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FPGA Security: Motivations, Features, and Applications

Stephen M. Trimberger, Jason J. Moore
2014 Proceedings of the IEEE  
Motivated by specific threats, this paper describes FPGA security primitives from multiple FPGA vendors and gives examples of those primitives in use in applications.  ...  | Since their inception, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have grown in capacity and complexity so that now FPGAs include millions of gates of logic, megabytes of memory, high-speed transceivers,  ...  : Much like key loading, the device key can be stored in plaintext, ciphertext, or obfuscated form. Xilinx stores 7-series keys in plaintext form.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jproc.2014.2331672 fatcat:qtwk2gqhzjfqjfjqvpptalop6m

Interdiction in practice—Hardware Trojan against a high-security USB flash drive

Pawel Swierczynski, Marc Fyrbiak, Philipp Koppe, Amir Moradi, Christof Paar
2016 Journal of Cryptographic Engineering  
SRAM-based FPGA.  ...  The FPGA bitstream manipulation alters the exploited AES-256 algorithm in a way that it turns into a linear function which can be broken with 32 known plaintext-ciphertext pairs.  ...  Future work must deal with counterfeiting bitstream modification attacks by developing appropriate countermeasures that have to be implemented within an FPGA design.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s13389-016-0132-7 fatcat:fsqgbnddj5a43mcnlboiudej4q

How Not to Protect Your IP – An Industry-Wide Break of IEEE 1735 Implementations [article]

Julian Speith, Florian Schweins, Maik Ender, Marc Fyrbiak, Alexander May, Christof Paar
2021 arXiv   pre-print
As part of this analysis, we are the first to publicly disclose three RSA-based white-box schemes that are used in real-world products and present cryptanalytical attacks for all of them, finally resulting  ...  in key recovery.  ...  “Unboxing the White-Box: Practical attacks against [34] Intel. Introduction to Intel® FPGA IP Cores. Ver- Obfuscated Ciphers”.  ... 
arXiv:2112.04838v1 fatcat:kr5extcefvgrtdgarejgkcix5u

Ten years of hardware Trojans: a survey from the attacker's perspective

Mingfu Xue, Chongyan Gu, Weiqiang Liu, Shichao Yu, Máire O'Neill
2020 IET Computers & Digital Techniques  
programmable gate array (FPGA) Trojan attacks.  ...  In this paper, we attempt to make a review of the hardware Trojan design and implementations in the last decade and also provide an outlook.  ...  Similar to ASICs, obfuscation can also be used to protect FPGA designs. Hoque et al. (127) propose an obfuscation based approach against bitstream modification attacks on FPGAs.  ... 
doi:10.1049/iet-cdt.2020.0041 fatcat:7ugjmpblfjdippalfhovzmgaky

Two Sides of the Same Coin: Boons and Banes of Machine Learning in Hardware Security

Wenye Liu, Chip-Hong Chang, Xueyang Wang, Chen Liu, Jason Fung, Mohammad Ebrahimabadi, Naghmeh Karimi, Xingyu Meng, Kanad Basu
2021 IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems  
On the other hand, ML-based approaches have also been adopted by adversaries to assist side-channel attacks, reverse engineer integrated circuits and break hardware security primitives like Physically  ...  The inability to fully understand and explain what has been done within the super-intelligence can turn an inherently benevolent system into malevolent.  ...  These countermeasures are resilient against CRP-based modeling attacks but may be tackled via power side-channel based modeling attacks [112] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/jetcas.2021.3084400 fatcat:c4wdkghpo5fwbhvkekaysnahzm

HWGN2: Side-channel Protected Neural Networks through Secure and Private Function Evaluation [article]

Mohammad Hashemi, Steffi Roy, Domenic Forte, Fatemeh Ganji
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Therefore, as expected, the same challenges posed by the complex design of such countermeasures should be dealt with.  ...  To examine this and weigh the costs and benefits, we introduce hardware garbled NN (HWGN2), a DL hardware accelerator implemented on FPGA.  ...  Their implementation is a combination of tamper-resistant hardware with Yao's garbling scheme [70] , which comes with an overhead of about factor 10 6 × compared to an unprotected AES embedded in an FPGA  ... 
arXiv:2208.03806v1 fatcat:54fbtaadkzetnazpg572mscpkq

Trusted SoC Realization for Remote Dynamic IP Integration

Nadir Muhammad Khan
2021
Außerdem handelt es sich bei den Entwicklern von FPGA-Systemen in der Regel um kleine bis mittlere Unternehmen, die in Bezug auf die Markteinführungszeit und die Kosten pro Einheit von einem solchen Lizenzierungsmodell  ...  Heutzutage bieten field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) enorme Rechenleistung und Flexibilität.  ...  This serves as a countermeasure against location-based SCAs such as EM attacks.  ... 
doi:10.5445/ir/1000140875 fatcat:iti34xew4ndpnb6cxhtadoljzq

Hardware-Entangled Inherently Secure Field Programmable Gate Arrays

Burak Erbagci
2018
exploited by an attacker to bypass the security o [...]  ...  However, thesesecurity measures can be circumvented in a number of ways, which includes direct probing the key storage, side-channel attacks on the bitstream decryption logic, andattacks on the test and  ...  Although the actual design content is hidden until programming, the bitstream is required to configure an FPGA and needs to be protected against reverse-engineering.  ... 
doi:10.1184/r1/7217972.v1 fatcat:vym5ghm7wvewzidpxj7fnnfbr4

On the physical security of physically unclonable functions [article]

Shahin Tajik, Technische Universität Berlin, Technische Universität Berlin, Jean-Pierre Seifert
2017
Although different countermeasures against physical attacks have been integrated into the modern reconfigurable hardware, a proper protection mechanism on these platforms against semi-invasive attacks  ...  We further discuss the cost and feasibility of launching such attacks against the very latest hardware technologies in a real scenario.  ...  Transferring bitstreams in plaintext can divulge the designs and IPs to an adversary. As a result, bitstreams have to be kept confidential.  ... 
doi:10.14279/depositonce-6175 fatcat:k7hzpko6e5fy7fgv5vwvzurztm

Laser-based attacks on secure integrated circuits

Heiko Lohrke, Technische Universität Berlin, Technische Universität Berlin, Christian Boit
2019
To defend against attackers, knowledge about their approach is helpful.  ...  The lack of backside protection is identified as a key factor in all attacks.  ...  Plaintext Data Extraction Concept This section will describe how an attacker would most likely proceed to analyze an unknown decryption ASIC in an FPGA and find the locations from which the plaintext can  ... 
doi:10.14279/depositonce-9239 fatcat:jvn4wqui45eurbdeowju3wmvei

Security Analysis of PUF-based Key Generation and Entity Authentication

Jeroen Delvaux
2017 Zenodo  
Numerous newly revealed flaws and attacks are presented throughout this thesis. On the bright side, the lessons learned can help improve the quality of future PUF-based systems.  ...  Although manufacturing variability is usually undesired, the associated ability to uniquely identify a physical object, which is constrained to an integrated circuit (IC) in this thesis, can be leveraged  ...  It is stated that the server retains an old identifier i −1,v , but no further details are provided. We filled in the blanks to the best of our insights and exclude this part from cryptanalysis.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.2643392 fatcat:2pcr7p76qjbtnh36fuxsdk7enq

Hardware entangled security primitives: attacks and defenses

Shaza Zeitouni
2022
This thesis consists of two parts: i) an offensive part, where we present our findings based on attacks we conducted on hardware-based security primitives that can be deployed in trust anchors for platform  ...  Hardware-assisted security aims at protecting computing systems against software-based attacks that can affect the different software layers.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author thank Ünal Kocabaş for preparing the lab experiments in the first phase of this work. Acknowledgments.  ... 
doi:10.26083/tuprints-00021552 fatcat:o4ipw2tpabdyjjmw54n4o3w32e

Security and Privacy for IoT Ecosystems

Jiska Classen
2020
Smart devices have become an integral part of our everyday life. In contrast to smartphones and laptops, Internet of Things (IoT) devices are typically managed by the vendor.  ...  Ensuring that an IoT device does not leak private data is imperative. This thesis analyzes security practices in popular IoT ecosystems across several price segments.  ...  Since the Bluetooth 5 specification did not consider countermeasures against this attack mandatory, vulnerable implementations are widespread.  ... 
doi:10.25534/tuprints-00011422 fatcat:ojdb2v2cvzgvxctghz2kw6kyk4