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Rabies virus (RABV) infection continues to be a global threat to human and animal health, yet no curative therapy has been developed. RNA interference (RNAi) therapy, which silences expression of specific target genes, represents a promising approach for treating viral infections in mammalian hosts. We designed six small interfering (si)RNAs (N473, N580, N783, N796, N799 and N1227) that target the conserved region of the RABV challenge virus standard (CVS)-11 strain nucleoprotein (N) gene.doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2012.07.024 pmid:22884777 pmcid:PMC7114411 fatcat:nseongc3nfbcref2c5zvce5j3q
more »... a plasmid-based transient expression model, we demonstrated that N796, N580 and N799 were capable of significantly inhibiting viral replication in vitro and in vivo. These three siRNAs effectively suppressed RABV expression in infected baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells, as evidenced by direct immunofluorescence assay, viral titer measurements, real-time PCR, and Western blotting. In addition, liposome-mediated siRNA expression plasmid delivery to RABV-infected mice significantly increased survival, compared to a non-liposome-mediated delivery method. Collectively, our results showed that the three siRNAs, N796, N580 and N799, targeting the N gene could potently inhibit RABV CVS-11 reproduction. These siRNAs have the potential to be developed into new and effective prophylactic anti-RABV drugs.
We present a global algorithm for training multilayer neural networks in this Letter. The algorithm is focused on controlling the local fields of neurons induced by the input of samples by random adaptations of the synaptic weights. Unlike the backpropagation algorithm, the networks may have discrete-state weights, and may apply either differentiable or nondifferentiable neural transfer functions. A two-layer network is trained as an example to separate a linearly inseparable set of samplesarXiv:physics/0607046v1 fatcat:6fh2zdb4h5gw3j6y4djttah6xy
more »... two categories, and its powerful generalization capacity is emphasized. The extension to more general cases is straightforward.
Radiographic guided percutaneous gastrostomy has become a safe and effective enteral nutrition method for patients who can not eat by mouth. Fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT have been routinely used clinically. The aim of this study was to compare the advantages and disadvantages of percutaneous gastrostomy using different radiographic guided methods. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 538 patients undergoing percutaneous gastrostomy in ourdoi:10.18528/ijgii210007 fatcat:i7ifigw45vdmpocjkx7l4swvsa
more »... . According to the image guidance method used in gastrostomy, the patients were divided into groups A by fluoroscopy guidance, group B by fluoroscopy combined with C-arm CT guidance, and group C with the whole process CT guidance. The gastrostomy success rate, complication rate, procedure time, and patient radiation dose were analyzed in the three groups. Results: Among 538 patients, 534 were successful and the success rates are 94.3%, 99.3%, and 100% in group A, B, and C, respectively (P > 0.05). There were 3 cases occurred postoperative bleeding as serious adverse events and transferred to surgical gastrostomy. The minor complications include local infection, hyperplasia of granulation tissue, tube obstruction or prolapse, and local pain of the ostomy. The minor complication rates were 10.5%, 10.4%, and 7.7% in group A, B, and C, respectively (P > 0.05). The average procedure time was 25.57 ± 5.99 minutes, 29.01 ± 6.63 minutes, and 45.47 ± 8.98 minutes, respectively (χ 2 = 87.98, P < 0.001). The average radiation dosage was 27.30 ± 19.27 mGy, 145.07 ± 106.08 mGy, and 2,590.26 ± 1,088.22 mGy, respectively (χ 2 = 204.44, P < 0.001). Conclusion: There were no significant differences in the success rates and complication rates of gastrostomy under the three guiding methods. For difficult cases, CT-guided gastrostomy may be a very useful supplemental method.
In this note, we first prove that the solution of mean curvature flow on a finite time interval [0,T) can be extended over time T if the space-time integration of the norm of the second fundamental form is finite. Secondly, we prove that the solution of certain mean curvature flow on a finite time interval [0,T) can be extended over time T if the space-time integration of the mean curvature is finite. Moreover, we show that these conditions are optimal in some sense.arXiv:0905.1167v1 fatcat:ufcnnqsp2rdozc26d46kpnisca
In this paper, inspired by the idea that many real networks are composed by different sorts of communities, we investigate the synchronization property of oscillators on such networks. We identify the communities by the intrinsic frequencies probability density g(ω) of Kuramoto oscillators. That is to say, communities in different sorts are functional different. For a network containing two sorts of communities, when the community strength is strong, only the oscillators in the same communityarXiv:0711.0530v1 fatcat:dlyp5smj2nei3pqgn37eupdvny
more »... nchronize. With the weakening of the community strength, an interesting phenomenon, Community Grouping, appears: although the global synchronization is not achieved, oscillators in the same sort of communities will synchronize. Global synchronization will appear with the further reducing of the community strength, and the oscillators will rotate around the average frequency.
China adopted a Flexnerian model as its medical institutions developed over the recent past but the political, social, and economic environment has changed significantly since then. This has generated the need for educational reform, which in other countries, has largely been driven by competencies-oriented models such as those developed in Canada, and the United States. Our study sought to establish the competencies model, relevant to China, which will support educational reform efforts.doi:10.1186/s12909-015-0495-y pmid:26601693 pmcid:PMC4659240 fatcat:knhwxtkxdbgztmdxn6q3jsioyu
more »... s: Data was collected using a cross-sectional survey of 1776 doctors from seven provinces in China. The surveys were translated and adapted from the Occupational Information Network General Work Activity questionnaire (O*NET-GWA) and Work Style questionnaire (O*NET-WS) developed under the auspices of the US Department of Labor. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis ascertained the latent dimensions of the questionnaires, as well as the factor structures of the competencies model for the Chinese doctors. Results: In exploratory factor analysis, the questionnaires were able to account for 64.25 % of total variance. All responses had high internal consistency and reliability. In confirmatory factor analysis, the loadings of six constructs were between 0.53~0.89 and were significant, Construct reliability (CR) were between 0.79~0.93 respectively. The results showed good convergent validity. The resultant models fit the data well (GFI was 0.92, RMSEA was 0.07) and the six-factor competencies framework for Chinese doctors emerged. Conclusions: The Chinese doctors' competencies framework includes six elements: (a) technical procedural skills; (b) diagnosis and management; (c) teamwork and administration; (d) communication; (e) professional behavior; and (f) professional values. These findings are relevant to China, consistent with its current situation, and similar to those developed in other countries.
Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a very rare tumor derived from plasma cells and found outside the bone marrow. Most have been identified in patients with the more aggressive anaplastic form of the disease. Only a few cases of primary pancreatic plasmacytoma have been reported. Case presentation: We present a case of a 56-year-old man in whom a pancreatic mass was found incidentally. The lesion was determined to be a pancreatic plasmacytoma after distal pancreatectomy. There are no indications ofdoi:10.1186/s12876-017-0729-z pmid:29262780 pmcid:PMC5738755 fatcat:hjdadgny2rci5oksghvxhxucqq
more »... clinical, laboratory or imaging findings of multiple myeloma nor any association with plasmacytoma in any other places, so the diagnosis of primary pancreatic plasmacytoma was made. Conclusion: Primary pancreatic plasmacytoma is rare and the diagnosis is difficult before surgery.
BMC Oral Health
Gingivitis is a common oral health problem, and untreated gingivitis can progress to periodontitis. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore associated factors of gingival bleeding and calculus among 12-year-old adolescents; (2) find predictive models for gingivitis management. Four thousand five hundred twenty-five subjects aged 12 in Sichuan Province were investigated. The questionnaire and clinical examination were applied in schools, and two-level logistic regression models weredoi:10.1186/s12903-020-01125-3 pmid:32429918 fatcat:kggb6sjfpnesjiwu27njhlxgtm
more »... tructed to interpret the effect of individual and contextual factors on Chinese adolescents' gingival bleeding and calculus. 46.63% (95%CI: 40.71, 51.60) and 66.94% (95%CI: 56.85, 67.45) of the subjects presented gingival bleeding and calculus, respectively. For the gingival bleeding cases, the model showed the significant associated indicators were hukou (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.52-0.72), family size (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.19-1.68), parental educational level (father: OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.45-0.63; mother: OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59-0.86), tooth-brushing frequency (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.26-0.48), dental floss use (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.41-0.83), sugar-containing drink consumption (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.80-2.49), and dental visit (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.19-1.74). It also confirmed that gender (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13-1.54), hukou (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.59-0.82), family size (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.12-1.59), parental educational level (father: OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.39-0.54; mother: OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.59-0.82), tooth-brushing frequency (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.42-0.78), dental floss use (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.90) and sugar-containing drink consumption (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11-1.53) were associated factors for dental calculus. Gingival bleeding and calculus were common in western Chinese adolescents. Socio-demographic factors including gender, hukou and family factors are strong determinants of gingival health in Chinese adolescents. In addition, health-related lifestyle behaviors such as healthy diet, good hygiene care and more dental visits are good predictors of better gingival status.
Since the conception of enhanced recovery after surgery protocols, tubeless strategies have become popular. Herein, we introduce a previously unreported alternative air-extraction strategy for patients who have undergone thoracoscopic wedge resection and explore its feasibility and safety.doi:10.1111/1759-7714.12850 pmid:30187689 pmcid:PMC6209782 fatcat:67d2uwwvk5g5rftvlfiitf64ay
To improve the performance of optoelectronic devices, a high performance wide angle SiO 2 /Ti 3 O 5 Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) mirror was designed and fabricated on double polished sapphire substrate. 17-pairs gradually varied DBR structure was applied in order to acquire a broad stopband reflectivity over 95% from 400 nm to 800 nm, covering the whole visible light region. The DBR mirrors deposited at the backside of optoelectronics devices are also demonstrated to remain a highdoi:10.1109/jphot.2021.3050761 fatcat:lspkqulktnhnrjn7ynepm5nb7q
more »... ity at wide incident angles, which improves the emission efficiency of LEDs and light absorption efficiency of InGaN/GaN photoelectrochemical cell (PEC).
Cell death can be classified into two categories: apoptosis and necrosis. Apoptotic pathway can be either caspase-dependent or caspase-independent. Caspase-independent cytopathic effect (CPE) has been described. In order to evaluate the pattern of HeLa cell death induced by Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and whether apoptosis involves caspase activation, we co-cultivated HeLa cells with CVB3 and detected the cytopathic changes, the alteration of mRNA and protein expression of caspase-3 gene plusdoi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290165 pmid:12862321 fatcat:r6nwy6wbxfef5htjakudhfsegy
more »... se-3 activity, as well as analyzing DNA fragmentation before and after caspase-3 activity inhibition. According to the results, we propose that CVB3 may induce apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells, the latter appearing much earlier. Caspase-3 is activated at the levels of both transcription and translation, and procaspase-3 is proteolytically cleaved, thus leading to the continuous increasing of both caspase-3 precursor protein and its subunit. However, besides CPE, apoptosis induced by CVB3 is not a direct consequence of the activation of caspase-3, or caspase-3 is not the only effector molecule in apoptotic cell death, for caspase-3 inhibitor can not decrease DNA fragmentation. Some other biochemical mechanisms may participate in the process, whose role weakens the effect of inhibiting caspase-3 activity.
Acknowledgment Tao Yang and Mingjun Wei gratefully acknowledge the support from Army Research Laboratory through Army High Performance Computing Research Center. ... The implementation of control cells has not degraded the original accuracy of Zhao et al.'s  FSI algorithm. ... The projection/interpolation between the meshes as well as other algorithm details are referred to Zhao et al.'s original work  . B. ...doi:10.2514/1.j050492 fatcat:gjjbh4c7knabbouhr6hooioesm
Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showeddoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100264 pmid:24949637 pmcid:PMC4064985 fatcat:nk5a6p2mkvaqvdwsoeepzi3dse
more »... Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.
A novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain with 393 nucleotide deletions in the nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) region was examined in this study. Results will help improve our understanding of the epidemiology and genetic diversity of the North American-type PRRSV in China.doi:10.1128/genomea.00702-15 pmid:26159524 pmcid:PMC4498110 fatcat:4aogbsie4ffdjlydxjxkvl2g3u
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