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Ghrelin modulates encoding-related brain function without enhancing memory formation in humans

N. Kunath, N.C.J. Müller, M. Tonon, B.N. Konrad, M. Pawlowski, A. Kopczak, I. Elbau, M. Uhr, S. Kühn, D. Repantis, K. Ohla, T.D. Müller (+5 others)
2016 NeuroImage  
Here we show in a double-blind randomized crossover design that acute administration of ghrelin alters encoding-related brain activity, however does not enhance memory formation in humans.  ...  In addition, brain activity related to subsequent memory performance was modulated by ghrelin.  ...  In humans, effects of ghrelin on appetite-and memory-related brain regions have been reported (Goldstone et al., 2014; Malik et al., 2008; Tong et al., 2014) , however, the specific role of ghrelin in  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.07.016 pmid:27402596 fatcat:4pal6ocymfcabebrk3xm3cimde

Central Ghrelin Resistance Permits the Overconsolidation of Fear Memory

Elia S. Harmatz, Lauren Stone, Seh Hong Lim, Graham Lee, Anna McGrath, Barbara Gisabella, Xiaoyu Peng, Eliza Kosoy, Junmei Yao, Elizabeth Liu, Nuno J. Machado, Veronica S. Weiner (+3 others)
2017 Biological Psychiatry  
in unstressed animals without altering appetite.  ...  We also used biotin-labeled ghrelin to visualize ghrelin binding sites in coronal brain sections of amygdala. All work was performed in rats.  ...  In rats exposed to chronic stress, elevated acyl-ghrelin (27) was associated with enhanced fear memory formation (9) .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.11.009 pmid:28010876 pmcid:PMC5447505 fatcat:vjdgfh6hibeenli4jb3w2vnyya

Regulation of Memory Function by Feeding-Relevant Biological Systems: Following the Breadcrumbs to the Hippocampus

Andrea N. Suarez, Emily E. Noble, Scott E. Kanoski
2019 Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience  
The collective literature reviewed herein supports a model in which various stages of feeding behavior and hippocampal-dependent memory function are closely linked.  ...  Emerging evidence reveals that hippocampal-dependent memory function is regulated by various peripheral biological systems that are traditionally known for their roles in appetite and body weight regulation  ...  Moreover, intravenous ghrelin administration in healthy humans enhances the formation of food-related cue-reward associations by increasing HPC signaling to ventral striatum (Han et al., 2018) , results  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnmol.2019.00101 pmid:31057368 pmcid:PMC6482164 fatcat:wqkrdi6yirguvmk2fnfggot7pa

Ghrelin Acylation—A Post-Translational Tuning Mechanism Regulating Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Martina Sassi, Alwena H. Morgan, Jeffrey S. Davies
2022 Cells  
unknown function of unacyl-ghrelin in modulating hippocampal plasticity.  ...  These data, from mouse and human studies, suggest that restoring acyl-ghrelin signalling may promote the activation of pathways to support memory function.  ...  memory function [81] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/cells11050765 pmid:35269387 pmcid:PMC8909677 fatcat:3zw4odn76vb2dajgrdq4ibvike

Physiological Effect of Ghrelin on Body Systems

Yonas Akalu, Meseret Derbew Molla, Gashaw Dessie, Birhanu Ayelign
2020 International Journal of Endocrinology  
Future studies are necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ghrelin actions as well as its application as a GHSR agonist to treat most common diseases in each system without any paradoxical outcomes  ...  Having a clear understanding of the ghrelin effect in each system has therapeutic implications.  ...  without enhancing memory formation [89] .  ... 
doi:10.1155/2020/1385138 pmid:32565790 pmcid:PMC7267865 fatcat:rjuyxpk7ybat7i4kgzgnzbvove

Ghrelin controls hippocampal spine synapse density and memory performance

Sabrina Diano, Susan A Farr, Stephen C Benoit, Ewan C McNay, Ivaldo da Silva, Balazs Horvath, F Spencer Gaskin, Naoko Nonaka, Laura B Jaeger, William A Banks, John E Morley, Shirly Pinto (+6 others)
2006 Nature Neuroscience  
Our observations reveal an endogenous function of ghrelin that links metabolic control with higher brain functions and suggest novel therapeutic strategies to enhance learning and memory processes.  ...  Ghrelin binding is also present in other brain areas, including the telencephalon, where its function remains elusive.  ...  of ghrelin or its analogs may also affect brain functions other than those related to endocrine and metabolic regulation.  ... 
doi:10.1038/nn1656 pmid:16491079 fatcat:xtspi6cky5b4rhebcdfta4chia

A ghrelin–growth hormone axis drives stress-induced vulnerability to enhanced fear

R M Meyer, A Burgos-Robles, E Liu, S S Correia, K A Goosens
2013 Molecular Psychiatry  
Ghrelin receptor antagonism during repeated stress abolished stress-related enhancement of fear memory without blunting stress-induced corticosterone release.  ...  Repeated intraamygdala infusion of a ghrelin receptor agonist produced a similar enhancement of fear memory.  ...  Funding for graduate participation in this research was provided by the Hugh Hampton Young Memorial Fund, Schoemaker Fellowship, Singleton Presidential Fund and James R. Killian Fellowship to RMM.  ... 
doi:10.1038/mp.2013.135 pmid:24126924 pmcid:PMC3988273 fatcat:ztdchcjonffabbrwfocmiwwoga

THE GHRELIN SYSTEM; BEYOND THE ROLE IN ENERGY HOMEOSTASIS

Ljiljana Šaranac, Zoran Gucev
2017 Facta Universitatis Series Medicine and Biology  
It exerts major peripheral endocrine and non-endocrine actions, and it has a role in learning and memory, glucose homeostasis, immunity, cardio protection, fertility and addiction.  ...  Ghrelin is mainly produced in the stomach from a distinct group of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. It acts as hunger signal and long-term body weight regulator.  ...  The existence of ghrelin and its receptor in the hippocampus, a region associated with learning and memory, suggests the role of ghrelin in memory formation [1] .  ... 
doi:10.22190/fumb170118002s fatcat:o3l6hhvkqnehxof6zy3vxzkn3y

Interactions between metabolic, reward and cognitive processes in appetite control: Implications for novel weight management therapies

Suzanne Higgs, Maartje S Spetter, Jason M Thomas, Pia Rotshtein, Michelle Lee, Manfred Hallschmid, Colin T Dourish
2017 Journal of Psychopharmacology  
In addition, evidence has emerged more recently, that higher level cognitive functions such as learning, memory and attention play an important role in everyday appetite control and that homeostatic signals  ...  also play a role in cognition.  ...  Acknowledgements All authors were involved in discussions of the conceptual framework for the paper, contributed text and edited drafts of the manuscript. S Higgs wrote the final manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0269881117736917 pmid:29072515 pmcid:PMC5700796 fatcat:54xn5h6f3ff5fjtf7lauyffvxq

Ghrelin, a gastrointestinal hormone, regulates energy balance and lipid metabolism

You Lv, Tingting Liang, Guixia Wang, Zhuo Li
2018 Bioscience Reports  
It also increases the response of brain areas involved in visual processing, attention, and memory to food pictures.  ...  Ghrelin is the natural endogenous ligand for GHSR [1, 7] . In humans, the GHSR1 gene encodes full-length GHSR1a and the truncated isoform GHSR1b [8, 9] .  ...  Brain regions implicated in all of these functions are modulated by ghrelin.  ... 
doi:10.1042/bsr20181061 pmid:30177523 pmcid:PMC6153372 fatcat:exdpuufdd5ba3opsqlq5wopdli

The Role of Ghrelin and Ghrelin Signaling in Aging

Marie Amitani, Haruka Amitani, Kai-Chun Cheng, Timothy Sean Kairupan, Nanami Sameshima, Ippei Shimoshikiryo, Kimiko Mizuma, Natasya Trivena Rokot, Yasuhito Nerome, Tetsuhiro Owaki, Akihiro Asakawa, Akio Inui
2017 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
In the 1980s, Friedman and Johnson discovered a gene in C. elegans called age-1, which controls senescence and is related to aging.  ...  DAF-16 is activated via a decrease in the insulin-like signal, and modulates a gene cluster that is necessary to control aging [9] .  ...  Ghrelin resistance also occurs in elderly persons [23] . IGF-1 and Other Age-Related Factors GH and IGF-1 Human aging is related to a change in GH/IGF-1 activity.  ... 
doi:10.3390/ijms18071511 pmid:28704966 pmcid:PMC5536001 fatcat:t5wzgkw7dvd4bhvbbcpfzpdhoe

An Overview of Appetite-Regulatory Peptides in Addiction Processes; From Bench to Bed Side

Olesya T. Shevchouk, Maximilian Tufvesson-Alm, Elisabet Jerlhag
2021 Frontiers in Neuroscience  
Also, the amylin pathway modulates the acute and chronic behavioral responses to addictive drugs. Ghrelin has been shown to activate reward-related behaviors.  ...  Moreover, ghrelin enhances, whereas pharmacological or genetic suppression of the ghrelin receptor attenuates the responses to various addictive drugs.  ...  A plausible relation between hunger, ghrelin and addiction was shown early as food restriction, known to enhance plasma ghrelin (Gualillo et al., 2002) , enhances amphetamine and cocaine consumption in  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.774050 pmid:34955726 pmcid:PMC8695496 fatcat:uznv5ec72fcs5czrzzb5gsl7vi

Ghrelin, a Gastric Hormone with Diverse Functions [chapter]

Ziru Li, Jie Luo, Yin Li, Weizhen Zhang
2012 Chemical Biology  
In contrast to the enhanced effects of ghrelin on memory in rodents, ghrelin could decrease memory retention in neonatal chicks (Carvajal et al., 2009 ) .  ...  One encodes the ghrelin precursor, and another encodes des-Gln 14 -ghrelin precursor: a spliced variant without the codon for glutamine in position 14 (pre-pro-des-Gln 14 -ghrelin mRNA) .  ... 
doi:10.5772/35067 fatcat:5jcobgd5mffbfjthr4o5mbiofq

Ghrelin Modulates Brain Activity in Areas that Control Appetitive Behavior

Saima Malik, Francis McGlone, Diane Bedrossian, Alain Dagher
2008 Cell Metabolism  
This demonstrates that metabolic signals such as ghrelin may favor food consumption by enhancing the hedonic and incentive responses to food-related cues.  ...  Here, we show that ghrelin administered intravenously to healthy volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging increased the neural response to food pictures in regions of the brain, including  ...  Brain regions implicated in all of these functions were modulated by ghrelin. How ghrelin acts on the brain is not known, but several potential mechanisms have been identified.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2008.03.007 pmid:18460331 fatcat:qojubbi3mvccpa4z4yye5qvoru

Ghrelin – Physiological Functions and Regulation

Mona Mohamed Ibrahim Abdalla
2015 European Endocrinology  
In the gastrointestinal system, ghrelin affects multiple functions, including secretion of gastric acid, gastric motility and pancreatic protein output.  ...  Studies have provided evidence that ghrelin exercises a wide range of functions, including regulation of food intake and energy metabolism, modulation of cardiovascular function, stimulation of osteoblast  ...  representing a functional antagonism to leptin, without affecting POMC mRNA expression.  ... 
doi:10.17925/ee.2015.11.02.90 pmid:29632576 pmcid:PMC5819073 fatcat:r3xpiz46pzahdk5fc6iqnso77i
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