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Explaining the evolution and maintenance of cooperative breeding or eusociality remains a challenge. Surprisingly, fundamental ecological factors, specifically competition for limited resources and resource variance, are frequently ignored in models of animal sociality. We here develop a mathematical model that includes density-dependent population growth and quantify the influence of cooperative foraging on resource use efficiency. We derive optimal resource sharing strategies, ranging fromdoi:10.1101/053108 fatcat:ol5johlyhvgwdb355irp254uvq
more »... litarian to cooperatively breeding and eusocial groups. We find that, while egalitarian resource sharing is a risk-reducing foraging strategy, eusociality yields additional benefits: like egalitarian strategies, eusocial groups can reduce their members' starvation risk by reducing resource variance. Additionally, eusocial groups increase their reproductive output by increasing intra-group variance in resources allocated to reproduction. This allows reproduction even when resources are so scarce that solitary animals would not be able to reproduce. In a majority of environmental situations and life-histories, this twofold benefit of eusociality increased resource use efficiency and led to supersaturation, that is, to a strong increase in carrying capacity. Supersaturation provides indirect benefits to group members even for low intra-group relatedness and represents one potential explanation for the evolution and maintenance of eusociality and cooperative breeding.
doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00683.2011 pmid:22442208 fatcat:gvjoyzs26bdn7euvhqme3r2aly
Laser Scanning, Theory and Applications
How to reference In order to correctly reference this scholarly work, feel free to copy and paste the following: Tino Just, Joachim Stave, Oliver Stachs, Gabriele Witt, Rudolf Guthoff and Hans Wilhelm ...doi:10.5772/15800 fatcat:b2td4zsievhf3fxsmlfbl3bke4
This paper describes our contribution to the SEPP-NLG Shared Task in multilingual sentence segmentation and punctuation prediction. The goal of this task consists in training NLP models that can predict the end of sentence (EOS) and punctuation marks on automatically generated or transcribed texts. We show that these tasks benefit from crosslingual transfer by successfully employing multilingual deep language models. Our multilingual model achieves an average F 1 -score of 0.94 for EOSdblp:conf/swisstext/GuhrSBB21 fatcat:z5c4oje5ufdbjinkaiucrany4e
more »... n on English, German, French, and Italian texts and an average F 1 -score of 0.78 for punctuation mark prediction. 1 https://github.com/oliverguhr/ fullstop-deep-punctuation-prediction.
Oliver Johns published his thesis in 1994 . The authors are grateful to Jorg Dieter Biela for technical assistance and graphics work. ...doi:10.1038/ki.1997.51 pmid:9027711 fatcat:ctyihvuisfhvlmdm2yjtgajrfy
We thank Hans-Willi Mittrü cker for critical reading of the article. ...doi:10.1038/ki.2010.102 pmid:20375986 fatcat:xyqixvzbpbe7va6ine63gjiypq
Leukocyte infiltration is a characteristic feature of human and experimental lupus nephritis and is closely correlated with loss of renal function. The chemokine receptor CCR5 is expressed on monocyte and T cell subsets and is thought to play an important role in recruiting these cells into inflamed organs. To investigate the functional role of CCR5 in lupus nephritis, CCR5deficient mice were backcrossed onto the lupus-prone MRL-Fas lpr (MRL/lpr) genetic background. Unexpectedly, CCR5 Ϫ/Ϫdoi:10.1152/ajprenal.00382.2011 pmid:22442210 fatcat:vyoon7wvbfckpj2lah6ziohtxy
more »... r mice developed an aggravated course of lupus nephritis in terms of glomerular tissue injury and albuminuria. Deterioration of the nephritis was associated with an overall increase in mononuclear cell infiltration into the kidney, whereas renal leukocyte subtype balance, systemic T cell response, and autoantibody formation were unaffected by CCR5 deficiency. Renal and systemic protein levels of the CCR5 ligand CCL3, which can also attract leukocytes via its alternate receptor CCR1, were significantly increased in nephritic CCR5 Ϫ/Ϫ MRL/lpr mice. Further studies revealed that the systemic increase in the CCR5/CCR1 ligand is also observed in nonimmune CCR5 Ϫ/Ϫ C57BL/6 mice and that this increase was due to a reduced clearance, rather than an overproduction, of CCL3. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that CCR5-dependent consumption of its own ligands may act as a negative feedback loop to restrain local chemokine levels within inflamed tissues, thereby limiting inflammatory cell influx. chemokines; chemokine receptors; glomerulonephritis SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in multiple organs including the skin, joints, kidney, lungs, central nervous system, and serous membranes (29). The disease predominantly affects young women and leads to considerable morbidity and mortality among these patients. Current treatment strategies including cytotoxic agents and steroids are often complicated by toxic side effects. Lupus nephritis is a common organ involvement and one of the most important factors for the long-term prognosis of SLE (6, 27). Mononuclear cell infiltrates in the kidney are characteristic for proliferative forms of human and experimental lupus nephritis and closely correlated with disease progression and loss of renal function (27) . Generation of autoantibodies against nuclear antigens, dysregulation of the T cell response, and organ infiltration of immune cells are decisive steps in the pathogenesis of SLE (5, 29). The molecule family of chemokines induce leukocyte adhesion and migration via interactions with specific chemo-kine receptors, facilitating the differential trafficking of leukocyte subsets to normal and inflamed tissues (7) . The chemokine receptor CCR5 is expressed on monocytes and dendritic cells, T cell subsets, and NK cells and is thought to recruit these cells types to inflamed target organs (19 -20). Upregulation of CCR5 ligands and accumulation of CCR5 ϩ cells in the kidney have been observed in human and experimental lupus nephritis (9, 28, 33, 34, 37) . The expression of CCR5 on multiple proinflammatory effector cell types and the availability of a human CCR5-specific pharmacological antagonist, approved for HIV therapy (15), makes it an attractive target for modulating leukocyte trafficking and, potentially, treatment of human autoimmune disease. However, recent studies by our group and others have raised concerns about the effectiveness and safety of CCR5 blockade alone as a therapeutic strategy in experimental glomerulonephritis (3, 40) , and other autoimmune diseases, such as experimental multiple sclerosis and human rheumatoid arthritis (13, 39, 42) . So far, the role of specific CCR5 blockade as a therapeutic approach for lupus nephritis has not been investigated. As we have shown previously, in an acutely induced "one-hit" model of crescentic glomerulonephritis, CCR5 deficiency leads to augmented immune cell infiltration and aggravation of the clinical course (40). In contrast, many human autoimmune diseases, such as lupus nephritis, develop chronically as a result of increased susceptibility determined by a certain genetic background together with other mainly unknown factors that initiate the disease. The MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr (MRL/lpr) mouse strain is a well-established experimental model of human lupus erythematodes (5, 10). In these mice, the combination of the lupus-prone MRL/MpJ background with the Fas lpr mutation leads to spontaneous development of autoimmunity over a period of several months. The nephritis in MRL/lpr mice is characterized by glomerular immune-complex deposition, immune cell infiltration into the kidney, and renal tissue injury that closely resembles the morphology of human proliferative lupus nephritis (10, 28). The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of CCR5 in murine lupus nephritis. To address this issue, CCR5-deficient MRL/lpr mice were generated and analyzed for the development and outcome of renal and systemic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals. MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr /2J (MRL/lpr) mice, MRL/MpJ wildtype (MRL control) mice, CCR5 Ϫ/Ϫ mice on a C57BL/6J background, and C57BL/6J wild-type mice were purchased from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME) and bred under specific pathogen-free conditions in the animal facility of the Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf. For generation of MRL/lpr CCR5 Ϫ/Ϫ mice, C57BL/6J CCR5 Ϫ/Ϫ mice were backcrossed on the MRL/lpr back-
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Sensor networks consist of a potentially huge number of very small and resource limited self-organizing devices. Those devices offer different services and use services provided by other sensor nodes. To give sensor nodes the possibility to offer services and to network-wide search for available services, some kind of lookup facility is needed. Several possibilities exist to realize service lookup in traditional networks and ad-hoc networks [ALM03, GOL99, GUT99, PRE02, SAL99, ZHU03]. In thisdoi:10.1007/978-3-540-30496-8_11 fatcat:au5v2zfpc5birmflg2ucorwuge
more »... er we present Secure Content Addressable Networks Version 2 (SCANv2), a secure overlay focusing especially on wireless sensor networks. The paper describes how this secure overlay can be used among other things to offer lookup functionality in sensor networks. The design of the overlay focuses on secure service lookups. The overlay is part of the Karlsruhe Sensor Network Platform K-SNeP, a modular and flexible architecture for service centric sensor networks. Key areas of application of the architecture are gradually extendable service centric sensor networks where sensors and actuators jointly perform various user defined tasks, e.g. in the field of an office environment or health care.
Combustion tests and gaseous emissions of olive mill solid wastes pellets (olive pomace (OP), and olive pits (OPi)) were carried out in an updraft counter-current fixed bed reactor. ... The results demonstrate the promise of using olive mill solid waste pellets as an alternative biofuel for heat and/or electricity production. ... of 100% olive pomace (OP). • 3.75 kg of 100% olive pits (OP i ). ...doi:10.3390/en11081965 fatcat:mxcjbeqsxzhrdkxigzqjo6aphq
ZusammenfassungDieser Beitrag beschreibt das Forschungsprojekt IntAKom (Intelligente Aufwertung der manuellen und teilautomatisierten Arbeit durch den Einsatz digitaler Kommunikationstechnologie) welches in Zusammenarbeit zwischen Forschung und Industrie konstruktive Ansätze guter digitaler Assistenz in der Produktion entwickelt und erprobt. Die Vorgehensweise wird an einem Anwendungsbeispiel aufgezeigt. Es wird beschrieben, wie das digitale Assistenzsystem in das Arbeitsumfeld integriertdoi:10.1007/978-3-662-61584-3_5 fatcat:g2jhurqidnh33agvdziuxactmy
more »... Gerade bei einer hohen Produktvielfalt erhöht sich die Komplexität in der Produktion. Die Beschäftigten können so durch den Einsatz digitaler Assistenzsysteme bei der Bewältigung der steigenden Anforderungen unterstützt werden. Darüber hinaus wird die Vorgehensweise zur Zielerreichung aus Sicht der Prozess-, Beschäftigten-, und Organisationsebene dargestellt und erste Projektergebnisse aufgezeigt. Auch die Erfolgsfaktoren für die Einführung eines digitalen Assistenzsystems werden abschließend in Form von Lessons learned formuliert.
Three-dimensional self-assembly of lithographically patterned ultrathin films opens a path to manufacture microelectronic architectures with functionalities and integration schemes not accessible by conventional two-dimensional technologies. Among other microelectronic components, inductances, transformers, antennas and resonators often rely on three-dimensional configurations and interactions with electromagnetic fields requiring exponential fabrication efforts when downscaled to thearXiv:1805.00656v1 fatcat:zhlxcumscza25d4v3fqsr4ioaa
more »... range. Here, the controlled self-assembly of functional structures is demonstrated. By rolling-up ultrathin films into cylindrically shaped microelectronic devices we realized electromagnetic resonators, inductive and mutually coupled coils. Electrical performance of these devices is improved purely by transformation of a planar into a cylindrical geometry. This is accompanied by an overall downscaling of the device footprint area by more than 50 times. Application of compact self-assembled microstructures has significant impact on electronics, reducing size, fabrication efforts, and offering a wealth of new features in devices by 3D shaping.
The nematic state is often considered to be critical for understanding the superconducting mechanism of iron-based superconductors, but the intricate effect of nematicity on the electronic structure remains controversial. Here, we fabricate multilayer FeSe films on SrTiO_3(001) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy and study the nematic properties by combining angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, ^77Se nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. ThearXiv:2207.14416v1 fatcat:6pvlbdrhnfb3xpg6jy2p2y4zci
more »... ichotomy of nematicity in FeSe thin films depending on the thickness is substantiated. When the film thickness is less than 35 monolayers (MLs) where sizeable tensile strain exists, a single-domain structure is revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy and NMR measurements. In 15-ML film, there is no band splitting of the outer hole band and a circular hole pocket is formed at Γ̅, the d_xz/d_yz splitting around Γ̅ further shows little change upon cooling, together suggesting the absence of nematic order. When the tensile strain is negligible further away from FeSe/SrTiO_3 interface (≥35 MLs), the double-peak splitting in ^77Se NMR spectra shows the presence of twinned orthorhombic domains, indicating the occurrence of electronic nematicity in the bulk region. Our observations not only shed light on the recent controversy of nematicity, but also offer fresh insights into the relationship between nematicity and superconductivity in FeSe thin films.
Society - Water - Technology
In 2011, based on an initiative of Reinhard Hüttl and Oliver Bens, the IRG Society -Water -Technology was established for a term of 3 years. ...doi:10.1007/978-3-319-18971-0_1 fatcat:oanpydksd5bpndphxzqs3a76qm
In patients with glioblastoma, antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab (BEV) has been shown to improve progression-free survival (PFS), but not overall survival (OS). Especially in patients with an unusual infiltrative phenotype as seen in multifocal glioblastoma, the use of BEV therapy is still more controversial. Therefore, we prepared a retrospective case series with 16 patients suffering from a multifocal glioblastoma treated with BEV. We compared these patients to a matched control cohortdoi:10.3390/ijms18112469 pmid:29156610 pmcid:PMC5713435 fatcat:eybfenjlpzchpkigz57y6ahks4
more »... f 16 patients suffering from glioblastoma with a single lesion treated with BEV. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the course of disease differs in glioblastoma patients with a multifocal disease pattern compared to those with a single lesion only. Patients were treated with BEV monotherapy or BEV in combination with irinotecan or lomustine (CCNU). Response rates and PFS were similar in both groups. There was a trend for an unfavorable OS in the patient group with multifocal glioblastoma, which was expected due to the generally worse prognosis of multifocal glioblastoma. We investigated whether BEV therapy affects the invasive growth pattern as measured by the appearance of new lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Under BEV therapy, there was a trend for a lower frequency of new lesions both in multifocal and solitary glioblastoma. Based on these results, BEV therapy at relapse appears to be justified to no lesser extent in multifocal glioblastoma than in solitary glioblastoma.
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