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Root system architecture (RSA) refers to the geometric features and topology of the root system. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a possible method of RSA reconstruction. However, because the topology of the root system is not directly accessible by GPR, GPR-based reconstruction must be complemented by manual connection of root points, resulting in limited accuracy. In this study, we used both GPR and direct excavation to obtain 3D coordinates (XYZ coordinates) and diameters of moso bamboodoi:10.3390/rs13142816 fatcat:y63rcqdejvalpp4iafbytfumm4
more »... omes on an orthogonal grid. A score function for selecting the best-connected root points was developed using rhizome diameter, depth, extension angle, and measured line spacing, which was then used to recover the topology of discrete root points. Based on the recovered topology, the 3D RSA of the rhizomes was reconstructed using a smoothing function. Based on the excavation data, the reconstructed RSA was generally consistent with the measured RSA, with 78.13% of root points correctly connected. The reconstructed RSA based on GPR data thus provided a rough approximation of the measured RSA, with errors arising due to missing root points and rhizome displacement. The proposed algorithm for reconstructing 3D RSA further enriches the application of ground-penetrating radar to root detection.
Carbon density of raw bamboo culm refers to Zhou (2006) . Figure 1 . 1 Procedure sketch for producing bamboo scrimber flooring. ...doi:10.3390/f10010051 fatcat:yycen7tpo5f6pahgflvrenfjs4
Urbanization inevitably poses a threat to urban ecology by altering its external structure and internal attributes. Nighttime light (NTL) has become increasingly extensive and practical, offering a special perspective on the world in revealing urbanization. In this study, we applied the Normalized Impervious Surface Index (NISI) constructed by NTL and MODIS NDVI to examine the urbanization process in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Geographical detectors combined with factors involving human anddoi:10.3390/rs14051160 fatcat:v2hvznhr3beldolctby5xrmv3y
more »... natural influences were utilized to investigate the drive mechanism. Urban ecology stress was evaluated based on changes in urban morphological patterns and fractional vegetation cover (FVC). The results showed that the NISI can largely overcome the obstacle of directly coupling NTL data in performing urbanization and has efficient applicability in the long-term pixel scale. Built-up areas in the YRD increased by 2.83 times during the past two decades, from 2053.5 to 7872.5 km2. Urbanization intensity has saturated the city center and is spilling over into the suburbs, which show a "cold to hot" spatial clustering distribution. Economic factors are the primary forces driving urbanization, and road network density is becoming essential as factor that reflects urban infrastructure. Urban geometry pattern changes in fractal dimension (FD) and compactness revealed the ecological stress from changing urban external structure, and internal ecological stress was clear from the negative effect on 63.4% FVC. This impact gradually increased in urban expanded area and synchronously decreased when urbanization saturated the core area. An analysis of ecological stress caused by urbanization from changing physical structure and social attributes can provide evidence for urban management and coordinated development.
Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is a stable carbon (C) fraction that has effects on long-term global C balance. Here, we report the phytolith and PhytOC accumulation in moso bamboo leaves developed on four types of parent materials. The results show that PhytOC content of moso bamboo varies with parent material in the order of granodiorite (2.0 g kg 21 ) . granite (1.6 g kg 21 ) . basalt (1.3 g kg 21 ) . shale (0.7 g kg 21 ). PhytOC production flux of moso bamboo on four types of parentdoi:10.1038/srep05262 pmid:24918576 pmcid:PMC5381504 fatcat:yfsniys4sraj5bposchfgof5au
more »... ials varies significantly from 1.0 to 64.8 kg CO 2 ha 21 yr 21 , thus a net 4.7 3 10 6 -310.8 3 10 6 kg CO 2 yr 21 would be sequestered by moso bamboo phytoliths in China. The phytolith C sequestration rate in moso bamboo of China will continue to increase in the following decades due to nationwide bamboo afforestation/reforestation, demonstrating the potential of bamboo in regulating terrestrial C balance. Management practices such as afforestation of bamboo in granodiorite area and granodiorite powder amendment may further enhance phytolith C sequestration through bamboo plants. W ith the swift development of modern society, the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has increased rapidly, resulting in global warming 1-3 . The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warned that the increasing CO 2 emission would cause a series of climate change problems resulting in various adverse influences on the environment and human health 4 . It was estimated that the total emissions of global atmospheric CO 2 had increased to 3.11 3 10 11 t by 2010 5 . Therefore, it is increasingly important to explore feasible technologies to sequester CO 2 and reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO 2 in the near future 6-7 . Phytoliths, also known as "opal phytoliths" 8 , are a type of amorphous silica which deposits in the cell wall, cell lumen and intercellular spaces during plant growth 7,9-10 . During their formation, some organic C can be occluded within phytoliths (PhytOC) 11-14 . Phytoliths can be stored steadily in soils and sediments after decomposition of plant residues 12,15-17 . For example, phytoliths are stable even under some extreme circumstances such as volcanic explosions, forest fires and earthquakes 15,18-20 . Thus, phytoliths play an important role in the long-term C sink of terrestrial ecosystems 12,21-22 , which may contribute to 82% of the total soil organic C pool in some sediments after 2000 years of decomposition 6 . Recent studies have indicated that PhytOC production flux of some plants shows a decreasing trend: bamboo (0.70 t-e-CO 2 ha 21 yr 21 ) 6 . sugarcane (0.36 t-e-CO 2 ha 21 yr 21 ) 23 . wheat (0.25 t-e-CO 2 ha 21 yr 21 ) 24 . rice (0.13 t-e-CO 2 ha 21 yr 21 ) 13 . millet (0.03 t-e-CO 2 ha 21 yr 21 ) 25 . Moreover, it has been suggested that if all of the potentially arable land was used to grow bamboo or other crops with a PhytOC production flux of 0.7 t-e-CO 2 ha 21 yr 21 , 1.5 3 10 9 t CO 2 yr 21 would be sequestered as PhytOC, approximately 11% of the CO 2 increase in atmosphere 6 . Bamboo, a typical Si-accumulator, has a global area of 22 3 10 6 ha and is increasing at a rate of 3% annually   . It is widely distributed in China (approximately 7.2 3 10 6 ha), mainly in Zhejiang, Fujian, and Jiangxi provinces 27 . More than two-thirds of bamboo distribution areas are dominated by moso bamboo in China 28 . At present, the potential of C bio-sequestration within phytoliths of some bamboo species has already been investigated 6 . However, the mechanisms and influencing factors for the production and accumulation of phytoliths and PhytOC within moso bamboo ecosystems have not yet been reported. Moso bamboo is the most commonly used species in the production of bamboo wood. Aerial parts have all been removed, and most of the remaining in the soil are bamboo leaves. In this study, we investigated the concentration of phytolith and PhytOC in moso bamboo leaves with different parent materials. The purposes of this study are to provide scientific references for OPEN SUBJECT AREAS: GEOCHEMISTRY BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
The canopy is the direct receiver and receptor of external environmental variations, and affects the microclimate and energy exchange between the understory and external environment. After autumn leaf fall, the canopy structure of different forests shows remarkable variation, causes changes in the microclimate and is essential for understory vegetation growth. Moreover, the microclimate is influenced by the scale effect of the canopy. However, the difference in influence between differentdoi:10.3390/rs13183786 fatcat:r2zlllu3xbhp7i2rtowfr4t2hm
more »... s remains unclear on a small scale. In this study, we aimed to analyze the influence of the scale effect of canopy projection on understory microclimate in three subtropical broad-leaved forests. Three urban forests: evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF), deciduous broad-leaved forest (DBF), and mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest (MBF) were selected for this study. Sensors for environmental monitoring were used to capture the microclimate data (temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and light intensity (LI)) for each forest. Terrestrial laser scanning was employed to obtain the canopy projection intensity (CPI) at each sensor location. The results indicate that the influence range of canopy projection on the microclimate was different from stand to stand (5.5, 5, and 3 m). Moreover, there was a strong negative correlation between T and RH, and the time for T and LI to reach a significant correlation in different urban forests was different, as well as the time for RH and LI during the day. Finally, the correlation between CPI and the microclimate showed that canopy projection had the greatest effect on T and RH in MBF, followed by DBF and EBF. In conclusion, our findings confirm that canopy projection can significantly affect understory microclimate. This study provides a reference for the conservation of environmentally sensitive organisms for urban forest management.
One risk of planting transgenic crops is the escape of transgenes to conspecifics and sexually compatible wild relatives. Detecting transgene escape is thus a crucial biosafety issue world-wide, but most current detection methods are expensive and laborious, as well as being unfeasible for large-scale use in commercial cultivation. We undertook field spectral reflectance studies of non-transgenic oilseed rape (B. napus cv. Westar), a transgenic oilseed rape, Wild Indian mustard (B. juncea var.doi:10.1080/01431160903505336 fatcat:fg2uhbppujdj5g4dtuwwh5zylm
more »... racilis) and a hybrid Wild Indian mustard. Simulated reflectances for the spectral bands of several different satellite-flown hyperspectral and multi-spectral scanners were generated. The differences obtained between the simulated reflectances of the different plants leads to the possibility that these differences could be used to detect transgene escape and genomic effects among related taxa from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) hyperspectral scanner and from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) High Resolution Visible (HRV) and IKONOS multi-spectral scanners.
Moso bamboo is widely distributed in southern China and has a long cultivation and utilization history (Xu, 2017) , a high economic value, and a high carbon sequestration capability (Zhou, 2006; Zhou ... Thus, Moso bamboo forests are uneven-aged forests with a 2-year interval (Zhou et al., 2010; Song et al., 2016a) . ...doi:10.3389/fpls.2020.591852 pmid:33343597 pmcid:PMC7744606 fatcat:lf4o6gady5aenowbubhyesie5m
Mixed-stand plantations are not always as beneficial for timber production and carbon sequestration as monoculture plantations. Systematic analyses of mixed-stand forests as potential ideal plantations must consider the physiological-ecological performance of these plantations. This study aimed to determine whether mixed moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens (Pradelle) Mazel ex J. Houz.) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) stands exhibited better physiological-ecologicaldoi:10.3389/fpls.2021.649204 pmid:34093612 pmcid:PMC8173113 fatcat:mv4qh6xw6fg4lfds5ghjmh3v3q
more »... rmance than monoculture plantations of these species. We analyzed leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzyme activities, chlorophyll content and leaf chemistry in a moso bamboo stand, a Chinese fir stand and a mixed stand with both species. The results showed that both species in the mixed stand exhibited significantly higher leaf net photosynthesis rate (Amax), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (CUE), chlorophyll content, maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), PSII quantum yield [Y(II)], leaf nitrogen content, and antioxidant enzyme activities than those in the monoculture plantations. However, the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in Chinese fir and 2-year-old moso bamboo was significantly lower in the mixed stand than in the monocultures. In addition, the water use efficiency (WUE) of Chinese fir was significantly higher in the mixed stand. The results suggest that the increase in leaf net photosynthetic capacity and the improved growth in the mixed stand could be attributed primarily to the (i) more competitive strategies for soil water use, (ii) stronger antioxidant systems, and (iii) higher leaf total nitrogen and chlorophyll contents in the plants. These findings suggest that mixed growth has beneficial effects on the leaf photosynthesis capacity and physiological resistance of moso bamboo and Chinese fir.
., 2001; Goldewijk & Ramnakutty, 2004; Zhou et al., 2004; Foley et al., 2005; Kaufmann et al., 2007) . ...doi:10.1016/j.rse.2008.05.009 fatcat:brglp4z6jrbhlbmqzaed6qxvzq
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) has high carbon sequestration potential and plays an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling. Quantifying the temporal change in Moso bamboo forest carbon stocks is important for understanding forest dynamics and global climate change feedback capacity. In 2009, 168 Moso bamboo forest sample plots were established in Zhejiang Province using National Forest Continuous Inventory protocols and enhanced measurements. These plots were revisited anddoi:10.3390/f8100371 fatcat:ewvpvoeztjh5vg4ldxr4d4xwoi
more »... d in 2014. By comparing the two years, culms number in age classes 2 and 4 increased by 12.3% and 82.5%, respectively, while that in age classes 1 and 3 decreased by 14.7% and 0.03%, respectively. The total aboveground culms carbon stocks increased by 2.95 Mg C ha −1 in the sample plots. On average, age classes 2 and 4 contributed 25.5% and 86.7% of the change in total carbon stocks, respectively. The carbon sequestrated by aboveground culms was 0.42 Tg C year −1 , accounting for 1.55 Tg CO 2 year −1 in Moso bamboo over an area of 0.78 million hectares in Zhejiang Province. The change in Moso bamboo carbon stocks did not correlate with environmental factors, but significantly increased with increasing culms number and average diameter at breast height (DBH). Our study helps contribute to improvements in Moso bamboo forest management strategies and promote carbon sequestration capacity.
This paper aims to use hyperspectral data to detect the spectral change caused by acid stress to a native forest type in the Three Gorges region of China. For this purpose, a ground-based hyperspectral experiment was conducted at the Three Gorges region to detect acid deposition that caused Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest degradation. Continuum removal method was used to isolate wavebands more responsive to stress in wavelengths 450-750nm. The differences in chlorophyll concentrations anddoi:10.1007/s11769-008-0249-4 fatcat:t7gtw5jlg5bhlame4ydxk7aun4
more »... needle thickness caused by acidic stress are found to be explicable to the different spectral reflectance patterns in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Two new chlorotic indices were utilized to explain the stress-caused leaf chlorosis. The comparison of simulated vegetation indices and principal component analysis (PCA) results suggests that it would be possible to monitor acid rain stress effect on forest ecosystem from some wider spectral regions.
Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during thedoi:10.1038/srep31504 pmid:27600881 pmcid:PMC5013281 fatcat:q566lfje7vgjviddpisefdttaa
more »... d between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr −1 in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr −1 in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm −2 yr −1 in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment. The invasion of exotic species has become a global problem and received increasing attention 1,2 . Invasive non-native plants can occupy the space and reduce the biodiversity of native ecosystem composed of local species, disrupt nutrient and hydrologic cycles, and modify the disturbance regimes and geomorphology of invaded ecosystems 3,4 . Understanding the mechanisms underlying biological invasions is crucial to evaluating invasions and will benefit for the management and restoration of invaded ecosystems 3,5 . However, almost all of the area expansions reported are about non-native species. The studies that quantify expansion or overabundance of native species are scarce. Some native species became overabundant in their natural distribution range that occupied the space of other native species like exotic species invasion, impacting seriously local ecosystem 6 . These negative effects are often paid less attention when the overabundant species is economically valuable. Bamboo is one of most valuable plants providing with lots of goods and services. Its remarkable growth rate and versatile properties such as renewability, strength and the high number of applications, have made it one of the most important plants 7 . Bamboo forests are important for biodiversity, from providing food and shelter to large animals (e.g. Giant Pandas and Mountain Gorillas) and birds, to soil organisms, insects, and other plants and shrubs that together make up the bamboo forest ecosystems 8 . Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is one of the most widespread subtropical bamboos in the world. It is mainly distributed across southern China, including 12 provinces such as Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Hunan, etc. Moso bamboo is the fastest growing plant in the world that can grow up to 119 cm in one day and 24 m high in 40 to 50 days 9 . From March to May is the fast growth period for shoots and new culms, while from July to September is the period of rhizome growth and shoot bud division 9 . Moso bamboo was introduced to Japan in 1736 from China 10 . As an exotic species, moso bamboo forest invasion was found 30 years ago in Japan. Moso bamboo has invaded secondary deciduous broad-leaved forests in eastern Japan near Tokyo 11,12 and in central Japan near Kyoto 13 , broadleaved forest, coniferous forest, bush and grassland near Hirasawa and Kofuki of eastern and western Japan 14 . Such phenomena revealed that the moso bamboo has potential invasiveness.
Soil respiration inherently shows strong spatial variability. It is difficult to obtain an accurate characterization of soil respiration with an insufficient number of monitoring points. However, it is expensive and cumbersome to deploy many sensors. To solve this problem, we proposed employing the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) algorithm, using soil temperature as auxiliary information, to study the spatial distribution of soil respiration. The BME algorithm used the soft data (auxiliarydoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146589 pmid:26807579 pmcid:PMC4726581 fatcat:wyc7sgtoj5bgtewthemv5p53oy
more »... ation) effectively to improve the estimation accuracy of the spatiotemporal distribution of soil respiration. Based on the functional relationship between soil temperature and soil respiration, the BME algorithm satisfactorily integrated soil temperature data into said spatial distribution. As a means of comparison, we also applied the Ordinary Kriging (OK) and Co-Kriging (Co-OK) methods. The results indicated that the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) and absolute values of bias for both Day 1 and Day 2 were the lowest for the BME method, thus demonstrating its higher estimation accuracy. Further, we compared the performance of the BME algorithm coupled with auxiliary information, namely soil temperature data, and the OK method without auxiliary information in the same study area for 9, 21, and 37 sampled points. The results showed that the RMSEs for the BME algorithm (0.972 and 1.193) were less than those for the OK method (1.146 and 1.539) when the number of sampled points was 9 and 37, respectively. This indicates that the former method using auxiliary information could reduce the required number of sampling points for studying spatial distribution of soil respiration. Thus, the BME algorithm, coupled with soil temperature data, can not only improve the accuracy of soil respiration spatial interpolation but can also reduce the number of sampling points.
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