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Tauopathy [chapter]

Hao Chi, Tzu-Kang Sang, Hui-Yun Chang
2019 Cognitive Disorders  
Author details Hao Chi 1 , Tzu-Kang Sang 1 * and Hui-Yun Chang 2 *Address all correspondence to: 1 Institute of Biotechnology, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu City, Taiwan  ... 
doi:10.5772/intechopen.73198 fatcat:7pjhpbdl6vhzdiwepty6566bzy

Cloning of Zero Modes in One-Dimensional Graphene Superlattices [article]

Wun-Hao Kang, Szu-Chao Chen, Ming-Hao Liu
2019 arXiv   pre-print
One-dimensional (1D) graphene superlattices have been predicted to exhibit zero-energy modes a decade ago, but an experimental proof has remained missing. Motivated by a recent experiment that could possibly shed light on this, here we perform quantum transport simulations for 1D graphene superlattices, considering electrostatically simulated potential profiles as realistic as possible. Combined with the analysis on the corresponding miniband structures, we find that the zero modes generated by
more » ... the 1D superlattice potential can be further cloned to higher energies, which are also accessible by tuning the average density. Our multiterminal transverse magnetic focusing simulations further reveal the modulation-controllable ballistic miniband transport for 1D graphene superlattices. A simple idea for creating a perfectly symmetric periodic potential with strong modulation is proposed at the end of this work, generating well aligned zero modes up to 6 within a reasonable gate strength.
arXiv:1912.13202v1 fatcat:smrc7q7ktnak7gbzymu5tpjpwa

MicroRNA-211 suppresses prostate cancer proliferation by targeting SPARC

Peng Hao, Bo Kang, Guoqing Yao, Wenqi Hao, Feihong Ma
2018 Oncology Letters  
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) is frequently associated with cancer progression. Altered expression of miR-211 has been observed in various types of human cancer; however, its expression and role in prostate cancer (PCa) remains unknown. In the present study, the expression of miR-211 in PCa cell lines and tissues was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qPCR), revealing that miR-211 was downregulated in PCa cell lines and tissues. Further analysis revealed that low
more » ... 211 was associated with the tumor stage and Gleason score. With the assistance of miR-211 mimics and inhibitor, it was also revealed that the overexpression of miR-211 could inhibit PCa cell proliferation in vitro. Conversely, downregulated miR-211 expression promotes PCa cell proliferation. In addition, the secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) was identified as a target of miR-211 in the PCa cell lines, and SPARC expression was inversely associated with miR-211. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the miR-211 expression was downregulated in PCa cell lines and tissues. Additionally, miR-211 could inhibit PCa cell proliferation partially by downregulating SPARC. Therefore, miR-211 may be a potential therapeutic target for PCa treatment in the future.
doi:10.3892/ol.2018.7877 pmid:29541199 pmcid:PMC5835857 fatcat:4hzaxlfh2vblnb45ngoqdzs2mm

Janus Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Membranes with Penetrative Pores for Photothermal Desalination

Hao-Hao Yu, Lin-Jiong Yan, Ye-Cheng Shen, Si-Yu Chen, Hao-Nan Li, Jing Yang, Zhi-Kang Xu
2020 Research  
Solar-driven desalination has been considered as a promising technology for producing clean water through an abundant and pollution-free energy source. It is a critical challenge to reasonably design the porous morphology and the thermal management of photothermal membranes for enabling efficient energy conversion and water production. In this work, a Janus poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane was fabricated in combination of penetrative pore structure, asymmetric surface wettability with proper
more » ... hermal management for high-efficiency solar desalination. Highly open and directly penetrative pores achieved by the two-dimensional solvent freezing strategy are considered to provide direct pathways for water and vapor transportation. The unique feature of hydrophobic upper layer/hydrophilic lower layer enables the photothermal membranes to self-float on the water surface and rapidly pump water from the bulk to the surface. The resulting Janus membrane exhibits a satisfactory light absorbance as high as 97% and a photothermal conversion efficiency of 62.8% under one-sun irradiation in a direct contact mode. The solar-to-vapor efficiency rises up to 90.2% with the assistance of a thermal insulator adopted beneath. Both the Janus membrane and the composite setup are able to work efficiently with a high stability in seawater desalination, and the concentration of ion in condensed water is reduced to below 1 ppm. Therefore, Janus membranes with directly penetrative pores and photothermal surfaces shine a light on the development of high-performance solar evaporators for the practical application in solar seawater desalination.
doi:10.34133/2020/3241758 pmid:32206759 pmcid:PMC7072121 fatcat:2cl4arpbqrdo7kagtgsfo6luse

Information fractal dimension of mass function [article]

Chenhui Qiang and Yong Deng and Kang Hao Cheong
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Fractal plays an important role in nonlinear science. The most important parameter to model fractal is fractal dimension. Existing information dimension can calculate the dimension of probability distribution. However, given a mass function which is the generalization of probability distribution, how to determine its fractal dimension is still an open problem of immense interest. The main contribution of this work is to propose an information fractal dimension of mass function. Numerical
more » ... s are illustrated to show the effectiveness of our proposed dimension. We discover an important property in that the dimension of mass function with the maximum Deng entropy is ln3/ln2≈ 1.585, which is the well-known fractal dimension of Sierpiński triangle.
arXiv:2112.04246v1 fatcat:sefgonjrxnfixnvmhiawgqkjua

Experimental Research on the Impact Environment of Multiplate Cabinet

Jun Guo, Shizhang Huang, Youwei Kang, Ning Hao, Hao Xie
2019 Shock and Vibration  
As an installation and protection device for electrical and electronic components, a shipboard cabinet is a typical multiplate structure. In order to study the impact environment distribution laws of such structures, impact testing was carried out on a shipboard cabinet under four working conditions in this paper. In addition, the impact response characteristics of such a multiplate structure were determined by numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. The impact environments of some
more » ... l points in cabinet were measured and some laws of dynamic response were found. The impact environment of central position was more severe on a single plate because of the first vibration modal. For different plates, the responses were usually similar at low-frequency band and a little different at high-frequency band. The theoretical analysis of the single degree of freedom oscillator was carried out, and the sensitivity of the response to the different characteristic frequencies was discussed based on the shock spectrum theory. A new method of calculating the response at a special frequency was proposed and verified.
doi:10.1155/2019/6283765 fatcat:65fhx7fsurefflrabnmzlx6yju

Electrothermal Desiccant Regeneration Technique for Air Dehumidification

Chih-Hao Chen, Yu-Hao Kang, Jing-Hung Lu, Ming-Lang Hung, Jyi-Ching Perng, Jiun-Jen Chen
2021 Processes  
Adsorption dehumidification and drying equipment is essential general equipment for domestic and industrial use. The most commonly used type in industry is the compressed air adsorption dryer. The analysis results show that the heat loss of the traditional heat air regeneration system of the compressor dryer is 39.4%, and the exhaust waste heat is 32.4%. The actual use of heat energy for desiccant regeneration is only 28.2%. Therefore, this study uses an innovative electrothermal adsorbent unit
more » ... (ETAU) to regenerate the desiccant. By directly heating the adsorbent, heat loss can be effectively improved. On the other hand, the composite arrangement of zeolite and activated alumina is used. The inlet compressed air is firstly treated by the activated alumina, which has a high adsorption capacity in the high relative humidity condition, then a zeolite is used as a second part to make the dew point reach –40 °C. In the regeneration step, the airflow direction is reversed, whereby the zeolite is regenerated by the ETAU, and the waste heat of the exhaust air is used to regenerate the activated alumina, which reduces the temperature of the exhaust air. Compared with the traditional heat air compressed air system, the two technologies can save about 27% energy in total.
doi:10.3390/pr9071082 fatcat:3nqn4f7crjfsvigzjdak2idvlq

Robust PDE Identification from Noisy Data [article]

Yuchen He, Sung Ha Kang, Wenjing Liao, Hao Liu, Yingjie Liu
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We propose robust methods to identify underlying Partial Differential Equation (PDE) from a given set of noisy time dependent data. We assume that the governing equation is a linear combination of a few linear and nonlinear differential terms in a prescribed dictionary. Noisy data make such identification particularly challenging. Our objective is to develop methods which are robust against a high level of noise, and to approximate the underlying noise-free dynamics well. We first introduce a
more » ... ccessively Denoised Differentiation (SDD) scheme to stabilize the amplified noise in numerical differentiation. SDD effectively denoises the given data and the corresponding derivatives. Secondly, we present two algorithms for PDE identification: Subspace pursuit Time evolution error (ST) and Subspace pursuit Cross-validation (SC). Our general strategy is to first find a candidate set using the Subspace Pursuit (SP) greedy algorithm, then choose the best one via time evolution or cross validation. ST uses multi-shooting numerical time evolution and selects the PDE which yields the least evolution error. SC evaluates the cross-validation error in the least squares fitting and picks the PDE that gives the smallest validation error. We present a unified notion of PDE identification error to compare the objectives of related approaches. We present various numerical experiments to validate our methods. Both methods are efficient and robust to noise.
arXiv:2006.06557v1 fatcat:oeyxxapiyvbuzhx4zftrmoghcq

Virtual-Leader Based Formation Control with Constant Bearing Guidance for Underactuated AUVs

Lili Hao, Hao Gu, Fengju Kang, Huizhen Yang
2017 ICIC Express Letters  
Model complexity and control method selection directly affects the difficulty and precision of formation control. The formation control for underactuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) considered in this paper consists of the target guidance for the leader and keeping the desired formation for the followers, so the virtual-leader based formation control method combined with constant bearing (CB) guidance law is proposed. The guidance part, which is based on CB guidance law, designs the
more » ... ing angle and forward speed to make it asymptotically follow the target trajectory. In the formation part, a new formation control model is established by using speed coordinate transformation and virtual-leader method. The position and speed controllers are designed by combining the direct Lyapunov and backstepping theory. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can control leader AUV to follow the known target path while keeping the desired formation shape with the followers.
doi:10.24507/icicel.11.01.117 fatcat:fzt46o5jebbizns2dbegaiytpu

The paradoxical sustainability of periodic migration and habitat destruction [article]

Zong Xuan Tan, Kang Hao Cheong
2017 bioRxiv   pre-print
Some species and societies engage in sustainable habitat destruction by periodically alternating between a low-growth migratory lifestyle and high-growth but destructive behavior. Examples include nomadic pastoralism and shifting cultivation, practiced by humans for millenia. Although specific models have been developed for species or societies which practice periodic migration and habitat destruction, theoretical insight into such phenomena as a whole is lacking. Here we present a general
more » ... of populations which alternate between migratory but negative-growth 'nomadism' and destructive 'colonialism' which yields high but short-term growth. Despite both strategies individually resulting in extinction, we demonstrate that a population can sustainably colonize an arbitrarily large network of habitats by alternating between the two. This counter-intuitive result can be interpreted in terms of both Parrondo's paradox and the exploration-exploitation dilemma, suggesting answers to the question of sustainable development.
doi:10.1101/226589 fatcat:wr2wyn6nxzgebj7y767it2lk5y

Object Detection with Mask-based Feature Encoding [article]

Xiaochuan Fan, Hao Guo, Kang Zheng, Wei Feng, Song Wang
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (R-CNNs) have achieved great success in the field of object detection. The existing R-CNNs usually divide a Region-of-Interest (ROI) into grids, and then localize objects by utilizing the spatial information reflected by the relative position of each grid in the ROI. In this paper, we propose a novel feature-encoding approach, where spatial information is represented through the spatial distributions of visual patterns. In particular, we design a Mask
more » ... eight Network (MWN) to learn a set of masks and then apply channel-wise masking operations to ROI feature map, followed by a global pooling and a cheap fully-connected layer. We integrate the newly designed feature encoder into the Faster R-CNN architecture. The resulting new Faster R-CNNs can preserve the object-detection accuracy of the standard Faster R-CNNs by using substantially fewer parameters. Compared to R-FCNs using state-of-art PS ROI pooling and deformable PS ROI pooling, the new Faster R-CNNs can produce higher object-detection accuracy with good run-time efficiency. We also show that a specifically designed and learned MWN can capture global contextual information and further improve the object-detection accuracy. Validation experiments are conducted on both PASCAL VOC and MS COCO datasets.
arXiv:1802.03934v1 fatcat:sem5rwktwzdq5mijnuzgy3vr3m

Deep Unitary Convolutional Neural Networks [article]

Hao-Yuan Chang, Kang L. Wang
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Deep neural networks can suffer from the exploding and vanishing activation problem, in which the networks fail to train properly because the neural signals either amplify or attenuate across the layers and become saturated. While other normalization methods aim to fix the stated problem, most of them have inference speed penalties in those applications that require running averages of the neural activations. Here we extend the unitary framework based on Lie algebra to neural networks of any
more » ... ensionalities, overcoming the major constraints of the prior arts that limit synaptic weights to be square matrices. Our proposed unitary convolutional neural networks deliver up to 32% faster inference speeds and up to 50% reduction in permanent hard disk space while maintaining competitive prediction accuracy.
arXiv:2102.11855v2 fatcat:idox7ipphfcvxikqrzdnqcgxxy

Primary Borderline Mucinous Testicular Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

Changjuan Hao, Chunsong Kang, Xiaoyan Kang, Zhuanzhuan Yu, Tingting Li, Jiping Xue
2021 Frontiers in Oncology  
Primary mucinous tumors of the testis and paratestis are very rare, with only 29 reported cases detected in a PubMed search. The histopathological characteristics of primary testicular mucinous tumors are similar to their ovarian counterparts, and the diagnosis and naming criteria refer to the criteria for female ovarian mucinous tumors. However, the clinical and imaging features of primary testicular mucinous tumors are poorly understood, and they are thus frequently undiagnosed or
more » ... . We present the case of a patient with a primary testicular mucinous tumor. A 52-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of painless enlargement of the left scrotum. Ultrasound examination revealed a cystic mass in the left testis, with viscous fluid areas and calcified spots, irregular solid bulges on the cyst wall, and a small blood supply. Serum alpha-fetoprotein, β-human chorionic gonadotropin, lactate dehydrogenase, renal function, inflammatory markers, and routine urine and blood examinations were all normal. The patient underwent radical resection of the left testis. Postoperative pathology showed a multilocular cystic mass, with the inner wall of the sac lined with mucous columnar epithelial cells, some with mild nuclear atypia, and no interstitial infiltration. The pathological diagnosis was testicular mucinous tumor. Postoperative abdominal and pelvic computed tomography, colonoscopy, and gastroscopy showed no suspicious lesions. The final diagnosis was primary testicular borderline mucinous tumor. The patient underwent postoperative follow-up examinations once a year for 4 years. Serum tumor markers, scrotal ultrasound, abdominal and pelvic computed tomography scans, and colonoscopy and gastroscopy revealed no evidence of metastases or other primary adenocarcinoma. This case highlights the clinical and imaging characteristics of primary testicular mucinous tumors, which might aid their differential diagnosis.
doi:10.3389/fonc.2020.619774 pmid:33767975 pmcid:PMC7986722 fatcat:v2jar57vnvhc3ksyam5ltt7zae

Effective discrimination of chiral molecules in a cavity [article]

Yi-Hao Kang, Zhi-Cheng Shi, Jie Song, Yan Xia
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We present a scheme to realize precise discrimination of chiral molecules in a cavity. Assisted by additional laser pulses, cavity fields can evolve to different coherence states with contrary-sign displacements according to the handedness of molecules. Consequently, the handedness of molecules can be read out with homodyne measurement on the cavity, and the successful probability is nearly unity without very strong cavity fields. Numerical results show that the scheme is insensitive to errors,
more » ... noise and decoherence. Therefore, the scheme may provide helpful perspectives for accurate discrimination of chiral molecules.
arXiv:2008.03048v1 fatcat:mz64uu2c6vhjnjfrztklvo7pgm

Strategic nomadic-colonial switching: Stochastic noise and subsidence-recovery cycles [article]

Jin Ming Koh, Kang Hao Cheong
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Previously, we developed a population model incorporating the Allee effect and periodic environmental fluctuations, in which organisms alternate between nomadic and colonial behaviours. This switching strategy is regulated by biological clocks and the abundance of environmental resources, and can lead to population persistence despite both behaviours being individually losing. In the present study, we consider stochastic noise models in place of the original periodic ones, thereby allowing a
more » ... er range of environmental fluctuations to be modelled. The theoretical framework is generalized to account for resource depletion by both nomadic and colonial sub-populations, and an ecologically realistic population size-dependent switching scheme is proposed. We demonstrate the robustness of the modified switching scheme to stochastic noise, and we also present the intriguing possibility of consecutive subsidence-recovery cycles within the resulting population dynamics. Our results have relevance in biological and physical systems.
arXiv:1801.07421v1 fatcat:n2svyzivxnagvdppyjbmnm5x64
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