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HML-IDS: A Hybrid-Multilevel Anomaly Prediction Approach for Intrusion Detection in SCADA Systems

Izhar Ahmed Khan, Dechang Pi, Zaheer Ullah Khan, Yasir Hussain, Asif Nawaz
2019 IEEE Access  
The experimental results with a real large-scale dataset generated from a gas pipeline SCADA system show that the proposed approach HML-IDS outperforms the benchmark models with an accuracy rate of 97%  ...  Finally, to detect new attacks, we combined our package contents-level detection with another instance-based learner to make a hybrid method for anomaly detection.  ...  For instance, the authors of [28] applied classification methods based on one-class (Support Vector Data Description -SVDD and the Kernel Principal Component Analysis -KPCA) for detecting anomalies in  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2925838 fatcat:lnyhxoajv5hkhjso4pyae7vbii

Non-restoring integer square root: A case study in design by principled optimization [chapter]

John O'Leary, Miriam Leeser, Jason Hickey, Mark Aagaard
1995 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The top level is a Standard ML function that operates on unbounded integers.  ...  The bottom level is a structural description of the hardware consisting of an adder subtracter, simple combinational logic and some registers.  ...  Mark Aagaard is supported by a F ellowship from Digital Equipment Corporation.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-59047-1_42 fatcat:mtixusqgjngyrb4tde7zgpzbmy

A Short Historical Survey of Functional Hardware Languages

Gang Chen
2012 ISRN Electronics  
Functional programming languages offer a high degree of abstractions and clean semantics, which are desirable for hardware descriptions.  ...  This short historical survey is about functional languages specifically created for hardware design and verification.  ...  [118] are developing "System ML" language embedded in Ocaml in IBM Austin Lab. The language supports both simulation and synthesis. Circuit description is based on a stream type.  ... 
doi:10.5402/2012/271836 fatcat:n2iml6tnnzhzbcjyuslsmdpy64

System synthesis utilizing a layered functional model

Ingo Sander, Axel Jantsch
1999 Proceedings of the seventh international workshop on Hardware/software codesign - CODES '99  
The functional model is based on a formal semantics and the synchrony hypothesis.  ...  We propose a system synthesis method which bridges the gap between a highly abstract functional model and an efficient hardware or software implementation.  ...  HML [13] is a hardware description language based on Standard ML, which is a functional language similar to Haskell.  ... 
doi:10.1145/301177.301510 dblp:conf/codes/SanderJ99 fatcat:hxckizu4ebhpvljcsm3yvixevm

Pushing the Level of Abstraction of Digital System Design: a Survey on How to Program FPGAs

Emanuele Del Sozzo, Davide Conficconi, Alberto Zeni, Mirko Salaris, Donatella Sciuto, Marco D. Santambrogio
2022 ACM Computing Surveys  
Here, we survey three leading digital design abstractions: Hardware Description Languages (HDLs), High-Level Synthesis (HLS) tools, and Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs).  ...  We review these abstraction solutions, provide a timeline, and propose a taxonomy for each abstraction trend: programming models for HDLs; IP-based or System-based toolchains for HLS; application, architecture  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are grateful for feedbacks from Reviewers and NECSTLab members, with a particular mention to A. Damiani, A. Parravicini, E. D'Arnese, F. Carloni, F. Peverelli, and R.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3532989 fatcat:nsk5lwvt3vba5fbxmaj7sgpwru

A case study of hardware and software synthesis in ForSyDe

Zhonghai Lu, Ingo Sander, Axel Jantsch
2002 Proceedings of the 15th international symposium on System Synthesis - ISSS '02  
In this paper we illustrate with a case study of a digital equalizer how a ForSyDe model can be synthesized into a hardware, a software or a combined hardware/software implementation.  ...  efficient implementation model which serves as a starting point for synthesis into hardware and software.  ...  Hardware ML (HML) [10] is a hardware description language based on the functional language Standard ML.  ... 
doi:10.1145/581199.581219 fatcat:omd55iospjgr3nrewpnhslswsi

A case study of hardware and software synthesis in ForSyDe

Zhonghai Lu, Ingo Sander, Axel Jantsch
2002 Proceedings of the 15th international symposium on System Synthesis - ISSS '02  
In this paper we illustrate with a case study of a digital equalizer how a ForSyDe model can be synthesized into a hardware, a software or a combined hardware/software implementation.  ...  efficient implementation model which serves as a starting point for synthesis into hardware and software.  ...  Hardware ML (HML) [10] is a hardware description language based on the functional language Standard ML.  ... 
doi:10.1145/581214.581219 fatcat:g2kw44clh5egpo7xek2h4czh4q

C?aSH: Structural Descriptions of Synchronous Hardware Using Haskell

Christiaan Baaij, Matthijs Kooijman, Jan Kuper, Arjan Boeijink, Marco Gerards
2010 2010 13th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design: Architectures, Methods and Tools  
in the traditional hardware description languages.  ...  CλaSH is a functional hardware description language that borrows both its syntax and semantics from the functional programming language Haskell.  ...  HML [5] is a hardware modeling language based on the strict functional language ML, and has support for polymorphic types and higher-order functions.  ... 
doi:10.1109/dsd.2010.21 dblp:conf/dsd/BaaijKKBG10 fatcat:v3pdz6x3gbhu5nau7xhhuau5ru

Lava

Per Bjesse, Koen Claessen, Mary Sheeran, Satnam Singh
1999 SIGPLAN notices  
Lava also uses polymorphism and higher order functions to provide more abstract and general descriptions than are possible in traditional hardware description languages.  ...  Lava is a tool to assist circuit designers in specifying, designing, verifying and implementing hardware. It is a collection of Haskell modules.  ...  HML is a hardware description language based on ML, developed by Leeser and her group [LL95].  ... 
doi:10.1145/291251.289440 fatcat:k4zc25sp6zaajhwd4ncmgej6ve

Lava

Per Bjesse, Koen Claessen, Mary Sheeran, Satnam Singh
1998 Proceedings of the third ACM SIGPLAN international conference on Functional programming - ICFP '98  
Lava also uses polymorphism and higher order functions to provide more abstract and general descriptions than are possible in traditional hardware description languages.  ...  Lava is a tool to assist circuit designers in specifying, designing, verifying and implementing hardware. It is a collection of Haskell modules.  ...  HML is a hardware description language based on ML, developed by Leeser and her group [LL95].  ... 
doi:10.1145/289423.289440 dblp:conf/icfp/BjesseCSS98 fatcat:xhlfvxtbifg7nfvutm2dp7vndm

XML Specification for Complex Digital Logic Components

Fulong Chen
2013 Open Automation and Control Systems Journal  
, design activities need to be carried out under a precise description for completing the design cycle.  ...  combinational logic components, state-oriented finite state machine to describe the behavior models of sequential logic components, and structure-oriented connector to describe structure models of composite hardware  ...  HML (Hardware Meta Language) [7] uses standard ML (Meta Language) functions to connect circuits together.  ... 
doi:10.2174/1874444301305010080 fatcat:cj4gl3em45hw7p2epnosyht6mq

Transformation based communication and clock domain refinement for system design

Ingo Sander, Axel Jantsch
2002 Proceedings - Design Automation Conference  
In particular we present and illustrate communication and clock domain refinement by way of a digital equalizer system.  ...  Hardware ML (HML) [9] is a hardware description language, that is based on the functional programming language Standard ML.  ...  Lava [3] is a hardware description language based on Haskell. It focuses on the structural representation of hardware and offers a variety of powerful connection patterns.  ... 
doi:10.1145/513991.513992 fatcat:ikzix5lfm5febewhfgluw4suym

Transformation based communication and clock domain refinement for system design

I. Sander, A. Jantsch
2002 Proceedings 2002 Design Automation Conference (IEEE Cat. No.02CH37324)  
In particular we present and illustrate communication and clock domain refinement by way of a digital equalizer system.  ...  Hardware ML (HML) [9] is a hardware description language, that is based on the functional programming language Standard ML.  ...  Lava [3] is a hardware description language based on Haskell. It focuses on the structural representation of hardware and offers a variety of powerful connection patterns.  ... 
doi:10.1109/dac.2002.1012636 fatcat:roghwivr5bb73ov5xbazxx5xc4

Transformation based communication and clock domain refinement for system design

Ingo Sander, Axel Jantsch
2002 Proceedings - Design Automation Conference  
In particular we present and illustrate communication and clock domain refinement by way of a digital equalizer system.  ...  Hardware ML (HML) [9] is a hardware description language, that is based on the functional programming language Standard ML.  ...  Lava [3] is a hardware description language based on Haskell. It focuses on the structural representation of hardware and offers a variety of powerful connection patterns.  ... 
doi:10.1145/513918.513992 dblp:conf/dac/SanderJ02 fatcat:vrqtur2rzvd4bg6oygiiqrmgn4

Development and application of design transformations in ForSyDe

I. Sander, A. Jantsch, Z. Lu
2003 IEE Proceedings - Computers and digital Techniques  
Starting with a formal specification model, that captures the functionality of the system at a high abstraction level, it provides formal design transformation methods for a transparent refinement process  ...  Hardware ML (HML) [7] is based on the functional language Standard ML and mainly an improvement of VHDL -there is a direct mapping from HML constructs into the corresponding VHDL constructs.  ...  Finally, semanticpreserving methods were applied to transform a model into a more efficient representation. Lava [2] is a hardware de-scription language based on Haskell.  ... 
doi:10.1049/ip-cdt:20030836 fatcat:lceyjklwtfbopdwcobw3l2wzze
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