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Automatic generation of program specifications

Jeremy W. Nimmer, Michael D. Ernst
2002 Software engineering notes  
the annotation burden for users of the static analysis.  ...  Measured against this verification task, the generated specifications scored over 90% on precision, a measure of soundness, and on recall, a measure of completeness.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank the members of the Daikon group -particularly Nii Dodoo, Michael Harder, and Ben Morse -for their contributions to this project.  ... 
doi:10.1145/566172.566213 dblp:conf/issta/NimmerE02 fatcat:tatd6ue77vdqtjrhpkhinhjwma

Automatic generation of program specifications

Jeremy W. Nimmer, Michael D. Ernst
2002 Software engineering notes  
the annotation burden for users of the static analysis.  ...  Measured against this verification task, the generated specifications scored over 90% on precision, a measure of soundness, and on recall, a measure of completeness.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank the members of the Daikon group -particularly Nii Dodoo, Michael Harder, and Ben Morse -for their contributions to this project.  ... 
doi:10.1145/566210.566213 fatcat:2ohlclualffefa7podd4flld6a

Automatic generation of program specifications

Jeremy W. Nimmer, Michael D. Ernst
2002 Software engineering notes  
the annotation burden for users of the static analysis.  ...  Measured against this verification task, the generated specifications scored over 90% on precision, a measure of soundness, and on recall, a measure of completeness.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank the members of the Daikon group -particularly Nii Dodoo, Michael Harder, and Ben Morse -for their contributions to this project.  ... 
doi:10.1145/566171.566213 fatcat:wscmdr2j2varbagk3gagldp42q

Social Media Study of Public Opinions on Potential COVID-19 Vaccines: Informing Dissent, Disparities, and Dissemination [article]

Hanjia Lyu, Junda Wang, Wei Wu, Viet Duong, Xiyang Zhang, Timothy D. Dye, Jiebo Luo
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We adopt a human-guided machine learning framework using more than six million tweets from almost two million unique Twitter users to capture public opinions on the potential vaccines for SARS-CoV-2, classifying  ...  Interestingly, the percentage of the pro-vaccine group is lower in the Southeast part of the United States.  ...  ; (b) 6,942 unique Twitter users inferred by both human-annotated and 50% machine-labeled (randomly sampled) tweets are kept for the robustness verification of the second combination.  ... 
arXiv:2012.02165v4 fatcat:txh6jxyk5bappd4jfxhw6uwcau

Verification and Validation of Semantic Annotations [article]

Oleksandra Panasiuk, Omar Holzknecht, Umutcan Şimşek, Elias Kärle, Dieter Fensel
2019 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we propose a framework to perform verification and validation of semantically annotated data.  ...  The validation mechanism will detect errors and inconsistencies between the content of the analyzed schema.org annotations and the content of the web pages where the annotations were found.  ...  for non-technical users.  ... 
arXiv:1904.01353v2 fatcat:d3teqwzambacjoihtwbi5q26nu

Dafny: Statically Verifying Functional Correctness [article]

Rachel Gauci
2014 arXiv   pre-print
Examples of Dafny code are provided to illustrate the use of each feature, and an overview of how Dafny translates programming code into a mathematical proof of functional verification is presented.  ...  The report also includes references to useful resources on Dafny, with mentions of related works in the domain of specification languages.  ...  Once the annotations are in place, no user interaction is required to generate the proof of functional correctness.  ... 
arXiv:1412.4395v1 fatcat:ej7xuj3vwbh5dfvbnud75z5kxi

Exploiting refactoring in formal verification

Xiang Yin, John Knight, Westley Weimer
2009 2009 IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems & Networks  
Proofs that the semantics of the refactored program are equivalent to those of the original program, that the code conforms to the annotations, and that the extracted specification implies the program's  ...  Correctness proof, for example the weakest precondition approach, tries to establish the theorem that  ...  To our knowledge, there is no verification complexity metric available that could guide the user in selection of transformations, and so we present a hybrid of metrics to the user for review using a commercial  ... 
doi:10.1109/dsn.2009.5270355 dblp:conf/dsn/YinKW09 fatcat:b76qgyfyfbcfbgnos4wer2w2ly

A scalable active framework for region annotation in 3D shape collections

Li Yi, Leonidas Guibas, Vladimir G. Kim, Duygu Ceylan, I-Chao Shen, Mengyan Yan, Hao Su, ARCewu Lu, Qixing Huang, Alla Sheffer
2016 ACM Transactions on Graphics  
This allows us to jointly optimize for the set of models to annotate and for the set of models to verify based on the predicted impact of these actions on the human efficiency.  ...  automatic annotations, and learning from the verification results to improve the automatic propagation algorithm.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors thank Justin Solomon and Nicholas Vining for their help.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2980179.2980238 fatcat:ploxpmyudnb6vixdxdviso5fki

Estimating semantic confidence for spoken dialogue systems

Pradhan, Ward
2002 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing  
It must realize when it doesn't understand the user and interact to correct the problem. To this end, most systems have some form of confidence assessment mechanism.  ...  In order for a spoken dialogue system to carry on a fluent conversation, it must be able to estimate confidence in its interpretation of the input that it is receiving.  ...  We want to use the confidence estimate to guide our information verification process, not just for utterance level rejection.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icassp.2002.1005719 fatcat:kjomse4gqnehbg6mei7cay37uy

Estimating semantic confidence for spoken dialogue systems

Sameer S. Pradhan, Wayne H. Ward
2002 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing  
It must realize when it doesn't understand the user and interact to correct the problem. To this end, most systems have some form of confidence assessment mechanism.  ...  In order for a spoken dialogue system to carry on a fluent conversation, it must be able to estimate confidence in its interpretation of the input that it is receiving.  ...  We want to use the confidence estimate to guide our information verification process, not just for utterance level rejection.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icassp.2002.5743697 dblp:conf/icassp/PradhanW02 fatcat:whnmxsdxufgg3hsrngtdka4b4m

The AutoProof Verifier: Usability by Non-Experts and on Standard Code

Carlo A. Furia, Christopher M. Poskitt, Julian Tschannen
2015 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
We report our experiences and lessons learnt, from which we derive some general suggestions for furthering the development of verification tools with respect to improving their usability.  ...  Second, we evaluate its usability in verifying code developed for programming assignments of an undergraduate course.  ...  Sebastian Nanz contributed to the design of the verification project as one of the instructors of "Software Verification".  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.187.4 fatcat:ddwjnmj6jrh6zmxc4rspwwsd6u

Cameleer: A Deductive Verification Tool for OCaml [chapter]

Mário Pereira, António Ravara
2021 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
AbstractWe present , an automated deductive verification tool for OCaml.  ...  The formally-specified program is fed to our toolchain, which translates it into an equivalent one in WhyML, the programming and specification language of the Why3 verification framework.  ...  To the best of our knowledge, Cameleer is the first deductive verification tool for annotated OCaml programs.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-81688-9_31 fatcat:hcnbecwpiffppjbhj5dyu6y2q4

Formal Verification With Frama-C: A Case Study in the Space Software Domain

Rovedy Aparecida Busquim e Silva, Nanci Naomi Arai, Luciana Akemi Burgareli, Jose Maria Parente de Oliveira, Jorge Sousa Pinto
2016 IEEE Transactions on Reliability  
Although important, traditional validation activities such as testing and simulation can only provide a partial verification of behavior in critical real-time software systems, and thus, formal verification  ...  With the increasing importance of software in the aerospace field, as evidenced by its growing size and complexity, a rigorous and reliable software verification and validation process must be applied  ...  Abdala, and all the reviewers for their invaluable work on how to improve the paper.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tr.2015.2508559 fatcat:tnsj5sgl2bctvmb2gelso63yty

Interactive Cell Segmentation Based on Active and Semi-Supervised Learning

Hang Su, Zhaozheng Yin, Seungil Huh, Takeo Kanade, Jun Zhu
2016 IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging  
significantly more efficient than alternative methods, since the most informative samples are selected for human annotation / verification early.  ...  After propagating the user-specified labels to the remaining unlabeled superpixels via an affinity graph, the error-prone superpixels are selected automatically and request for human verification on them  ...  In case that the segmentation is not reliable, we measure the uncertainty of each superpixel with entropy, and choose the most uncertain superpixels to query for verification.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tmi.2015.2494582 pmid:26529749 fatcat:wtr2ezfxpfgo3lfwsrl3c3oydu

System FR as Foundations for Stainless [article]

Jad Hamza, Nicolas Voirol, Viktor Kunčak
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Our program verifier is implemented as an alternative verification-condition generator for the Stainless tool, which relies on existing SMT-based solver backend for automation.  ...  We present the design, implementation, and foundation of a verifier for higher-order functional programs with generics and recursive data types.  ...  Along with support for singleton types and refinements, we obtained a rich framework to approximate program semantics, which can also help further type, invariant, and measure inference algorithms.  ... 
arXiv:1904.03482v1 fatcat:loszinmfq5g6zirzku2pfr626m
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