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Soft-Output Sphere Decoding: Performance and Implementation Aspects

C. Studer, M. Wenk, A. Burg, H. Bolcskei
2006 2006 Fortieth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers  
In particular, we demonstrate that single tree search, ordered QR decomposition, channel matrix regularization, and log-likelihood ratio clipping are the key ingredients for realizing soft-output MIMO  ...  Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detection algorithms providing soft information for a subsequent channel decoder pose significant implementation challenges due to their high computational complexity  ...  Max-Log Soft-Output Computation Soft-output MIMO detection requires the computation of LLRs for all coded bits.  ... 
doi:10.1109/acssc.2006.355132 fatcat:6sezlbrwibelbnbuf37p32nsre

Parallel high throughput soft-output sphere decoder

Q. Qi, C. Chakrabarti
2010 2010 IEEE Workshop On Signal Processing Systems  
In addition, we propose a parallel QR decomposition algorithm to lower the preprocessing overhead, and a low complexity LLR algorithm to allow parallel update of LLR values.  ...  Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output communication systems demand fast sphere decoding with high performance.  ...  [Q i , R i ] = qr(H i ),ŷ i = Q H i y 11: t i =[1, Parallel QR Decomposition for PFSD To support multiple tree searches in PFSD, a QR decomposition is needed for each FSD, which adds computation complexity  ... 
doi:10.1109/sips.2010.5624783 fatcat:yhj6h3u3zjgqrgyhhbqfubwrhu

A VLSI 8ո MIMO Near-ML Decoder Engine

Geoff Knagge, Mark Bickerstaff, Brett Ninness, Steven R. Weller, Graeme Woodward
2006 Signal Processing Systems Design and Implementation (siPS), IEEE Workshop on  
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems are of significant interest due to their ability to increase the capacity of wireless communications systems, but for these to be useful they must also be  ...  The paper presents the first published 8×8 MIMO detection engine with an integrated channel preprocessing unit, achieving near-ML BER results at 57.6Mbps, using QPSK in an extended HSDPA application.  ...  This establishes the feasibility of 8 × 8 MIMO detection, with a unique integrated preprocessing unit that is commonly omitted from simpler 4 × 4 designs.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sips.2006.352614 dblp:conf/sips/KnaggeBNWW06 fatcat:g6dubxfrpvg5jjposffds56slq

Low-Complexity Soft-Output Sphere Decoding with Modified Repeated Tree Search Strategy

Shin-Lin Shieh, Rong-Dong Chiu, Shih-Lun Feng, Po-Ning Chen
2013 IEEE Communications Letters  
Many solutions for detecting signals transmitted over flat-faded multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels have been proposed, e.g., the zero-forcing (ZF), minimum mean squared error (MMSE), sphere  ...  In this paper, we focus on the soft-output SD algorithm and propose a modification on the repeated tree search (RTS) strategy.  ...  As for the sorting approach in QR decomposition, the SQRD [4] is used for both the STS and our modified RTS, while the SOQR [5] hardware implementation architecture [9] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/lcomm.2012.112012121728 fatcat:ja7llztbmnhnjbyg5zdrtcxlzu

Area- and throughput-optimized VLSI architecture of sphere decoding

Markus Wenk, Lukas Bruderer, Andreas Burg, Christoph Studer
2010 2010 18th IEEE/IFIP International Conference on VLSI and System-on-Chip  
Sphere decoding (SD) is a promising means for implementing high-performance data detection in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems.  ...  In this paper, we focus on the register transfer level implementation of SD with minimum area-delay product for application in wideband MIMO communication systems, such as IEEE 802.11n, where multiple  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors thank H. Friederich, P. Luethi, N. Felber, W. Fichtner, and H. Bölcskei for their support during the design of the SD architecture.  ... 
doi:10.1109/vlsisoc.2010.5642593 dblp:conf/vlsi/WenkBBS10 fatcat:tw3j2mpm4rfrzn7qptynm4jzie

GPU Acceleration of a Configurable N-Way MIMO Detector for Wireless Systems

Michael Wu, Bei Yin, Guohui Wang, Christoph Studer, Joseph R. Cavallaro
2014 Journal of Signal Processing Systems  
The proposed detector includes the required QR decomposition step and a tree-search detector, which exploits the massive parallelism available in GPUs.  ...  Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless is an enabling technology for high spectral efficiency and has been adopted in many modern wireless communication standards, such as 3GPP-LTE and IEEE 802.11n  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by Renesas Mobile, Texas Instruments, Xilinx, Samsung, Huawei, and by the US National Science Foundation under grants CNS-1265332, ECCS-1232274, EECS-0925942  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11265-014-0877-0 fatcat:qictvlzj6vbhrc4o3deoeqxwoy

Soft-output sphere decoding: algorithms and VLSI implementation

C. Studer, A. Burg, H. Bolcskei
2008 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications  
constraints are the key ingredients for realizing soft-output MIMO detectors with near max-log performance at a chip area that is only 58% higher than that of the best-known hard-output sphere decoder  ...  Index Terms-Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems, soft-output sphere decoding, VLSI implementation, MIMO detection.  ...  The resulting need for multiple QR decompositions, however, leads to an overall increase in terms of hardware complexity. B.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jsac.2008.080206 fatcat:jni46opwbrbgpdbz74fntlvaie

Low complexity scalable MIMO sphere detection through antenna detection reordering

Michael Wu, Chris Dick, Yang Sun, Joseph R. Cavallaro
2012 Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing  
This paper describes a novel low complexity scalable multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detector that does not require preprocessing and the optimal squared l 2 -norm computations to achieve good bit  ...  Unlike existing detectors such as Flexsphere that use preprocessing before MIMO detection to improve performance, the proposed detector instead performs multiple search passes, where each search pass detects  ...  Acknowledgments The work of the Rice University authors was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grants EECS-0925942 and CNS-0923479.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10470-012-9894-8 fatcat:yvcskonwmbgi5cmtpb7d4b3dmq

Parallel High Throughput Soft-Output Sphere Decoding Algorithm

Qi Qi, Chaitali Chakrabarti
2011 Journal of Signal Processing Systems  
In addition, we propose a parallel QR decomposition algorithm to lower the preprocessing overhead, and a low complexity LLR algorithm to allow parallel update of LLR values.  ...  To speed up the computation, we propose a scheme with multiple fixed complexity sphere decoders to construct a parallel soft-output fixed complexity sphere decoder (PFSD).  ...  Parallel QR Decomposition for PFSD To support multiple tree searches in PFSD, a QR decomposition is needed for each FSD.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11265-011-0602-1 fatcat:2rtllocvwbgwthvtk5e6fwwp4q

Dynamically reconfigurable soft output MIMO detector

Pankaj Bhagawat, Rajballav Dash, Gwan Choi
2008 2008 IEEE International Conference on Computer Design  
High throughput implementation of the detection unit for MIMO systems is a significant challenge.  ...  This paper presents an ASIC implementation of a novel MIMO detector architecture that is able to reconfigure on the fly and provides soft values as output.  ...  This preprocessing stage (called QR decomposition or QRD) facilitates detection by mapping the detection process on to a tree search.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iccd.2008.4751842 dblp:conf/iccd/BhagawatDC08 fatcat:trzxsh3k65gnfhkte4oiyrxqsy

An energy efficient weakly programmable MIMO detector architecture

C. Gimmler-Dumont, N. Wehn
2013 Advances in Radio Science  
We show that most of the tree search based MIMO detection algorithms are based on the same algorithmic kernels and present a weakly-programmable architecture based on these observations.  ...  For the upcoming multiple-antenna systems, algorithmic flexibility enables the dynamic reaction to changing channel conditions.  ...  This work was partly supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) as part of the priority program "Dependable Embedded Systems" (SPP 1500).  ... 
doi:10.5194/ars-11-131-2013 fatcat:xh66ed5cpzdxpo7tdeiuo3uefm

A Survey of VLSI Implementations of Tree Search Algorithms for MIMO Detection

Ibrahim A. Bello, Basel Halak, Mohammed El-Hajjar, Mark Zwolinski
2015 Circuits, systems, and signal processing  
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detection algorithms have received considerable research interest in recent years, as a result of the increasing need for high data-rate communications.  ...  Finally, a number of design considerations and trade-offs for implementing MIMO detectors in hardware are presented.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors wish to acknowledge the Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF), Nigeria, for supporting this work.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00034-015-0218-y fatcat:4fa2dd7b4jhtrbbdygbv6cbtjy

A Power-Efficient Soft-Output Detector for Spatial-Multiplexing MIMO Communications

Hsiao-Chi Wang, Tung-Lin Liu, Yuan-Wei Wu, Hsi-Pin Ma
2012 Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering  
A novel tree search algorithm is proposed to enable the detector to provide soft outputs and to be implemented in parallel and pipelined hardware architecture.  ...  VLSI implementation of a configurable power-efficient MIMO detector is proposed to support4×4spatial multiplexing and modulation from QPSK to 64-QAM.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the National Chip Implementation Center (CIC) of the National Applied Research Laboratories, Taiwan, for EDA tool support, as well as fabrication and measurement  ... 
doi:10.1155/2012/938490 fatcat:bwdoqdfirjgabhjrqsos35ej3e

Efficient VLSI implementation of soft-input soft-output fixed-complexity sphere decoder

B. Wu, G. Masera
2012 IET Communications  
Fixed-complexity sphere decoder (FSD) is one of the most promising techniques for the implementation of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detection, with relevant advantages in terms of constant throughput  ...  We also provide a parallel implementation of log-likelihood-ratio (LLR) generator with optimized algorithm to enhance the proposed FSD architecture to be a soft-input soft-output (SISO) MIMO detector.  ...  The QR decomposition is of critical importance in many MIMO detection algorithms to reduce the complexity of receivers and to get better decoding results [25] .  ... 
doi:10.1049/iet-com.2011.0310 fatcat:5av5ggeuvfdzhpkuxqhqi7atcy

VLSI Implementation of Hard- and Soft-Output Sphere Decoding for Wide-Band MIMO Systems [chapter]

Christoph Studer, Markus Wenk, Andreas Burg
2012 IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology  
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology in combination with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is the key to meet the demands for data rate and link reliability of modern wideband  ...  Hard-output sphere decoding (SD) and soft-output single tree-search (STS) SD are promising means for realizing high-performance MIMO detection and have been demonstrated to enable efficient implementations  ...  The authors would like to thank L. Bruderer, H. Friederich, and P. Luethi for their contributions during the design and implementation of the SD architectures.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-28566-0_6 fatcat:e7arpoqrp5h75gzregw56kwe7u
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