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Heterogeneous-race-free memory models

Derek R. Hower, Blake A. Hechtman, Bradford M. Beckmann, Benedict R. Gaster, Mark D. Hill, Steven K. Reinhardt, David A. Wood
2014 Proceedings of the 19th international conference on Architectural support for programming languages and operating systems - ASPLOS '14  
In this paper, we embrace scoped synchronization with a new class of memory consistency models that add scoped synchronization to data-race-free models like those of C++ and Java.  ...  Called sequential consistency for heterogeneousrace-free (SC for HRF), the new models guarantee SC for programs with "sufficient" synchronization (no data races) of "sufficient" scope.  ...  Program and Model Definitions Heterogeneous-Race-Free Program: A program is heterogeneous-race-free iff all possible sequentially consistent executions of the program are heterogeneous-race-free.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2541940.2541981 dblp:conf/asplos/HowerHBGHRW14 fatcat:iehbe3fbrff33erb6qfxclgi5i

Efficient GPU synchronization without scopes

Matthew D. Sinclair, Johnathan Alsop, Sarita V. Adve
2015 Proceedings of the 48th International Symposium on Microarchitecture - MICRO-48  
+ efficient coherence Heterogeneous-race-free (HRF) Scoped synchronization Complex No overhead for local synchs Efficient for local synch Data-race-free (DRF) Simple High overhead on synchs Inefficient  ...  complex consistency models Motivation (Cont.)  ...  HRF [ASPLOS '14] global and their scopes Global heterogeneous DeNovo Coherence with DRF • With data-race-free (DRF) memory model -No data races; synchs must be explicitly distinguished  ... 
doi:10.1145/2830772.2830821 dblp:conf/micro/SinclairAA15 fatcat:kn5odczfwnai5aid55feys3e5u


Benedict R. Gaster, Derek Hower, Lee Howes
2015 ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO)  
Hower et al. proposed a class of Heterogeneous-Race-Free (HRF) memory models that provide a foundation for understanding many of the issues in heterogeneous memory models.  ...  Toward that end, popular programming languages like Java, C, and C++ have adopted memory models built on the conceptual foundation of Sequential Consistency for Data-Race-Free programs (SC for DRF).  ...  We thank Hans Boehm and Sarita Adve for donating their expertise on the C++11 memory model, which led to numerous suggestions for improvement.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2701618 fatcat:t6fqf7bmwzf6hhra25du6ypm6q

Automatic Analysis of Scratch-Pad Memory Code for Heterogeneous Multicore Processors [chapter]

Alastair F. Donaldson, Daniel Kroening, Philipp Rümmer
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We present a method for DMA race analysis which automatically instruments the program with assertions modelling the semantics of a memory flow controller.  ...  To our knowledge, this marks both the first application of k-induction to software verification, and the first example of software model checking for heterogeneous multicore processors.  ...  We say there is a DMA race when some pair of pending DMA operations is not race free.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-12002-2_24 fatcat:47u6vokfzrbexjxhn6gmi2h2ti

Automatic analysis of DMA races using model checking and k-induction

Alastair F. Donaldson, Daniel Kroening, Philipp Rümmer
2011 Formal methods in system design  
We present a method for DMA race analysis in C programs. Our method works by automatically instrumenting a program with assertions modeling the semantics of a memory flow controller.  ...  The instrumented program can then be analyzed using state-of-the-art software model checkers. We show that bounded model checking is effective for detecting DMA races in buggy programs.  ...  None of these race detection techniques are applicable to software for heterogeneous multicore processors with multiple memory spaces.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10703-011-0124-2 fatcat:piff47etw5gi5i3drlouwsvu3e

Embedding Semantics of the Single-Producer/Single-Consumer Lock-Free Queue into a Race Detection Tool

Manuel F. Dolz, David del Rio Astorga, Javier Fernández, J. Daniel García, Félix García-Carballeira, Marco Danelutto, Massimo Torquati
2016 Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Programming Models and Applications for Multicores and Manycores - PMAM'16  
However, ensuring an appropriate use of their interfaces can be challenging, since different memory models plus instruction reordering at compiler/processor levels may influence the occurrence of data  ...  The benefits of race detectors are formidable in this sense, nevertheless if lock-free data structures with no high-level atomics are used, they may emit false positives.  ...  Assuming a machine supporting the TSO memory model, both examples would have reported data races in instructions that read and write simultaneously from the same memory address.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2883404.2883406 dblp:conf/ppopp/DolzAFGCDT16 fatcat:tgkthe7ha5fbpiwccqetfstbze

Shared Memory in the Many-Core Age [chapter]

Stefan Nürnberger, Gabor Drescher, Randolf Rotta, Jörg Nolte, Wolfgang Schröder-Preikschat
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
These elementary operations will help in exploring and evaluating new memory models and consistency protocols.  ...  With the evolution toward fast networks of many-core processors, the design assumptions at the basis of software-level distributed shared memory (DSM) systems change considerably.  ...  Providing a guatanteed consistency model for data-race-free programs is possible in a compiler-agnostic way.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-14313-2_30 fatcat:ah6h3rubebh4zj52w4wfnhaz2m

Factors Predicting Detrimental Change in Declarative Memory Among Women With HIV: A Study of Heterogeneity in Cognition

Kathryn C. Fitzgerald, Pauline M. Maki, Yanxun Xu, Wei Jin, Raha Dastgheyb, Dionna W. Williams, Gayle Springer, Kathryn Anastos, Deborah Gustafson, Amanda B. Spence, Adaora A. Adimora, Drenna Waldrop (+4 others)
2020 Frontiers in Psychology  
We identified clinically meaningful subgroups of women with distinct phenotypes of declarative memory decline, which depend on race and HIV-serostatus using a data driven approach.  ...  Race stratification was necessary to optimize clustering.  ...  Our modeling approach allows us to simultaneously assess multiple declarative memory test measures and permits potential individual-level heterogeneity in decline over time.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.548521 pmid:33178064 pmcid:PMC7594511 fatcat:y7vkgjdy6bdq7hfgeuhlrgtfqq

Are adverse childhood experiences associated with late-life cognitive performance across racial/ethnic groups: results from the Kaiser Healthy Aging and Diverse Life Experiences study baseline

Audra L Gold, Erika Meza, Sarah F Ackley, Dan M Mungas, Rachel A Whitmer, Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, Sunita Miles, Chloe W Eng, Paola Gilsanz, M Maria Glymour
2021 BMJ Open  
investigated whether ACE exposures were associated with worse late-life cognition for all racial/ethnic groups and at different ages of exposure.DesignCovariate-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models  ...  Pooling across all race/ethnicities, parent's remarriage (β=−0.11; 95% CI −0.20 to −0.03), mother's death (β=−0.18; 95% CI −0.30 to −0.07) and father's death (β=−0.11; 95% CI −0.20 to −0.01) were associated  ...  for the full sample and in models stratified by race/ethnicity.  ... 
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042125 pmid:33550246 pmcid:PMC7925876 fatcat:wecpnjllifddveoikzh43vwa4y

Building Heterogeneous Unified Virtual Memories (UVMs) without the Overhead

Konstantinos Koukos, Alberto Ros, Erik Hagersten, Stefanos Kaxiras
2016 ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO)  
Such mechanisms introduce severe bottlenecks in the system; therefore, we adopt the heterogeneous-race-free (HRF) memory model.  ...  This work proposes a novel scheme to facilitate heterogeneous systems with unified virtual memory.  ...  For that we adopt the heterogeneous-race-free (HRF) consistency model .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2889488 fatcat:cx5535ifhfgnxe3yocrc6h77sq

Concurrent Computing in the Many-core Era (Dagstuhl Seminar 15021)

Michael Philippsen, Pascal Felber, Michael L. Scott, J. Eliot B. Moss, Marc Herbstritt
2015 Dagstuhl Reports  
and potential uses of emerging hardware support for synchronization extensions, and (3) considering the increasing complexity resulting from the explosion in heterogeneity.  ...  The current seminar built on the previous seminars by notably (1) broadening the scope to concurrency beyond transactional memory and shared-memory multicores abstractions, (2) focusing on the new challenges  ...  s x86 TSO model); mutators are not data race free; model is fairly realistic; and formulating model and invariants in a manner friendly to systems people.  ... 
doi:10.4230/dagrep.5.1.1 dblp:journals/dagstuhl-reports/PhilippsenFSM15 fatcat:owcmta65hzb5vmglwq3dwzbehy

Association of Dual Decline in Memory and Gait Speed With Risk for Dementia Among Adults Older Than 60 Years

Qu Tian, Susan M. Resnick, Michelle M. Mielke, Kristine Yaffe, Lenore J. Launer, Palmi V. Jonsson, Giulia Grande, Anna-Karin Welmer, Erika J. Laukka, Stefania Bandinelli, Antonio Cherubini, Caterina Rosano (+4 others)
2020 JAMA Network Open  
Participants were 60 years or older, had an initial gait speed of more than 0.6 m/s (ie, free of overt dismobility), with repeated measures of memory and gait speed before dementia diagnosis during a mean  ...  Risk of incident dementia according to group membership was examined by Cox proportional hazards regression with usual agers as the reference, adjusted for baseline age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational  ...  level, race/ethnicity, and study site.  ... 
doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.21636 pmid:32083691 pmcid:PMC7043189 fatcat:cdhutfyqbzgojdzly4ehocbdae

ACC_TEST: Hybrid Testing Approach for OpenACC Based Programs

Fathy E. Eassa, Ahmed M. Alghamdi, Seif Haridi, Maher A. Khemakhem, Abdullah S. Al-Ghamdi, Eesa A. Alsolmai
2020 IEEE Access  
There are many tools and studies that have investigated several programming models for identifying and detecting related errors.  ...  Testing parallel programs is a difficult task, made even harder if using programming models, especially if they have been badly programmed.  ...  memory deallocation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2991009 fatcat:cfb3qehqenazpicqfljmwafuju

Immune microenvironment of triple-negative breast cancer in African-American and Caucasian women

Tess O'Meara, Anton Safonov, David Casadevall, Tao Qing, Andrea Silber, Brigid Killelea, Christos Hatzis, Lajos Pusztai
2019 Breast Cancer Research and Treatment  
We observed no consistent racial differences in immune gene expression or TIL counts in TNBC by race.  ...  TNBC) are less likely to achieve pathologic complete response from neoadjuvant chemotherapy and have poorer prognosis than Caucasian patients with TNBC, suggesting potential biological differences by race  ...  The CD4 þ central memory T-cell (Tcm) enrichment score was significantly associated with RFS in model B (pooled HR 1.52; 95% CI, 1.17-1.97; FDR ¼ 0.035). Similar HR was yielded in model C.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10549-019-05156-5 pmid:30725384 pmcid:PMC6666415 fatcat:ykhh7wqhjzbm3pwvecgip2wsgm

A Study of Memory Anomalies in OpenMP Applications [chapter]

Lechen Yu, Joachim Protze, Oscar Hernandez, Vivek Sarkar
2020 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Then we illustrate three kinds of memory anomalies: use of uninitialized memory (UUM), use of stale data (USD), and use after free (UAF).  ...  Most of the existing work focuses on concurrency bugs such as data races and deadlocks, since concurrency bugs are difficult to detect and debug.  ...  OpenMP integrates multiple parallel paradigms in its execution model, including task parallelism, single program multiple data (SPMD), and heterogeneous parallelism.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-58144-2_21 fatcat:jmoodmfgufds7d2zfrjzjkw3vm
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