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., Benincasa P., Guiducci M. Figure 2 . ... However, the high com- Tosti G., Benincasa P., Guiducci M. 244 petitive ability for soil N exerted towards the legume is also effective on barley itself, leading to a strong intra-specific competition ...doi:10.4081/ija.2010.239 fatcat:yt4cq6d5brcsfocszz3qcnn5cq
Overall, cumulated, leached NO 3 -N (kg ha -1 ) below a depth of 0.9 m and the percentage lost before the faba bean (FB) incorporation into the soil in 2010 and 2011. early stage advantages (Benincasa ...doi:10.2134/agronj2015.0464 fatcat:kpbezrsr5fhovdc6g7hpepmk7i
The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of fertilizing processing tomato by coupling the green manuring of fall-winter cover crops with fertigation in spring-summer. In a two-year experiment, seven fertilization treatments were compared: green manuring of pure barley (B100) and pure vetch (V100) sown at 100% of their ordinary seeding rates, green manuring of a barley-vetch mixture at a ratio of 75:25 of their own seed rates (B75V25), fertigation with drip irrigation at a rate ofdoi:10.3390/agronomy10070977 fatcat:plxzjmdbinedtmk5m7u2c22t2a
more »... 0 kg ha−1 of nitrogen (N) (Fert_N200), fertigation combined with B100 and B75V25 at a N rate complementary to 200 kg N ha−1 (B100 + Fert and B75V25 + Fert, respectively), and an unfertilized control (N0) with no cover crops for green manuring prior to tomato transplanting or fertigation. The Fert_N200 treatment resulted in maximum tomato N uptake, growth and yield, but caused high N leaching, especially during the no-cover fall-winter period, as was also the case for N0. The V100 treatment promoted quite good tomato N status and yield, but did not reduce N leaching. The B100 and B75V25 treatments reduced N leaching but decreased tomato N uptake, growth and yield. The B100 + Fert and B75V25 + Fert treatments reduced N leaching, likely increased soil N stock, and facilitated optimal tomato N nutrition and maximum yields. Combining fertigation with green manuring of cover crops composed of pure grass or grass-legume mixtures appears to be a very effective and environmentally sound practice for fertilizing high N-demanding spring-summer crops like processing tomato.
The availability and timely exchange of information is a fundamental requirement for network-centric warfare. An increasing number of military operations are distributed in nature, requiring information sharing across geographically separated enclaves of information. The connectivity between these enclaves consists of tactical links with intermittent connectivity, limited bandwidth, and variable latency. Therefore, the information sharing architecture must accommodate unreliable and transientlydoi:10.1109/milcom.2013.123 dblp:conf/milcom/LenziBCSMWN13 fatcat:ydf4kqn4ajekbo63mzec5xqzka
more »... disconnected networks. Our middleware approach realizes a set of federation services to interconnect multiple instances of the U.S. Marine Corps' Marine Command and Control Systems and Applications Tactical Service-oriented Architecture (MC2SA TSoA). This federation capability supports a publish/subscribe/query model and provides reliability in the information exchange between information enclaves. The federation capability also supports enforcement of policies to control or limit the nature of the information shared. The ultimate goal is to increase information availability and access regardless of location while providing transparency to clients.
Tactical operations often involve the cooperation of multiple actors that need to communicate in a reliable and timely fashion. Numerous critical activities that are performed in this context, such as the dissemination of situational awareness data, or the dissemination of command and control information, present a point-to-multipoint pattern. Therefore, multicast protocols are a suitable approach to perform efficient data dissemination in this context. More specifically, some tacticaldoi:10.1109/milcom.2011.6127429 dblp:conf/milcom/BenincasaRSTS11 fatcat:cr2f5wt7fvca7oojynkb6rvrb4
more »... on requires reliable point-to-multipoint delivery of information. In this paper, we experimentally evaluate four protocols (and corresponding implementations) that have been developed to support reliable multicast communications: NORM, JGroups, OpenPGM, and DisService. We report on two sets of experiments. The first set of experiments measure bandwidth utilization and average delivery time under different emulated network conditions. The second set of experiments performs a more in-depth comparison of the forward error correction approach implemented in NORM with DisService, which adopts an opportunistic approach for information dissemination.
Tactical edge networks provide one of the most challenging environments for communications, which significantly complicates the development of efficient and robust information dissemination solutions. In our previous work, we found that exploiting highly mobile nodes, such as Unmanned Air Vehicles, with cyclic mobility patterns, as message ferries can significantly improve the performance of information dissemination solutions. However, our experience demonstrated that robust forecastingdoi:10.1109/iscc.2012.6249347 dblp:conf/iscc/MarchiniTBSS12 fatcat:jcjr3eq52bcvxe23gfcrdczley
more »... sms are essential in order to withstand frequent changes in the mobility patterns of message ferrying nodes. This paper presents an extension of the adaptive node presence forecasting component developed for DisService, a Peer-to-peer information dissemination system, that provides estimates of tolerance and accuracy of node mobility forecasts. We tested the extended forecasting mechanism in a simulation environment and found that it can lead to significant improvements in the timeliness and reliability of information dissemination. Opportunistic communications; information dissemination; tactical networks, statistical learning. I.
This N was easily available to wheat thanks to the low C/N ratio of the fresh legume biomass at that stage Benincasa et al. 2010) . ... For this reason, strategies are needed to increase (i) N self-sufficiency and (ii) N use efficiency at the plant, crop, and whole-rotation scales (Benincasa et al. 2017b; Dresbøll and Thorup-Kristensen ...doi:10.1007/s13593-018-0509-3 fatcat:fip6wch34jf2dozcelvuqbogua
Opportunistic sensing is an approach that dynamically exploits the sensing resources offered by smart phones in order to collect data about a certain area. Opportunistic sensing differs from other types of people-centric sensing due to the opportunism with which the sensing activity is performed. Participants are not expected to change their behavior in order to provide data to the sensing activity, and may contribute to the sensing only for a short fractions of time. Because of the little ordoi:10.1145/2436196.2436219 fatcat:lthmyxkpqzgnjm2qgulobtt5im
more »... control required from the participants, issues like energy efficiency, parsimonious use of expensive cellular network and privacy preservation are paramount. We propose the creation of a suite of network protocols to support the creation of opportunisticsensing applications that are distributed, private and that do not rely on any infrastructure, with the exception of a limited number of nodes that are designated as sinks.
M67, M172, DYS221, and M267 were typed by ASO probe hybridization (Di Giacomo et al., 2003 Giacomo et al., , 2004 . ... The G2-P15 frequency among Czechs is slightly lower than that found in continental Italy and Greece (6.3 and 6.6%, respectively) (Di Giacomo et al., 2003) . ...doi:10.1002/ajpa.20500 pmid:17078035 fatcat:huatkqovonhmhcakxmptiaqgwu
Tactical networking environments present many challenges in terms of bandwidth, latency, reliability, stability, and connectivity. Sensors increasingly generate very large data sets that exceed the ability of tactical networks to transfer and disseminate them in a timely manner. Furthermore, a rapid decrease in the cost of sensors, combined with the desire to cover larger areas with persistent sensing capabilities, have resulted in a wide-scale deployment of sensors in increasing numbers,doi:10.1109/mcom.2015.7295461 fatcat:5lnfm2kr2ff6bigc4q2br5ijny
more »... r widening the gap between the volume of information that is generated and the subset that can be successfully delivered to consumers. This paper explores the notion of determining the value of information in order to prioritize and filter information that is disseminated over these tactical networks, focusing on the dissemination of information to and from dismounted soldiers in a battlefield environment. This is a promising approach to mitigate the constraints of tactical networks and to reduce information overload on soldiers. These trends have motivated researchers to increasingly focus on the challenging problem of filtering information and of prioritizing and transmitting only those subsets that would be useful to consumers. In fact, recent research in multiple disciplines has raised the question of determining the Value of Information (VoI) as an enabler for effective decision-making , thus enabling the filtering and prioritization of information according to the corresponding value perceived by the consumer on an individual basis  . Solutions that can analyze information and infer its value represent a natural complement for tactical communications middleware. In fact, the latter were designed to withstand node mobility and communication path disruptions and to exploit the scarce communication resources in the most efficient way, typically by implementing smart and reliable message prioritization mechanisms  and data fusion  . VoI-based solutions help by further reducing the bandwidth requirements and improving the communication latency, essentially trading off the delivery of non-critical information to ensure that important and high-priority information can reach consumers that need it in a timely manner. An equally important motivation for filtering information based on value to the consumer is to reduce information overload. Delivering and presenting unnecessary information to soldiers actively performing a task at the very least results in an unnecessary increase in their cognitive workload. In the worst case, it could become a distraction and cause them to make mistakes.
MILCOM 2009 - 2009 IEEE Military Communications Conference
Tactical networking environments demand reliable, robust, and efficient approaches to disseminating information that are tolerant to unreliable and bandwidth-constrained networks. This paper describes DisService, an Agile Computing approach to information dissemination that opportunistically discovers and exploits excess communications, storage, and processing capacity in a distributed network to improve the performance of information dissemination. DisService is disruption tolerant and cachesdoi:10.1109/milcom.2009.5379952 fatcat:g4u6wvyhxjfxfobrymis22e7ba
more »... ata throughout the network by replicating the data. Nodes subscribe to hierarchically organized groups. Information is published in the context of a group, and may also be tagged to differentiate between multiple types of data (e.g., blue-force tracking, sensor data, logistics, or other runtime information). Each node operates in a distributed, peer-to-peer manner while processing and communicating the published information and requested subscriptions from neighboring nodes. Information is disseminated using an efficient combination of push and pull, depending on the number of subscribers, the capacity of the network, the stability of nodes in the network, and the predicted information needs of users. Finally, DisService also supports efficient dissemination of large data by replicating and scattering fragments throughout the network. These features combine to realize an effective approach to information dissemination for tactical networks.
papers, has been on the technical program committees of several international conferences, and has been a reviewer for the National Science Foundation as well as several international journals.GIACOMO BENINCASA ...doi:10.1109/mcom.2010.5594678 fatcat:wf3h6tazlnfodessbfzkcuixve
Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) technology offers vast possibilities in plant lighting due to its ability to mix different light frequencies, high energy use efficiency and low heat production combined to long lifespan. In particular, the combined effect of the Blue:Red (B:R) ratio and other frequencies in the central part of the PAR spectrum (CGA, i.e. cyan, green and amber) may be very important, though literature information is scarce. In this paper, the effects of six light spectra from LEDdoi:10.4081/ija.2017.883 fatcat:is5ddvntnvfnhfmdte6lhveheq
more »... hnology were tested, i.e.: (i) B:R=0.82 (i.e. similar to sunlight) with CGA (treatment T0), (ii) B:R=0.82 without CGA (T1), (iii) red prevalence (B:R=0.25) without CGA (T2), (iv) blue prevalence (B:R=4) without CGA (T3), (v) red prevalence with CGA (T4) and (vi) blue prevalence with CGA (T5). The experiment was carried out in a walk-in climatic chamber with controlled temperature and relative humidity and an incident PAR photon flux density (PFD) of 300 μmol m<sup>–2</sup> s<sup>–1</sup> (14/10 light/dark photoperiod), generated by multispectral LED lamps with adjustable light intensity. Smooth leaved lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Gentilina) was used as the test plant and biomass yield (DW, g m<sup>–2</sup>), LAI, soil coverage proportion (SC%), energy-biomass conversion efficiency (E-BCE, kWh g<sup>–1</sup>) and Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE, g mol<sup>–1</sup> photons) were determined. Treatments with red predominance (T2 and T4) showed the highest SC% rates, while those with blue predominance (T3 and T5) showed the lowest. Light spectrum also affected leaf size (i.e. mean leaf area). The highest DW and RUE were observed in T2 and T4, followed by T0, while biomass in T3 and T5 was significantly lower (similar to T1). LAI values were generally high, but treatments with blue predominance showed the lowest LAI values (both with or without CGA). The introduction of intermediate wavelengths (green, cyan and amber) did not bring about significant improvement in DW or RUE, but resulted in reduced energy-biomass conversion efficiency, mainly due to lower architectural efficiency of the CGA LEDs. Future research should clarify how to optimise the light spectra according to the crop growth phases. The adoption of spectra promoting fast growth is fundamental in the early growth, while the use of spectra maximising yield quality may be more important later on.
Nitrogen concentration in plants is normally determined by expensive and time consuming chemical analyses. As an alternative, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO 3 concentration determination in petiole sap were proposed, but these assays are not always satisfactory. Spectral reflectance values of tomato leaves obtained by visible-near infrared spectrophotometry are reported to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plant nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibilitydoi:10.3390/s110606411 pmid:22163962 pmcid:PMC3231448 fatcat:wvma3ekm65eb7bbowsbs7lh5hy
more »... and the accuracy of the estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen concentration performed through a rapid, portable and non-destructive system, in comparison with chemical standard analyses, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO 3 concentration in petiole sap. Mean reflectance leaf values were compared to each reference chemical value by partial least squares chemometric multivariate methods. The correlation between predicted values from spectral reflectance analysis and the observed chemical values showed in the independent test highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.94). The utilization of the proposed system, increasing efficiency, allows better knowledge of nutritional status of tomato plants, with OPEN ACCESS Sensors 2011, 11 6412 more detailed and sharp information and on wider areas. More detailed information both in space and time is an essential tool to increase and stabilize crop quality levels and to optimize the nutrient use efficiency. There is an increasing effort to optimize nitrogen (N) fertilization and to improve crop N use efficiency in order to achieve high yields and limit environmental side effects related to N leaching . This can be done by a fine-tuning of fertilization rate and a dynamic N management at each growth stage according to the nutritional status periodically monitored  . This is the case of fertigated vegetables, such as processing tomatoes, where the fertilizer rate can be split and adjusted throughout the whole growing cycle by means of a drip irrigation system  . Nevertheless, standard laboratory analysis of N concentration in the above-ground biomass are expensive and time consuming, especially if a rapid crop N status evaluation is required for in-season decision making procedures  . For this reason, quick and practical tests have been proposed, some of which are already spread among growers. Opto-electronic based techniques can strongly help to reach the previously mentioned goals, thanks to easiness of use and low costs. Two of the most common and simple of these are: the chlorophyll meter readings (e.g., SPAD-502, Minolta) and the measurements of N-NO 3 concentration in petiole sap (SAP test). The N nutritional state in plants may be determined indirectly by the chlorophyll concentration present in the leaves, as it is directly correlated to their N concentration  . The SPAD method measures the light transmittance through leaves and is based on this correlation. It has been tested with good results in several arable and vegetable crops and also in tomato [2-6]. Nevertheless, the N prediction performance of the SPAD is variable, being affected by several factors such as cultivar, environmental conditions, plant growth stage, disease and pests  . In addition, Monje and Bugbee  found that data from SPAD were closely correlated with destructive measurements of chlorophyll for leaves with chlorophyll concentrations ranging from 100 to 600 mg m −2 , but consistently overestimated chlorophyll outside this range. The SAP test can be measured by different tools generally correlated to the conventional laboratory analysis  . The most commons are: Merkoquant test strips, which react to the N-NO 3 concentration by producing a color, the intensity of which varies directly with the concentration; an ion-specific electrode, as Horiba-Cardy Meter, which reads directly the N-NO 3 concentration in the SAP. Several plant SAP quick test kits have been calibrated for N in many arable and vegetable crops and also in tomato  . The N prediction performance by SAP test is variable being affected by many cultivar and agronomical factors , like SPAD. In tomato cultivation, it has been found to be in agreement with the critical-N curve method  for the most critical period of the fertilization management  . Both SPAD and SAP test however seem to better indicate N deficiencies than excesses, therefore their use for reducing over-fertilization would be not efficacious  . For these reasons it is very
Cellular mobile devices, and in particular smartphones, have become ubiquitous. While bandwidth has steadily increased from 2G devices with Edge to 3G and now 3G LTE, so has the demand for bandwidth intensive applications and streaming of multimedia content. Supporting high densities of such users in urban environments has become a challenge. In this paper, we describe an approach to peer-to-peer cooperative networking that exploits the WiFi interface in peer-to-peer mode in order to reduce thedoi:10.1007/978-3-642-30607-5_8 fatcat:tkjccsm7dzgcnce4xyqwrxxc7e
more »... demand on the cellular network while at the same time increasing the reliability of data delivery. We describe multiple scenarios that benefit from such middleware and present some experimental results.
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