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The accessibility, quantity, and quality of water resources are the basic requirements for guaranteeing water resource security. Research into regional water resource accessibility will contribute to improving regional water resource security and effective water resource management. In this study, we used a water resource accessibility index model considering five spatial factors to evaluate the grid-scale water resource accessibility and constructed the spatial pattern of water resourcedoi:10.3390/w11081708 fatcat:z7dyi3ui3rbfzbbrtke3f4xzta
more »... bility in Southwest China. Then, we analyzed the coupling coordination degree between county-level water resource accessibility and eco-socio-economic water demand elements. The water resource accessibility showed obvious regional differences, and the overall trend gradually decreased from Southeast to Northwest. The coupling coordination degree between county-level water resource accessibility and eco-socio-economic water demand elements was between 0.26 and 0.84, and was relatively low overall, whereas the counties (districts) with high coordination, moderate coordination, low coordination, reluctant coordination, and incoordination accounted for 0.92%, 5.31%, 21.06%, 59.71%, and 13.00% of total counties (districts), respectively. Therefore, the Southwest region needs to further strengthen the construction of its agricultural irrigation facilities, protect the water resources, and coordinate the relationship between water resource management and water demand elements to comprehensively guarantee regional sustainable development.
LIN28, an RNA-binding protein, is known to be involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, such as embryonic stem cell proliferation, cell fate succession, developmental timing, and oncogenesis. However, its expression and function in central nervous system still unclear. In this study, we performed an acute spinal cord contusion injury (SCI) model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of LIN28 expression in spinal cord. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysisdoi:10.1007/s11064-014-1278-2 pmid:24700281 pmcid:PMC4000414 fatcat:2a6k5xeknvhmtnzauh64dj7qf4
more »... led that LIN28 was present in normal spinal cord. It gradually increased, reached a peak at 3 day, and then nearly declined to the basal level at 14 days after SCI. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that LIN28 immunoreactivity was found in neurons, astrocytes and a handful of microglia. Interestingly, LIN28 expression was increased predominantly in astrocytes but not in neurons. Moreover, the colocalization of LIN28 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected after injury. Western blot showed that LIN28 participated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced astrocytes inflammatory responses by NF-jB signaling pathway. These results suggested that LIN28 may be involved in the pathologic process of SCI, and further research is needed to have a good understanding of its function and mechanism.
(1) Background: Undifferentiated function for medical institutes in different levels had been a barrier to China's healthcare reform. Thus, this study aimed to detect medical services that were capable offered both in tertiary and county hospitals in China and discuss the process of detection. (2) Method: Data of 2 tertiary hospitals that were city level and 12 county-level hospitals from one city in China were collected and grouped into diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). A strategy with fourdoi:10.3390/healthcare9080922 fatcat:6yoosltnuvg4fgbj2jsegccshm
more »... s was devised by considering the aspects of service volume, in-hospital mortality rate, in-hospital adverse events rate, and inpatient cost. Additionally, a comparison of each indicator was made between city- versus county-level hospitals. (3) Results: There were no differences in service quality between the two levels of hospitals while county hospitals had lower average inpatient costs in 129 DRGs that covered 39.5% of all cases. About CNY 0.26 billion would be saved if certain cases were paid at county-level prices. (4) Conclusion: The study proposed a strategy with four steps that could help in locating the range of diseases in which patients' admission suffered from the problem of undifferentiation between hospitals' functions to reduce the irrational growth of healthcare expenditure.
In a conventional P-median model, demanding points are likely assigned to the closest supplying facilities, but this method exhibits evident limitations in real cases. Methods: This paper proposed a modified P-median model in which exact and approximate strategies are used. The first strategy aims to enumerate all of the possible combinations of P facilities, and the second strategy adopts simulated annealing to allocate resources considering capacity constraint and spatial compactnessdoi:10.1186/1476-072x-13-42 pmid:25336302 pmcid:PMC4293817 fatcat:ds2hm5fobfdglb4jjtnilfij4y
more »... t. These strategies allow us to choose optimal locations by applying visual analytics, which is rarely employed in location allocation planning. Results: This model is applied to a case study in Henan Province, China, where three optimal healthcare centers are selected from candidate cities. First, the weighting factor in spatial compactness constraint is visually evaluated to obtain a plausible spatial pattern. Second, three optimal healthcare centers, namely, Zhengzhou, Xinxiang, and Nanyang, are identified in a hybrid transportation network by performing visual analytics. Third, alternative healthcare centers are obtained in a road network and compared with the above solution to understand the impacts of transportation network types. Conclusions: The optimal healthcare centers are visually detected by employing an improved P-median model, which considers both geographic accessibility and service quality. The optimal solutions are obtained in two transportation networks, which suggest high-speed railways and highways play a significant role respectively.
This paper classifies the blastability of fractured rock mass based on the solid coefficient, rock impedance, unit explosive consumption and mean fracture spacing. Specifically, an evaluation model was established according to the principle of clustering analysis, and applied to classify the rock mass blastability of an actual project. According to the field acoustic test, the average longitudinal wave velocity of the layered rock mass is 2,667m/s, and that of the intact rock mass is 3,346m/s.doi:10.3303/cet1762079 doaj:9c67f6b1b86a4e3fb8c0ab8c43df4e8c fatcat:kpqzahqxrzab5lwgj2nr4q666m
more »... hrough the evaluation of blastability, it is concluded that the layered rock mass has a high blastability while the intact rock mass has a medium blastability. The findings lay an important theoretical basis for blasting parameters optimization and field blasting test.
Estimating the key epidemiological features of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) epidemic proves to be challenging, given incompleteness and delays in early data reporting, in particular, the severe under-reporting bias in the epicenter, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. As a result, the current literature reports widely varying estimates. We developed an alternative geo-stratified debiasing estimation framework by incorporating human mobility with case reporting data in three stratified zones,doi:10.1101/2020.02.07.20021071 fatcat:ndssh5r4uzc6to6m5l3rkcvwla
more »... , Wuhan, Hubei Province excluding Wuhan, and mainland China excluding Hubei. We estimated the latent infection ratio to be around 0.12% (18,556 people) and the basic reproduction number to be 3.24 in Wuhan before the city's lockdown on January 23, 2020. The findings based on this debiasing framework have important implications to prioritization of control and prevention efforts.
Benthic algae, especially diatoms, are commonly used to assess water quality in rivers. However, algal-based assessments are challenging at the river system scale because longitudinal variation in physical habitat conditions may obscure algal responses to changes in water quality. In the present study, we surveyed benthic diatoms and environmental variables from a mountainous Chinese river system. Hierarchical clustering, discrimination analysis, and indicator species analysis were useddoi:10.3390/w10111559 fatcat:xptcnjitnfhzpepda55i2exhy4
more »... to explore associations between distribution patterns of diatom assemblages and water quality variables. Study sites were clustered into five groups based on their diatom community composition, with sites grouped by the sampling months. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), elevation, and total nitrogen (TN) were the most important predictors for site classification. Site groups with higher elevations had higher TN concentrations; however, COD concentrations were higher in lower elevation groups. Moreover, COD concentrations significantly differed between temporally separated groups. In total, 49 indicator species were identified for individual groups, with most taxa indicating the eutrophic condition. Additionally, we found that European diatom indices are not closely associated with water quality variables. We conclude that the identification of algal patterns and their driving forces can provide valuable information to aid bioassessment at the river system scale.
In this paper, two-to-one energy and spectrum dual-cooperation (ESDC) is investigated for cognitive cooperation networks. Specifically, the energy and spectrum of two primary users (PUs) are both transferred or authorized to one multi-antenna secondary user (SU) in exchange for its aid in the signal relaying to guarantee the successful data transmission, whilst the SU, which originally owns no spectrum access privilege and limited energy storage, is also able to concurrently transmit its owndoi:10.3390/s18072085 pmid:29966232 pmcid:PMC6068929 fatcat:2qsbwdbcinc4hmea2loq6eamze
more »... a through spatial multiplexing. Moreover, network-coding is also adopted to further compress the data size and hence reduce the power consumption at SU. The formulated problem for the aforementioned two-to-one ESDC model is non-convex and intractable to solve directly. To solve the problem effectively, the Lagrangian dual methods plus fixed-point iteration methods and semidefinite relation methods are employed, and the optimal solution could be achieved through iterative optimization. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional spectrum-only cooperation, the proposed two-to-one ESDC paradigms can greatly improve the successful transmission probability for PUs and achievable transmission rate for SU. Meanwhile, the proposed two-to-one dual-cooperation modes are significantly superior to the one-to-one cooperation mode, in terms of spectrum efficiency and energy efficiency.
This study seeks to measure the efficiency disparity and productivity change of tertiary general public hospitals in Wuhan city, central China from the perspective of administrative affiliations by using panel data from 2013 to 2017. Sample hospitals were divided into three categories, namely provincial hospitals, municipal hospitals, and other levels of hospitals. Data envelopment analysis with bootstrapping technique was used to estimate efficiency scores, and a sensitive analysis wasdoi:10.3390/healthcare9040437 pmid:33917844 fatcat:h2r4ty7ftfhozl4tlyx5hbq254
more »... d by varying the specification of model by considering undesirable outputs to test robustness of estimation, and efficiency evolution analysis was carried out by using the Malmquist index. The results indicated that the average values of provincial hospitals and municipal hospitals have experienced efficiency improvement over the period, especially after the initiation of Pilot Public Hospital Reform, but hospitals under other affiliations showed an opposite trend. Meanwhile, differences of administrative subordination in technical efficiency of public hospitals emerged, and the disparity was likely to grow over time. The higher efficiency of hospitals affiliated with municipality, as compared with those governed by province and under other administrative affiliations, may be attributed to better governance and organization structure.
Salinity is an important restrictive factor for plant growth and ecosystem productivity. However, the endogenous mechanisms by which salinity constrains plant growth are not well understood. To determine the mechanism by which soil salinity suppresses plant growth under salt stress, the effect of soil salinity on hormones in the leaves of Leymus chinensis and the plant density, height and biomass were examined in Songnen meadow steppe. The plants with rhizosphere soil were collected in thedoi:10.15835/nbha.43.2.9783 fatcat:vfmq5qprnjcvfavqxzl4brn5y4
more »... ng season (May, June, July, September, October) from the field at different salt levels. The shoot density, height and biomass accumulation of L. chinensis highly decreased with the increase in the soil salinity. Salinity significantly reduced the synthesis of the hormones gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA), but it increased the concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Significant negative correlations between the soil electrical conductivity and plant leaf hormones (GA3, r = -0.853, P < 0.05; IAA r = -0.971; P<0.01) related to plant growth and positive correlation with ABA (r = 0.931, P<0.01) were observed. Significant positive correlations between the plant hormones related to plant growth (GA3 and IAA) were observed, but negative correlations were found between ABA and plant density (r = -0.872, P<0.05) and height (r = -0.833, P<0.05). The results suggest that soil salinity might restrict plant growth and biomass accumulation by reducing the synthesis of GA3 and IAA and increasing the synthesis of ABA under salt stress.
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used in China and some other countries for the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). However, controlled studies supporting the efficacy of such treatments in patients with FD are lacking. In this trial, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of modified LiuJunZi decoction in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome. Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with patients fromdoi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-54 pmid:23453018 pmcid:PMC3599864 fatcat:y2niearm3fb6jgqtckunldcyga
more »... centers. Patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome (n = 160) were randomly assigned to groups given CHM modified LiuJunZi decoction or placebo in a 2:1 ratio. Herbal or placebo granules were dissolved in 300 ml of boiled water cooled to 70°C. Patients in both groups were administered 150 ml (50°C) twice daily. The trial included a 4-week treatment period and a 4-week follow-up period. The primary outcomes were dyspepsia symptom scores, measured by the total dyspepsia symptom scale and the single dyspepsia symptom scale at weeks 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8. The secondary outcome was the change of radiopaque barium markers emptied from the stomach between week 0 and week 4 of treatment. Results: Compared with patients in the placebo group, patients in the CHM group showed significant improvements according to the scores of total dyspepsia symptoms and single dyspepsia symptoms obtained from patients (P < 0.01) and investigators (P < 0.01). They also showed an improvement in the number of radiopaque barium markers emptied from the stomach (P < 0.05). Conclusions: CHM modified LiuJunZi decoction appears to offer symptomatic improvement in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-TRC-10001074
District- and county-level maternal and child health hospitals (MCHHs) are positioned to provide primary maternal and child healthcare in rural and urban areas of China. Their efficiencies and productivity largely affect the equity and accessibility of maternal and child health care. This study aimed to assess the efficiency of district- and county-level MCHHs in China and identify their associated factors. Thirty-three district- and 84 county-level MCHHs were selected from Shanxi Province indoi:10.1186/s12913-020-5032-y pmid:32143651 fatcat:fmf2k3ugebb2nlsculmwfmjtku
more »... 17. At the first stage, bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) models were established to calculate the technical efficiency (TE), pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE) of district- and county-level hospitals. At the second stage, the estimated efficiency scores were regressed against external and internal hospital environmental factors by using bootstrap truncated regression to identify their determinants. The average TE, PTE and SE scores for district-level MCHHs were 0.7433, 0.8633 and 0.9335, respectively. All hospitals were found to be weakly efficient, although more than 50% of the hospitals performed with efficient SE (SE scores≥100%). As for county-level MCHHs, their average TE, PTE and SE scores were 0.5483, 0.6081 and 0.9329, respectively. The hospitals with TE and PTE scores less than 0.7 accounted for more than 60%, and no hospital was observed to operate effectively. Truncated regressions suggested that the proportion of health professionals, including doctors, nurses, pharmacists, inspection technician and image technician (district level: β = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.30-0.85; county level: β = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.15-0.52), and the number of health workers who received job training (district level: β = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.26-1.08; county level: β = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.14-0.54) had a positive association with efficiency scores. The amount of financial subsidy (β = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.05-0.09) was found to be directly proportional to the productive efficiency of the county-level MCHHs. The operational inefficiency of district- and county-level MCHHs in Shanxi Province is severe and needs to be substantially improved, especially in terms of TE and PTE. Hiring additional medical personnel and ensuring the stability of the workforce should be prioritised. The Chinese government must provide sufficient financial subsidy to compensate for service costs.
BLU is a candidate tumor suppressor gene, which is epigenetically inactivated in many human malignancies. However, the expression and biological functions of BLU in gastric cancer has not yet been reported. In the present study, we identified a functional BLU promoter which was regulated by the transcription activator Sp1. Bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR assays indicated that the silence of BLU expression in gastric cancer was significantly associated with DNA hypermethylation of BLU promoterdoi:10.3892/ijo.2015.3032 pmid:26043875 fatcat:ck27pd7bhvggvcw533zkgv4exm
more »... ncluding -39 CpG site located in the Sp1 transcription element. The expression of BLU was notably restored in AGS and SGC7901 cells following the demethylation-treatment with 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Moreover, the results from ChIP, EMSA and luciferase reporter gene showed that -39 CpG methylation could prevent Sp1 from binding to the promoter of BLU and decreased transcription activity of the BLU gene by ~70%. In addition, knockdown of BLU significantly promoted cellular proliferation and colony formation in gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, we identified a novel functional BLU promoter and proved that BLU promoter activity was regulated by Sp1. Furthermore, we found that hypermethylated -39 CpG in BLU proximal promoter directly reduced its binding with Sp1, which may be one of the mechanisms accounting for the inactivation of BLU in gastric cancer.
The built environment is the global sector with the greatest energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, building energy savings can make a major contribution to tackling the current energy and climate change crises. Fluid dynamics models have long supported the understanding and optimization of building energy systems and have been responsible for many important technological breakthroughs. As Covid-19 is continuing to spread around the world, fluid dynamics models are proving to bedoi:10.3390/en14175384 fatcat:3myquw5p4ncupmwgglempbgs24
more »... ore essential than ever for exploring airborne transmission of the coronavirus indoors in order to develop energy-efficient and healthy ventilation actions against Covid-19 risks. The purpose of this paper is to review the most important and influential fluid dynamics models that have contributed to improving building energy efficiency. A detailed, yet understandable description of each model's background, physical setup, and equations is provided. The main ingredients, theoretical interpretations, assumptions, application ranges, and robustness of the models are discussed. Models are reviewed with comprehensive, although not exhaustive, publications in the literature. The review concludes by outlining open questions and future perspectives of simulation models in building energy research.
Golgi Protein 73 (GP73) is a serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) , however its role in HCC is not clear. We report that GP73 promotes cell invasion, the hallmark of malignancy, through the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). GP73 enhances MMP-13 expression through cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription activation. Levels of GP73 and MMP-13 are increased and positively correlated in human HCC tissues. Augmented MMP-13 potentiatesdoi:10.18632/oncotarget.5590 pmid:26378022 pmcid:PMC4741783 fatcat:7xiv5ogqybdybkhxhewdpqirta
more »... cell metastasis. Thus, the GP73-CREB-MMP-13 axis potentiates cancer cell invasion and may be a target for HCC treatment. www.impactjournals.com/oncotarget primer sequences are listed in Table 2 . All data presented are the results of at least 3 independent ChIP experiments and triplicate qRT-PCR reactions. The ChIP levels for each region are presented as the percentage of input chromatin. Human liver cancer analysis Hepatocellular carcinoma samples were freshly obtained from the patients undergoing surgery at State
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