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Psychodynamic psychiatry and neurobiology

Heinz Boeker
2020 Swiss Archives of Neurology, Psychiatry and Psychotherapy  
For that, Boeker et al. [2] argued, a common framework with common shared features is necessary.  ...  Boeker and Northoff point to one limitation of this model: "resting stimulus and stimulus resting state interaction describe specific mechanisms resulting from the interaction between intrinsic activity  ... 
doi:10.4414/sanp.2020.03140 fatcat:54vriikxxnhdhb63if6beq4qiy

Gender and Rapid Alterations of Hemispheric Dominance during Planning

Daniel Schuepbach, Tatjana Skotchko, Stefan Duschek, Anastasia Theodoridou, Simone Grimm, Heinz Boeker, Erich Seifritz
2012 Neuropsychobiology  
Schuepbach /Skotchko /Duschek / Theodoridou /Grimm /Boeker /Seifritz Neuropsychobiology 2012;66:149-157 154 planning (online suppl. table 1, for all online suppl. material, see www.karger.com/doi/10.1159  ...  2.7981.12 0.52-2.16 2.14-3.43 1.8481.53 2.1481.17 0.95-2.72 1.47-2.82 1, 26 1, 26 0.80 2.21 Neuropsychobiology 2012;66:149-157 Schuepbach /Skotchko /Duschek / Theodoridou /Grimm /Boeker  ... 
doi:10.1159/000339562 pmid:22948314 fatcat:xtbbh7gs3je4pb2osjc3szi2ay

How Does Our Brain Constitute Defense Mechanisms? First-Person Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis

Georg Northoff, Felix Bermpohl, Frank Schoeneich, Heinz Boeker
2007 Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics  
Emotional arousal and self-esteem Motor symptoms Somatic defense Social contact Catatonic symptoms: sensorimotor regression Orbitofrontal cortex Northoff /Bermpohl /Schoeneich /Boeker  ...  experience, i.e. of first-person data, thus aiming at the development of what we called 'science of experience', as distinguished from neuroscience as 'science of observation'.Northoff /Bermpohl /Schoeneich /Boeker  ... 
doi:10.1159/000099841 pmid:17426413 fatcat:5gv2mvgl2rettakefdlhhmwgeu

Neuropsychodynamic Approach to Depression: Integrating Resting State Dysfunctions of the Brain and Disturbed Self-Related Processes

Heinz Boeker, Rainer Kraehenmann
2018 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
Previous studies on social interaction (Coyne, 1976a (Coyne, ,b, 1985 Coyne et al., 1987; Boeker et al., 2000; Boeker, 2004) , for instance, showed that the environmental response may play an important  ...  Accordingly, self-referential stimuli can be differentiated from non-self-referential stimuli Northoff and Boeker, 2006) .  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2018.00247 pmid:29997487 pmcid:PMC6030717 fatcat:2ryhrtavfbguxdru5ysg4dac74

Segregated neural representation of psychological and somatic-vegetative symptoms in severe major depression

Alexander Heinzel, Simone Grimm, Johannes Beck, Daniel Schuepbach, Daniel Hell, Peter Boesiger, Heinz Boeker, Georg Northoff
2009 Neuroscience Letters  
Objective: The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is probably the most widely used depression scale. It has been suggested that it contains a two-factor structure measuring cognitive-affective (i.e. psychological) and somatic-vegetative depressive symptoms. In this study we aim to evaluate these factors by probing for their neural correlates. Methods: Neural responses evoked by emotional perception, relative to an emotional judgment task, were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging
more » ... MRI) in 20 medication-free patients with severe MDD. Psychological and somatic-vegetative symptoms were evaluated with the BDI. Results: Psychological symptoms correlated with signal changes in the dorsomedial and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, while somatic-vegetative symptoms correlated with signal changes in the pre-genual anterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions: These preliminary findings demonstrate segregated neural representation of psychological and somatic-vegetative symptoms of MDD in different cortical regions. Thus, our results indicate that the two-factor structure of the BDI is related to distinct neural correlates.
doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2009.03.097 pmid:19429132 fatcat:j4fiuqebz5hu5kelbhgrevj4sa

Executive dysfunction, self, and ego pathology in schizophrenia: an exploratory study of neuropsychology and personality

Heinz Boeker, Matthias Kleiser, Doerte Lehman, Lutz Jaenke, Bernhard Bogerts, Georg Northoff
2006 Comprehensive Psychiatry  
Schizophrenic patients show a variety of symptoms, including positive and negative symptoms and ego pathology. Their exact underlying neuropsychological mechanisms as well as related changes in personality, however, remain unclear. We therefore conducted an exploratory study to investigate the relationship among neuropsychological functions, various dimensions in personality, and the different kinds of psychopathological symptoms. We investigated 22 paranoid schizophrenic patients and 22
more » ... sex-matched healthy controls using a battery of neuropsychological, personality, and psychopathological tests and scales. Neuropsychological tests included executive function, working memory, and episodic memory, whereas personality assessment relied on the Temperament and Character Inventory by Cloninger (Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987;44:573 -88). Psychopathological rating included the scales for the assessment of positive and negative symptoms and the Ego Pathology Inventory by Scharfetter (Psychol Med. 1981;11(2):273 -80). Schizophrenic patients showed significant deficits in executive function, working memory, and episodic memory. In contrast to healthy subjects, no significant correlation between working memory and executive function was observed in schizophrenic patients. Instead, both working memory and executive dysfunction were rather related to deficits in retrieval of episodic memory. Positive and negative symptoms correlated with episodic memory deficits but not with any dimension of the personality, whereas ego pathology, in contrast, correlated with executive dysfunction and working memory deficits. Moreover, schizophrenic patients showed specific changes in the self-dimensions of their personality, which correlated significantly with both executive dysfunction and ego pathology. Schizophrenic patients show deficits in working memory and executive function as well as functional dissociation between both. In contrast to positive and negative symptoms, ego pathology in these patients is specifically related to executive dysfunction and alterations in the self-dimension of their personality. It can therefore be concluded that ego pathology must be distinguished from positive and negative symptoms in both underlying neuropsychological dysfunction and predisposing changes in personality. D
doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2005.04.003 pmid:16324897 fatcat:ox6eobhqkvcatkftn73zj37xhq

Rapid cerebral hemodynamic modulation during set shifting: Evidence of time-locked associations with cognitive control in females

Daniel Schuepbach, Mariëtte Huizinga, Stefan Duschek, Simone Grimm, Heinz Boeker, Daniel Hell
2009 Brain and Cognition  
verbal and language domains more efficiently, and there is evidence of distinct brain activity between males and females during mental rotation, verbal and visuo-spatial tasks (Jordan, Würstenberg, Heinze  ...  In that context, we recently introduced a novel measure of cerebral hemodynamics namely cerebral hemodynamic modulation, which assesses flow modulation on a second-wise level (Schuepbach, Boeker, Duschek  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2009.07.006 pmid:19683848 fatcat:osxc5xhk45aefcxk4ksq4la7la

Segregated neural representation of distinct emotion dimensions in the prefrontal cortex—an fMRI study

Simone Grimm, Conny F. Schmidt, Felix Bermpohl, Alexander Heinzel, Yuliya Dahlem, Michael Wyss, Daniel Hell, Peter Boesiger, Heinz Boeker, Georg Northoff
2006 NeuroImage  
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.09.006 pmid:16230029 fatcat:r6zh427erbacdalermpmdtx4uu

Altered Negative BOLD Responses in the Default-Mode Network during Emotion Processing in Depressed Subjects

Simone Grimm, Peter Boesiger, Johannes Beck, Daniel Schuepbach, Felix Bermpohl, Martin Walter, Jutta Ernst, Daniel Hell, Heinz Boeker, Georg Northoff
2008 Neuropsychopharmacology  
Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) show predominant negative blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses (NBRs) in regions of the default-mode network such as the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex. Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) show emotional-cognitive disturbances, which have been associated with alterations within the default-mode network. However, it remains unclear
more » ... these default-mode network alterations are related to abnormalities in NBRs. We therefore investigated neural activity in the default-mode network during different emotional tasks in patients with MDD in an event-related fMRI design. MDD patients showed significantly reduced NBRs in several regions of the default-mode network. Decreased NBRs in MDD patients correlated with depression severity and feelings of hopelessness. In sum, our findings demonstrate that default-mode network NBRs are reduced in MDD and modulate these patients' abnormally negative emotions.
doi:10.1038/npp.2008.81 pmid:18536699 fatcat:sylzcswh6zgkfa3y6rzk5bfg5a

Differential Alterations in Resting State Functional Connectivity Associated with Depressive Symptoms and Early Life Adversity

Eleonora Fadel, Heinz Boeker, Matti Gaertner, Andre Richter, Birgit Kleim, Erich Seifritz, Simone Grimm, Laura M Wade-Bohleber
2021 Brain Sciences  
Depression and early life adversity (ELA) are associated with aberrant resting state functional connectivity (FC) of the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and central executive networks (CEN). However, the specific and differential associations of depression and ELA with FC of these networks remain unclear. Applying a dimensional approach, here we analyzed associations of FC between major nodes of the DMN, SN, and CEN with severity of depressive symptoms and ELA defined as childhood abuse and
more » ... eglect in a sample of 83 healthy and depressed subjects. Depressive symptoms were linked to increased FC within the SN and decreased FC of the SN with the DMN and CEN. Childhood abuse was associated with increased FC within the SN, whereas childhood neglect was associated with decreased FC within the SN and increased FC between the SN and the DMN. Our study thus provides evidence for differential associations of depressive symptoms and ELA with resting state FC and contributes to a clarification of previously contradictory findings. Specific FC abnormalities may underlie specific cognitive and emotional impairments. Future research should link specific clinical symptoms resulting from ELA to FC patterns thereby characterizing depression subtypes with specific neurobiological signatures.
doi:10.3390/brainsci11050591 pmid:34063232 pmcid:PMC8147478 fatcat:yu5hbewqevfcne2bqmh7lc6nea

Reduced negative BOLD responses in the default-mode network and increased self-focus in depression

Simone Grimm, Jutta Ernst, Peter Boesiger, Daniel Schuepbach, Heinz Boeker, Georg Northoff
2011 World Journal of Biological Psychiatry  
Objectives. Functional imaging studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) indicate abnormal resting state neural activity and negative blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses (NBRs) in regions of the default-mode network (DMN). Methods. Since activity in DMN regions has been associated with self-relatedness, we investigated neural activity in these regions during self-related emotional judgement and passive picture viewing in 25 patients with MDD and 25 healthy controls in an
more » ... lated fMRI design. Results. Behaviourally, MDD subjects showed signifi cantly higher ratings of self-relatedness that also correlated with depression symptoms such as hopelessness. Neuroimaging results in MDD patients showed signifi cantly lower negative BOLD responses (NBRs) in anterior medial cortical regions during judgement of self-relatedness while posterior medial regions showed increased NBRs. Unlike in healthy subjects, the anterior medial cortical NBRs were no longer parametrically modulated by the degree of self-relatedness in MDD patients. Conclusions. Our fi ndings suggest that reduced NBRs in the anterior regions of the default-mode network may signify decoupling from self-relatedness in MDD patients with the consecutive abnormal increase of self-focus.
doi:10.3109/15622975.2010.545145 pmid:21247256 fatcat:l22gnlpjgneu3jx3rgs7bm2uaq

Increased self-focus in major depressive disorder is related to neural abnormalities in subcortical-cortical midline structures

Simone Grimm, Jutta Ernst, Peter Boesiger, Daniel Schuepbach, Daniel Hell, Heinz Boeker, Georg Northoff
2009 Human Brain Mapping  
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) often show a tendency to strongly introspect and reflect upon their self, which has been described as increased self-focus. Although subcortical-cortical midline structures have been associated with reflection and introspection of oneself in healthy subjects, the neural correlates of the abnormally increased attribution of negative emotions to oneself, i.e. negative self-attribution, as hallmark of the increased self-focus in MDD remain unclear. The
more » ... aim of the study was, therefore, to investigate the neural correlates during judgment of self-relatedness of positive and negative emotional stimuli thereby testing for emotional self-attribution. Using fMRI, we investigated 27 acute MDD patients and compared them with 25 healthy subjects employing a paradigm that focused on judgment of self-relatedness when compared with mere perception of the very same emotional stimuli. Behaviourally, patients with MDD showed significantly higher degrees of selfrelatedness of specifically negative emotional stimuli when compared with healthy subjects. Neurally, patients with MDD showed significantly lower signal intensities in various subcortical and cortical midline regions like the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), supragenual anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, ventral striatum (VS), and the dorsomedial thalamus (DMT). Signal changes in the DMPFC correlated with depression severity and hopelessness whereas those in the VS and the DMT were related to judgment of self-relatedness of negative emotional stimuli. In conclusion, we present first evidence that the abnormally increased negative self-attribution as hallmark of the increased self-focus in MDD might be mediated by altered neural activity in subcortical-cortical midline structures. Hum Brain Mapp 30: [2617][2618][2619][2620][2621][2622][2623][2624][2625][2626][2627] 2009. V V C 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
doi:10.1002/hbm.20693 pmid:19117277 fatcat:2g2zd2pauzeqjlfjjlgec4r6qi

Ketamine Decreases Resting State Functional Network Connectivity in Healthy Subjects: Implications for Antidepressant Drug Action

Milan Scheidegger, Martin Walter, Mick Lehmann, Coraline Metzger, Simone Grimm, Heinz Boeker, Peter Boesiger, Anke Henning, Erich Seifritz, Stefano L. Sensi
2012 PLoS ONE  
Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamatemodulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and
more » ... e-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), the "dorsal nexus "(DN) was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN), the default mode network (DMN), and a rostral affective network (AN). Hence, Sheline and colleagues (2010) proposed that reducing increased connectivity of the DN might play a critical role in reducing depression symptomatology and thus represent a potential therapy target for affective disorders. Here, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover rsfMRI challenge in healthy subjects we demonstrate that ketamine decreases functional connectivity of the DMN to the DN and to the pregenual anterior cingulate (PACC) and medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC) via its representative hub, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). These findings in healthy subjects may serve as a model to elucidate potential biomechanisms that are addressed by successful treatment of major depression. This notion is further supported by the temporal overlap of our observation of subacute functional network modulation after 24 hours with the peak of efficacy following an intravenous ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depression.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044799 pmid:23049758 pmcid:PMC3461985 fatcat:crdtukdysjamhc2ro63rpyl3ve

NMDA hypofunction in the posterior cingulate as a model for schizophrenia: an exploratory ketamine administration study in fMRI

Georg Northoff, Andre Richter, Felix Bermpohl, Simone Grimm, Ernst Martin, Valentine Leslie Marcar, Constance Wahl, Daniel Hell, Heinz Boeker
2005 Schizophrenia Research  
Based on animal data, NMDA receptor hypofunction has been suggested as a model for positive symptoms in schizophrenia. NMDA receptor hypofunction affects several corticolimbic brain regions, of which the posterior cingulate seems to be the most sensitive. However, empirical support for a crucial role of posterior cingulate NMDA hypofunction in the pathophysiology of positive symptoms is still missing in humans. We therefore conducted an fMRI study using the NMDA antagonist ketamine in healthy
more » ... man subjects during episodic memory retrieval, which is supposed to activate the posterior cingulate. Methods: We investigated 16 healthy subjects which were assigned to either placebo (n=7; saline) or ketamine (n=9; 0.6 mg/kg/ h) group in a double-blind study design. All subjects received their infusion while performing an episodic memory retrieval task in the scanner. Immediately after the fMRI session, psychopathological effects of ketamine were measured using the Altered States of Consciousness Questionnaire. Results: The placebo group showed BOLD signal increases in the posterior and anterior cingulate during retrieval. Signal increases were significantly lower in the ketamine group. Lower signal increases in the posterior cingulate correlated significantly with positive (i.e. psychosis-like) symptoms induced by ketamine. 0920-9964/$ -see front matter D (G. Northoff). Schizophrenia Research 72 (2005) 235 -248 www.elsevier.com/locate/schres Conclusion: The present study for the first time demonstrates a relationship between NMDA receptors, posterior cingulate and positive (i.e. psychosis-like) symptoms in humans. Confirming findings from animal studies, it supports the hypothesis of a pathophysiological role of NMDA receptor hypofunction in the posterior cingulate in schizophrenia. D
doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.04.009 pmid:15560968 fatcat:6dxxsz4wbncatlxciylbtzrbx4

Essentials of psychoanalytic process and change: how can we investigate the neural effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy in individualized neuro-imaging?

Heinz Boeker, André Richter, Holger Himmighoffen, Jutta Ernst, Laura Bohleber, Elena Hofmann, Johannes Vetter, Georg Northoff
2013 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
For instance, one hypothesis is that introjection may be accounted for by what we call self-related processing (Boeker and Richter, 2008; Northoff, 2008) .  ...  ., 2002; Boeker et al., 2006; Northoff, 2007) , self (Milrod, 2002) , memories (Gabbard, 2000; Mancia, 2006; Peres et al., 2008) , dreams (Solms, 1995 (Solms, , 2000 Andrade, 2007) , empathy (Gallese  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00355 pmid:23935571 pmcid:PMC3731532 fatcat:nyx2k5rscndnji3it7ttrs7wqu
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