observed radiosonde descent speed and the calculated radiosonde descent speed in still air based on the fluid dynamic principle. The results showed that the estimated VV generally ranged from −1 m/s to 1 m/s, accounting for 80.2% of data points. In convective conditions, a wider distribution of the VV was observed, which was skewed to large values relative to those in nonconvective conditions. The average VV throughout the entire profile was close to 0 m/s under nonconvective conditions. In contrast, distinctive vertical air motions below 5 km above the ground were recorded under convective activities. Vigorous air motions with an absolute VV >2 m/s were occasionally observed and were often associated with the occurrence of cloud layers. Moreover, the detailed structure of the instant air motion near the cloud boundaries (i.e., top and base), with an absolute VV >10 m/s in convective weather systems, was clearly revealed by this technique. The uncertainty estimation indicated that this method has the potential to capture and describe events with vertical air motions >0.69 m/s, which is useful for a convective weather study. Further studies are required to carefully assess the accuracy and precision of this novel VV estimation technique.
(Hongrong Shi), H.C. (Hongbin Chen); writing-review and editing, H.S. (Haijiong Sun) and H.S. (Hongrong Shi); supervision, H.C. (Hongbin Chen) and H.S. (Hongrong Shi). ...doi:10.3390/rs13183596 fatcat:z672wkxpuza45esqlfvfzqy6mu
The biogenic, wind-blown dust, sea salt, and wildfire emissions are calculated online in WRF-Chem, as detailed in our previous studies (Zhao et al., 2019a; Shi et al., 2019) . ... ., 2020; Shi and Brasseur, 2020; Miyazaki et al., 2020b ), India (e.g., Pathakoti et al., 2020 Sharma et al., 2020) , and Europe (e.g., Chen et al., 2020; Menut et al., 2020; Sicard et al., 2020; Ordóñez ...doi:10.5194/acp-21-8693-2021 fatcat:vthatyixvjgmheydeunufj5tum
Citation: Salvo J, Lyubasyuk V, Xu M, et al. Next-generation sequencing and novel variant determination in a cohort of 92 familial exudative vitreoretinopathy patients. Invest PURPOSE. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a developmental disease that can cause visual impairment and retinal detachment at a young age. Four genes involved in the Wnt signaling pathway were previously linked to this disease: NDP, FDZ4, LRP5, and TSPAN12. Identification of novel disease-causing allelesdoi:10.1167/iovs.14-16065 pmid:25711638 pmcid:PMC4365990 fatcat:tlugz42grve2zmpffinhpcfjwu
more »... s for a deeper understanding of the disease, better molecular diagnosis, and improved treatment. METHODS. Sequencing libraries from 92 FEVR patients were generated using a custom capture panel to enrich for 163 known retinal disease-causing genes in humans. Samples were processed using next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques followed by data analysis to identify and classify single nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions. Sanger validation and segregation testing were used to verify suspected variants. RESULTS. Of the cohort of 92, 45 patients were potentially solved (48.9%). Solved cases resulted from the determination of 49 unique mutations, 41 of which are novel. Of the novel variants discovered, 13 were highly likely to cause FEVR due to the nature of these variants (frameshifting indels, splicing mutations, and nonsense variants types). To our knowledge, this is the largest study of a FEVR cohort using NGS. CONCLUSIONS. We were able to determine probable disease-causing variants in a large number of FEVR patients, the majority of which were novel. Knowledge of these variants will help to further characterize and diagnose FEVR.
SNA001 is a novel recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH). rhTSH has long been approved in several countries to facilitate monitoring and ablation of thyroid carcinoma without hypothyroidism caused by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). To assess the safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of SNA001, the two-period (SNA001 period and THW period), dose-ascending study in well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients was designed. Three doses (0.45 mg,doi:10.3389/fendo.2020.615883 pmid:33679603 pmcid:PMC7927955 fatcat:yqd46lilvba6hh7xpgreztwife
more »... mg, and 1.35 mg) of SNA001 were intramuscularly injected, twice in the SNA001 period to stimulate iodine-131 uptake and thyroglobulin (Tg) release. 24 h after the last dose of SNA001, iodine-131 (111–185 MBq) was administrated, followed by whole-body scan (WBS) 48 h later. THW period began just after SNA001 washout and lasted for about 3–6 weeks. When TSH level was above 30 mU/L, iodine-131 (111–185 MBq) was administrated, followed by a WBS and Tg detection 48 h later. Twenty-four DTC patients after thyroidectomy were enrolled; mean peak concentrations of SNA001 in 0.45, 0.9, and 1.35 mg groups were 18.5, 26.7, and 37.0 ng/ml (about 244.7, 354.2, and 489.6 mU/L) respectively, within 28–32 h after first dose of SNA001. SNA001 was metabolized in a dose-dependent manner. The results of WBS and Tg release in the SNA001 period were compared with those in the THW period. Compared to Tg level in baseline, the Tg levels in SNA001 and THW periods were increased, with 78% of subjects showing higher Tg levels in the THW period. 100% of the patients had concordant qualitative results of the scans within two periods in three groups. Symptoms of hypothyroidism were relieved in the SNA001 period compared with THW period, though there was no significant difference in most of the scale scores. There were no serious adverse events related to SNA001; the most common adverse events were gastrointestinal symptoms of mild and transient nature. Thus, SNA001 promises to be a safe and effective method to stimulate iodine-131 uptake and Tg secretion during monitoring and ablation for DTC without the disadvantages of incidental hypothyroidism.
The North China Plain (NCP) has experienced frequent severe haze pollution events in recent years. While extensive measurements have been made in megacities, aerosol sources, processes, and particle growth at urban downwind sites remain less understood. Here, an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, along with a suite of collocated instruments, were deployed at the downwind site of Xingtai, a highly polluted city in the NCP, for real-time measurements ofdoi:10.5194/acp-2017-889 fatcat:ud5kyhrdn5bwdigj2m6xkdaxva
more »... micron aerosol (PM<sub>1</sub>) species and particle number size distributions during May and June 2016. The average mass concentration of PM<sub>1</sub> was 30.5 (±19.4)&thinsp;μg&thinsp;m<sup>&minus;3</sup>, which is significantly lower than that during wintertime. Organic aerosols (OA) constituted the major fraction of PM1 (38&thinsp;%) followed by sulfate (25&thinsp;%) and nitrate (14&thinsp;%). Positive matrix factorization with the Multilinear Engine version 2 showed that oxygenated OA (OOA) was the dominant species in OA throughout the study, on average accounting for 78&thinsp;% of OA, while traffic and cooking emissions both accounted for 11&thinsp;% of OA. Our results highlight that aerosol particles at the urban downwind site were highly aged and mainly from secondary formation. However, the diurnal cycle also illustrated the substantial influence of urban emissions on downwind sites, which are characterized by similar pronounced early morning peaks for most aerosol species. New particle formation and growth events were also frequently observed (58&thinsp;% of the time) on both clean and polluted days. Particle growth rates varying from 1.2 to 4.9&thinsp;nm&thinsp;h<sup>&minus;1</sup> were positively related to the condensation sink during periods with high OOA contributions and also to sulfate concentrations during relatively clean periods. Our results showed that sulfate and OOA played important roles in particle growth during clean periods, while OOA was more important than sulfate during polluted events. Further analyses showed that particle growth rates have no clear dependence on air mass trajectories.
<p><strong>Abstract.</strong> The North China Plain (NCP) has experienced frequent severe haze pollution events in recent years. While extensive measurements have been made in megacities, aerosol sources, processes, and particle growth at urban downwind sites remain less understood. Here, an aerosol chemical speciation monitor and a scanning mobility particle sizer, along with a suite of collocated instruments, were deployed at the downwind site of Xingtai, a highly polluted city in the NCP,doi:10.5194/acp-18-14637-2018 fatcat:puf7xc5n2velhecjs73jbbkywi
more »... real-time measurements of submicron aerosol (PM<span class="inline-formula"><sub>1</sub></span>) species and particle number size distributions during May and June 2016. The average mass concentration of PM<span class="inline-formula"><sub>1</sub></span> was 30.5 (<span class="inline-formula">±19.4</span>)<span class="thinspace"></span><span class="inline-formula">µ</span>g<span class="thinspace"></span>m<span class="inline-formula"><sup>−3</sup></span>, which is significantly lower than that during wintertime. Organic aerosols (OAs) constituted the major fraction of PM<span class="inline-formula"><sub>1</sub></span> (38<span class="thinspace"></span>%), followed by sulfate (25<span class="thinspace"></span>%) and nitrate (14<span class="thinspace"></span>%). Positive matrix factorization with the multilinear engine version 2 showed that oxygenated OA (OOA) was the dominant species in OA throughout the study, on average accounting for 78<span class="thinspace"></span>% of OA, while traffic and cooking emissions both accounted for 11<span class="thinspace"></span>% of OA. Our results highlight that aerosol particles at the urban downwind site were highly aged and mainly from secondary formation. However, the diurnal cycle also illustrated the substantial influence of urban emissions on downwind sites, which are characterized by similar pronounced early morning peaks for most aerosol species. New particle formation and growth events were also frequently observed (58<span class="thinspace"></span>% of the time) on both clean and polluted days. Particle growth rates varied from 1.2 to 4.9<span class="thinspace"></span>nm<span class="thinspace"></span>h<span class="inline-formula"><sup>−1</sup></span> and our results showed that sulfate and OOA played important roles in particle growth during clean periods, while OOA was more important than sulfate during polluted events. Further analyses showed that particle growth rates have no clear dependence on air mass trajectories.</p>
Shi et al. Page 28 Shi et al. ... Shi et al. Page 17 Figure 1. Shi et al. Page 18 J Geophys Res Atmos. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2020 May 22. Shi et al. ...doi:10.1029/2019jd030472 pmid:32455093 pmcid:PMC7243153 fatcat:5tpwcukg5bbypmtofz5iv3inqq
Graphical Abstract Highlights d SIX6 and p16INK4a contribute to POAG genetic risk synergistically d SIX6 directly regulates p16INK4a expression d SIX6 and p16INK4a promote retinal ganglion cell senescence and death SUMMARY Glaucoma, a blinding neurodegenerative disease, whose risk factors include elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), age, and genetics, is characterized by accelerated and progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Despite decades of research, the mechanism of RGC death indoi:10.1016/j.molcel.2015.07.027 pmid:26365380 pmcid:PMC4648709 fatcat:vjbe2gm5brbvxhuujheaf7vogq
more »... coma is still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the genetic effect of the SIX6 risk variant (rs33912345, His141Asn) is enhanced by another major POAG risk gene, p16INK4a (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, isoform INK4a). We further show that the upregulation of homozygous SIX6 risk alleles (CC) leads to an increase in p16INK4a expression, with subsequent cellular senescence, as evidenced in a mouse model of elevated IOP and in human POAG eyes. Our data indicate that SIX6 and/or IOP promotes POAG by directly increasing p16INK4a expression, leading to RGC senescence in adult human retinas. Our study provides important insights linking genetic susceptibility to the underlying mechanism of RGC death and provides a unified theory of glaucoma pathogenesis.
We would like to thank Jijie Chai, Yifan Cheng, Yao Cong, Ning Gao, Xueming Li, Hongrong Liu, Zhenfeng Liu, Sen-Fang Sui, Fei Sun, Da-Neng Wang, Zhixin Wang, Ye Xiang, Nieng Yan, Maojun Yang, Qinfen Zhang ... Yan C et al, Science 349, 1182-91 Hang J et al, Sci- ence 349, 1191-1198 34 2015 Cypovirus 12 Hongrong Liu, Lingpeng Cheng Liu H et al, Science 349, 1347-1350 35 2015 Human dendritic cell ... Hongrong Liu ( ) of Hunan Normal University and Lingpeng Cheng ( ) of Tsinghua University collaborated to resolve this question using singleparticle cryo-EM analysis in combination with their newly developed ...doi:10.1002/pro.3018 pmid:27534377 pmcid:PMC5192968 fatcat:p4fu2tb4pnfthe3hi77rqodykq
Polyacrylic Acid Modified Multifunction Luminescent Nanorods for Tri-Modality Bioimaging, In Vivo Long-Lasting Tracking and Biodistribution Zhigao Yi, a,b Wei Lu, c Hongrong ... lu, wei; Faculty of Applied Science and Textiles The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Applied Physics Liu, Hongrong ...doi:10.1039/c4nr05161k pmid:25412698 fatcat:vxanfx2s55hoxlehloq7so3b6y
Zhonghua, Huang, Shi, & Wang (1995) melaporkan bahwa teh hijau dari klon berdaun sempit (C. sinensis var. sinensis) menunjukkan kandungan epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) dan epigallocatechin (EGC) yang ... teh memiliki aktivitas biologis, diantaranya bersifat hemolisis, toksik terhadap ikan, anti inflamasi, analgesik, antibakteri, insektisida, penghambatan penyerapan alkohol, dan lain-lain (Yizhong & Hongrong ...doi:10.21082/jtidp.v1n2.2014.p63-68 fatcat:yxtndac3evfgphgtyl64fi7g3m
., , 2019 Shi et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2017a Zhang et al., , 2017b . ... intrinsic problems, such as the complex synthesis process, photo-bleaching, and low photo-stability of organic molecular probes, which impede its further applications in bioimaging fields (He et al., 2018; Shi ...doi:10.1016/j.isci.2019.06.034 pmid:31301632 pmcid:PMC6625970 fatcat:bzubdloahfb6haupnse3tzfacu
Tang Bing and Li Hong-rong (Tang Bing, Li Hongrong, 2004 ) study subscribing for capital stock from the market perspective of warrants pricing. ... Zhan Shi-guang (Zhan Shiguang, 2005) considered the warrants pricing model with dilution effect, proportional transaction costs, ex rights and ex divided the factor, and did a sensitivity analysis of ...doi:10.5539/ijbm.v3n2p63 fatcat:3xugxifv2navjiynccoiinwlou
2021 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Smart Systems (ICAIS)
Aghila 432 76 Innovative Study on Online Ideological Education in the era of New Media, Face Recognition and Blockchain Hongrong Gao 440 77 Design of Digital Museum Narrative Space based ... Computer Network Ecological Environment and Data Mining Bo Wang 1228 208 Phenomenon of Machine Mother Tongue Culture Transfer in English under the Internet with Pattern Recognition Models Junhui Shi ...doi:10.1109/icais50930.2021.9395763 fatcat:y5filimlujfmbdfxjhgngh44r4
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