Physicochemical Features and Peculiarities of Interaction of AMP with the Membrane
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are anti-infectives that have the potential to be used as a novel and untapped class of biotherapeutics. Modes of action of antimicrobial peptides include interaction with the cell envelope (cell wall, outer- and inner-membrane). A comprehensive understanding of the peculiarities of interaction of antimicrobial peptides with the cell envelope is necessary to perform a rational design of new biotherapeutics, against which working out resistance is hard for microbes.
... In order to enable de novo design with low cost and high throughput, in silico predictive models have to be invoked. To develop an efficient predictive model, a comprehensive understanding of the sequence-to-function relationship is required. This knowledge will allow us to encode amino acid sequences expressively and to adequately choose the accurate AMP classifier. A shared protective layer of microbial cells is the inner, plasmatic membrane. The interaction of AMP with a biological membrane (native and/or artificial) has been comprehensively studied. We provide a review of mechanisms and results of interactions of AMP with the cell membrane, relying on the survey of physicochemical, aggregative, and structural features of AMPs. The potency and mechanism of AMP action are presented in terms of amino acid compositions and distributions of the polar and apolar residues along the chain, that is, in terms of the physicochemical features of peptides such as hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, and amphiphilicity. The survey of current data highlights topics that should be taken into account to come up with a comprehensive explanation of the mechanisms of action of AMP and to uncover the physicochemical faces of peptides, essential to perform their function. Many different approaches have been used to classify AMPs, including machine learning. The survey of knowledge on sequences, structures, and modes of actions of AMP allows concluding that only possessing comprehensive information on physicochemical features of AMPs enables us to develop accurate classifiers and create effective methods of prediction. Consequently, this knowledge is necessary for the development of design tools for peptide-based antibiotics.