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La dacryoadénite tuberculeuse est une inflammation rare de la glande lacrymale causé par le bacille Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Elle pose un problème étiopathogénique et diagnostique. Nous rapportons dans cette observation le cas d'une dacryoadénite tuberculeuse bilatérale chez un jeune homme Marocain de 34 ans ayant présenté une tuberculose ganglionnaire et du cavum il y à 14 ans, ayant été confirmé par l'examen anatomopathologique. La tuberculose reste un diagnostic qui doit être toujoursdoi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.26.4663 pmid:26015846 pmcid:PMC4432807 fatcat:ri4v6aiysfc6nap46ac7xaooji
more »... ué même dans les atteinte bilatérale surtout si il y a un antécédent personnel ou familiale positif de tuberculose. Le pronostic de cette affection est devenu favorable grâce au traitement antibacillaire précoce.
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women. In 2018, it is estimated that 627,000 women died from breast cancer. This is approximately 15% of all cancer deaths among women (WHO 2018). Breast cancer is a multifactorial chronic disease. While important progress has been made to treat patients, many questions regarding aspects of this disease relating to carcinogenesis are still open. During carcinogenesis, cells exhibit cholesterol homeostasis deregulation. This results in andoi:10.3390/ijms21041356 pmid:32079340 pmcid:PMC7072989 fatcat:ehsrfjyehzbwdb5fgld3g7wtf4
more »... on of intracellular cholesterol, which is required to sustain their high growth rate. Cholesterol efflux and influx are two metabolic pathways that are necessary to prevent cholesterol accumulation in the cells. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that, upon activation, induce the expression of ABC transporters, responsible for promoting cholesterol efflux, and the expression of IDOL (inducible degrader of low-density lipoprotein receptor), in charge of reducing cholesterol influx. Oxysterols, oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol formed through different pathways, have been discovered as LXR-specific ligands. Some oxysterols are involved in tumor formation while others are considered anti-tumor agents. In the present review, we discuss the involvement of cholesterol, oxysterols and LXRs in breast cancer pathophysiology, with an emphasis on the biological effects of LXR ligands.
The approaches to data warehouse design are based on the assumption that source data are known in advance and available. While this assumption is true in common project situations, in some peculiar contexts it is not. This is the case of the French national project for analysis of energetic agricultural farms, that is the case study of this paper. Here, the above-mentioned methods can hardly be applied because source data can only be identified and collected once user requirements indicate adoi:10.1145/2513190.2513199 dblp:conf/dolap/BimonteENKR13 fatcat:jldrrpeldzhn7kv53wqxbzltja
more »... d. Besides, the users involved in this project found it very hard to express their analysis needs in abstract terms, i.e., without visualizing sample results of queries, which in turn would require availability of source data. To solve this deadlock we propose ProtOLAP, a toolassisted fast prototyping methodology that enables quick and reliable test and validation of data warehouse schemata in situations where data supply is collected on users' demand and users' ICT skills are minimal. To this end, users manually feed sample realistic data into a prototype created by designers, then they access and explore these sample data using pivot tables to validate the prototype.
Le glaucome congénital constitue une complication ophtalmologique dans la neurofibromatose type 1 ou maladie de von Recklinghausen. Nous rapportons un cas de glaucome congénitale dans le cadre d'une neurofibromatose de type 1, à travers lequel on va discuter les mécanismes étiopathogénique, les difficultés thérapeutiques et les facteurs pronostiques du glaucome congénital au cours la maladie de von Recklinghausen avec revue de la littérature.doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.21.56.6794 pmid:26405492 pmcid:PMC4564413 fatcat:mhmu3raafzhm7ngnyl6yqveaeq
Plasma lipids are carried within lipoproteins with various apolipoprotein content. This study evaluates the interest of measuring the apolipoproteins of circulating lipoproteins in breast cancer. Patients with early-stage breast cancer (n = 140) were included. Tumors differed by the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor (HR− and HR+ for negative and positive expression) and the proliferation marker Ki-67 (≤20% or ≥30%). Apolipoprotein concentrations were determined in plasma, HDL anddoi:10.3390/jcm11051345 pmid:35268435 pmcid:PMC8911350 fatcat:2ni7qdffhvh4doukzqbm4i4ybi
more »... non-HDL fractions, and results are given in mg/dL, median (25th–75th). Patients did not differ in their plasma and lipoprotein lipid concentrations. HDL apoC-I and non-HDL apoC-II were reduced (1.34 (1.02–1.80) vs. 1.61 (1.32–2.04), p = 0.04; 0.31 (0.18–0.65) vs. 0.63 (0.39–1.02), p = 0.01; respectively), in RH-/high Ki-67 patients in comparison to RH-/low Ki-67 patients, while plasma apoD and HDL apoD were higher (3.24 (2.99–4.16) vs. 3.07 (2.39–3.51), p = 0.04;2.74 (2.36–3.35) vs. 2.45 (2.01–2.99), p = 0.04; respectively). When RH+/high Ki-67 patients were compared with RH+/low Ki-67 patients, HDL apoC-I and HDL apoC-III were higher (1.56 (1.20–1.95) vs. 1.35 (1.10–1.62), p = 0.02; 2.80 (2.42–3.64) vs. 2.38 (1.69–2.96), p = 0.02; respectively). The distribution of exchangeable apolipoproteins, such as apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoD, between lipoproteins is linked to the severity of breast cancer.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents the most common liver disease and is characterized by an excess of lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, mainly stored as triglycerides. Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a marine microalga, which is rich in bioactive molecules known to be hepatoprotective, such as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and fucoxanthin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a carotenoid extract from P. tricornutum in a cellular model of non-alcoholicdoi:10.3390/molecules25122845 pmid:32575640 fatcat:u3v23nus3ree5hq3hbt3ntkjx4
more »... ty liver disease induced by palmitate treatment. The combined effects of carotenoids and lipids, especially n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, were also investigated by using a total lipophilic extract. HepG2 cells were exposed for 24 h to 250 µM palmitate with or without the addition of carotenoid extract (6 μg/mL) or total lipophilic extract (100 μg/mL). The addition of carotenoid extract or total lipophilic extract prevented the accumulation of triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol esters. The carotenoid extract and total lipophilic extract also decreased the mRNA expression levels of genes involved in lipogenesis (ACACA, FASN, SCD and DGAT1) and cholesterol esterification (ACAT1/SOAT1). In addition, the total lipophilic extract also downregulated the LXR/NR1H3 and SREBF1 genes, which are involved in lipogenesis regulation. By contrast, the carotenoid extract increased the mRNA level of CPT1A, a β-oxidation related gene, and reduced the lipid droplet accumulation. In conclusion, this study highlights the preventive effects against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease of the two microalga extracts.
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 series and especially docosahexaenoic acid are known to exert preventive effects on metabolic disturbances associated with obesity and decrease cardiovascular disease risk. n-3 LC-PUFAs are mainly consumed in the form of fish oil, while other sources, such as certain microalgae, may contain a high content of these fatty acids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tisochrysis lutea (Tiso), a microalga rich in DHA, on metabolic disordersdoi:10.3390/nu13020430 pmid:33525643 pmcid:PMC7911999 fatcat:vws4kjwurbcqxlgqg46hjfjrii
more »... ssociated with obesity. Three male Wistar rat groups were submitted for eight weeks to a standard diet or high-fat and high fructose diet (HF), supplemented or not with 12% of T. lutea (HF-Tiso). The supplementation did not affect plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). Bodyweight, glycemia and insulinemia decreased in HF-Tiso rats (ANOVA, p < 0.001), while total plasma cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) increased (ANOVA, p < 0.001) without change of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels. Tiso supplementation decreased fat mass and leptinemia as well as liver TAG, cholesterol and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (ANOVA, p < 0.001) while it did not affect interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-4 and lipopolysaccharides levels. HF-Tiso rats showed an increase of IL-10 level in abdominal adipose tissue (ANOVA, p < 0.001). In conclusion, these results indicated that DHA-rich T. lutea might be beneficial for the prevention of obesity and improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism.
Aim Nicotinic acid (NA) treatment decreases plasma triglycerides and increases HDL cholesterol, but the mechanisms involved in these change are not fully understood. A reduction in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity has been advanced to explain most lipidmodulating effects of NA. However, due to the central role of CETP in reverse cholesterol transport in humans, other effects of NA may have been hidden. As dogs have no CETP activity, we conducted this study to examine thedoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136934 pmid:26366727 pmcid:PMC4569091 fatcat:roj27v7ruze5nfhahnfe7pzoqm
more »... ic effects of extended-release niacin (NA) on lipids and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl ester (CE) turnover in obese Insulin-Resistant dogs with increase plasma triglycerides. Methods HDL kinetics were assessed in fasting dogs before and four weeks after NA treatment through endogenous labeling of cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI by simultaneous infusion of [1,2 13 C 2 ] acetate and [5,5,5 2 H 3 ] leucine for 8 h. Kinetic data were analyzed by compartmental modeling. In vitro cell cholesterol efflux of serum from NA-treated dogs was also measured. Results NA reduced plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and very-low-density lipoprotein TG concentrations (p < 0.05). The kinetic study also showed a higher cholesterol esterification rate (p < 0.05). HDL-CE turnover was accelerated (p < 0.05) via HDL removal through endocytosis and selective CE PLOS ONE |
The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (v3PUFA) supplemented high fat diet (HFD). Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group) were studied for 20 weeks: 1) control diet: Control, 2) HFD group: HF and 3) HFD group supplemented with v3PUFA (EPA and DHA): HFv3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of 3 H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primarydoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061109 pmid:23613796 pmcid:PMC3632549 fatcat:2zb26ogt25ehbkcldl3bwf4vfm
more »... s. Compared to Control, HF presented significant (p,0.05) increase in body weight, plasma TG (p,0.01) and cholesterol (p,0.001) with an increase in VLDL TG and in VLDL and LDL cholesterol (p,0.001). Compared to HF, HFv3 presented significant decrease in body weight. HFv3 showed less plasma TG (p,0.001) and cholesterol (p,0.001) related to a decrease in VLDL TG and HDL cholesterol respectively and higher LCAT activity (p,0.05) compared to HF. HFv3 showed a higher fecal bile acid excretion (p,0.05) compared to Control and HF groups and higher fecal cholesterol excretion (p,0.05) compared to HF. This increase was related to higher gene expression of ABCG5, ABCA1 and SR-B1 in HFv3 compared to Control and HF groups (,0.05) and in ABCG1 and CYP7A1 compared to HF group (p,0.05). A higher plasma efflux capacity was also measured in HFv3 using 3 H-cholesterol labeled Fu5AH cells. In conclusion, EPA and DHA supplementation improved macrophage to feces reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed HFD. This change was related to the higher cholesterol and fecal bile acids excretion and to the activation of major genes involved in RCT.
We hypothesized that the role of microbiota in breast cancer relates to its influence on gut lipid metabolism. This was tested in an in vitro model combining MCF-7 and Caco-2 cells. A total of 32 women newly diagnosed for breast cancer before any treatment and 28 healthy women provided their stools. Bacterial DNA was amplified by qPCR targeting 16s rRNA specific to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla, Lactobacillales sp., Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium clusterdoi:10.3390/nu13010031 pmid:33374116 fatcat:a7kkp32jj5ewpkzvjhwmsv6vxi
more »... IVa, Roseburia intestinalis, Blautia sp., Lactonifactor longoviformis, Bifidobacterium sp., Coriobacteriaceae, Eggertella lenta, Escherichia, and Shigella. Fecal waters (FW) were quantified for short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Caco-2 cells grown on filter inserts were incubated apically with 10% FW for 24 h, and LXR, apolipoproteins AIV, and E gene expression were estimated by real time (RT) qPCR. Then, MCF-7 cells were incubated with the whole basolateral medium for 24 h, and their viability was estimated by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Regression models were used to determine the correlation between MCF-7 viability and bacteria relative abundance, Caco-2 cells lipid metabolism gene expression and stool composition, as well as microbiota composition and short chain fatty acids. Logistic regression models established disease odds ratios (OR) for MCF-7 viability and Caco-2 gene expression. The OR of MCF-7 viability was 1.05 (1.01–1.10) (OR (5th–95th), p = 0.04), while that of apo AIV gene expression was 0.63 (0.39–1.01), p = 0.055). Viability correlated with % Bifidobacterium sp. (21.18 ± 7.66, p = 0.008) and valerate (−2.849 ± 1.048, p = 0.009) (β ± s.d.). This study suggests that microbiota interacts with intestine cell lipid metabolism. Since these metabolites can reach breast cells by systemic circulation, we hypothesized that they may influence cancer disease.
El Hassan, Page number not for citation purposes 3 Amina berraho ont lu, corrigé et approuvé la dernière version. ... FiguresFigure 1 :Figure 2 : 12 El Yamouni, Nazih Tzili et Nadia Slassi ont écrit le manuscrit et dirigés l'étude; Mahfoud El khaoua et Zakaria Jebbar ont effectués larecherche bibliographique ; Abdallah ...doi:10.11604/pamj.2014.19.65.4775 pmid:25709723 pmcid:PMC4330876 fatcat:mectehkfjbh3bit7pgjywcm6fi
The intestinal microbiota plays an essential role in many diseases, such as obesity, irritable bowel disease (IBD), and cancer. This study aimed to characterize the faecal microbiota from early-stage breast cancer (BC) patients and healthy controls. Faeces from newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, mainly for an invasive carcinoma of no specific type (HR+ and HER2−), before any therapeutic treatment and healthy controls were collected for metabarcoding analyses. We show that the Shannondoi:10.3390/nu13082705 pmid:34444865 pmcid:PMC8399700 fatcat:dgdhzvgk75dafpgjhbrykfimqq
more »... used as an index of diversity, was statistically lower in the BC group compared to that of controls. This work highlights a reduction of microbial diversity, a relative enrichment in Firmicutes, as well as a depletion in Bacteroidetes in patients diagnosed with early BC compared to those of healthy women. A tendency towards a decreased relative abundance of Odoribacter sp., Butyricimonas sp., and Coprococcus sp. was observed. This preliminary study suggests that breast cancer patients may differ from healthy subjects in their intestinal bacterial composition.
re, Dominique Meynial-Denis, Christian Laboisse, and Dominique Darmaun. Effects of glutamine deprivation on protein synthesis in a model of human enterocytes in culture. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 281: G1340-G1347, 2001. -To assess the effect of glutamine availability on rates of protein synthesis in human enterocytes, Caco-2 cells were grown until differentiation and then submitted to glutamine deprivation produced by exposure to glutamine-free medium or methionine sulfoximinedoi:10.1152/ajpgi.2001.281.6.g1340 pmid:11705738 fatcat:elkqhfod35gslgiatnx32q7v5m
more »... -[3-amino-3-carboxypropyl]-Smethylsulfoximine (MSO)], a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. Cells were then incubated with 2 H3-labeled leucine with or without glutamine, and the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of total cell protein was determined from 2 H3-labeled enrichments in protein-bound and intracellular free leucine measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both protein FSR (28 Ϯ 1.5%/day) and intracellular glutamine concentration (6.1 Ϯ 0.6 mol/g protein) remained unaltered when cells were grown in glutamine-free medium. In contrast, MSO treatment resulted in a dramatic reduction in protein synthesis (4.6 Ϯ 0.6 vs. 20.2 Ϯ 0.8%/day, P Ͻ 0.01). Supplementation with 0.5-2 mM glutamine for 4 h after MSO incubation, but not with glycine nor glutamate, restored protein FSR to control values (24 Ϯ 1%/day). These results demonstrate that in Caco-2 cells, 1) de novo glutamine synthesis is highly active, since it can maintain intracellular glutamine pool during glutamine deprivation, 2) inhibition of glutamine synthesis is associated with reduced protein synthesis, and 3) when glutamine synthesis is depressed, exogenous glutamine restores normal intestinal FSR. Due to the limitations intrinsic to the use of a cell line as an experimental model, the physiological relevance of these findings for the human intestine in vivo remains to be determined.
Nazih, V. Ferchaud-Roucher, G. Lambert, Y. Zaïr, M. Masson, K. Ouguerram, D. Bouhours, and M. Krempf. ...doi:10.1194/jlr.d200024-jlr200 pmid:12401898 fatcat:rozcpttyrjcy7mxivliewgzu3m
acids as well as plasmalogens were present in both marine byproducts. Some rare and new molecules were also found. For the first time, the characterization of several molecular lipid species of O. cyanea and Loligo sp. byproducts was performed. Conclusion Our qualitative analysis unravels a great diversity of lipids and new putative bioactive compounds that could be used for their nutritional values or therapeutic purposes. Abbreviations AA Arachidonic acid CE Cholesteryl ester Cer Ceramide DGdoi:10.1007/s12649-017-9933-x fatcat:6e2tlrmpxnhdrn2s3pzswpuycq
more »... iacylglycerol DHA Docosahexaenoic acid EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid ESI Electrospray ionization FA Fatty acyl HPA Heneicosapentaenoic acid HRMS High-resolution mass spectrometry MS Mass spectrometry MSE Mass spectrometry energy PA Glycerophosphate PC Glycerophosphocholine PE Glycerophosphoethanolamine PG Glycerophosphoglycerol PI Glycerophosphoinositol PS Glycerophosphoserine SM Sphingomyelin TG Triacylglycerol UPLC Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography Abstract Purpose The lipid compositions of Octopus cyanea and Loligo sp. byproducts collected from southwestern Madagascar were studied in order to valorize the marine byproducts. Methods Liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterize lipid species from O. cyanea and Loligo sp. byproduct extracts. Results A broad range of lipids was found in sample extracts. Although both O. cyanea and Loligo sp. belong to the cephalopod group, their byproducts exhibited different molecular lipid species. As an example, sphingosine analogs predominated in Loligo sp. extracts, while glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids were the most prevalent in O. cyanea extracts. However, ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (
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