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Not your average density

Gerard J Kleywegt, Randy J Read
<span title="">1997</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/y4oayrlrkfebxgzkm3rrzcps2m" style="color: black;">Structure</a> </i> &nbsp;
The factor γ is obtained by separating the h = k and i = j terms in Equation 3, to get: F avg (h) = (U/V) F(h) + (U/NV) F(h) Σ i=1,N Σ j≠i exp (-2πi h·d ij ) G i (h-C ij T h) + (U/NV) Σ k≠h F(k)Σ i=1,N  ...  In the same year, Gérard Bricogne provided a general proof that real and reciprocal space NCS averaging are equivalent in a thorough paper [5] , which was followed two years later by a practical implementation  ... 
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Phi/Psi-chology: Ramachandran revisited

Gerard J Kleywegt, T Alwyn Jones
<span title="">1996</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/y4oayrlrkfebxgzkm3rrzcps2m" style="color: black;">Structure</a> </i> &nbsp;
This is illustrated by a Ways & Means Ramachandran analysis Kleywegt and Jones 1397 Table 1 Distribution of the percentage of Ramachandran outliers in protein models in the PDB.  ...  A list of outlier percentages of more than 3000 proteins from the February 1996 release of the PDB is available on the World Wide Web (URL: http://alpha2.bmc.uu.se/~gerard/ rama/rama.html).  ... 
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Déjà Vu All Over Again

Michael L. Sierk, Gerard J. Kleywegt
<span title="">2004</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/y4oayrlrkfebxgzkm3rrzcps2m" style="color: black;">Structure</a> </i> &nbsp;
are employed by VAST (Madej include geometric hashing (Nussinov and Wolfson, 1991), a genetic algorithm (Szustakowski and Weng, 2000), and et al., 1995), Matras (Kawabata and Nishikawa, 2000), DEJAVU (Kleywegt  ...  The structural similarity score aligning similar structures, their results will often differ proposed by Levitt ͚ i ͚ j 0.2 Ϫ |d A ij Ϫ d B ij | d AB ij · e Ϫ(d AB ij /20) 2 (5) Pearson, 2004).  ... 
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Pound-Wise but Penny-Foolish

Gerard J. Kleywegt, Kim Henrick, Eleanor J. Dodson, Daan M.F. van Aalten
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/y4oayrlrkfebxgzkm3rrzcps2m" style="color: black;">Structure</a> </i> &nbsp;
quest.html CORINA http://www2.chemie.uni-erlangen.de/software/corina/free_struct.html CSD http://www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk/ HIC-Up http://xray.bmc.uu.se/hicup HIC-Up web server http://xray.bmc.uu.se/cgi-bin/gerard  ...  Hendrickson and Konnert were the first to use a priori geometric information as restraints in the *Correspondence: gerard@xray.bmc.uu.se Figure 1.  ...  Nowadays, their set of target values and weights is used by most crystallographic posteriori structure validation instead (Kleywegt and Jones, 1998; Kleywegt, 2000) . refinement and modeling programs.  ... 
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A paradigm shift in structural biology

Sriram Subramaniam, Gerard J. Kleywegt
<span title="">2022</span> <i title="Springer Science and Business Media LLC"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/l6cw2tyvgrhytbvantrj2os37y" style="color: black;">Nature Methods</a> </i> &nbsp;
. ✉ e-mail: sriram.subramaniam@ubc.ca; gerard@ebi.ac.uk Published online: 11 January 2022 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41592-021-01361-7 Acknowledgements S.S. is supported by awards from a Canada Excellence  ...  Sriram Subramaniam and Gerard J.  ...  J.  ... 
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Case-controlled structure validation

Randy J. Read, Gerard J. Kleywegt
<span title="2009-01-20">2009</span> <i title="International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/6inoqqfovnhtledhw3uuo322xa" style="color: black;">Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography</a> </i> &nbsp;
Read & Kleywegt Case-controlled structure validation 147  ...  Introduction Structure validation is a blanket term that covers a variety of methods to determine the local and global quality of a macromolecular crystal structure (Kleywegt, 2000 (Kleywegt, , 2009 .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1107/s0907444908041085">doi:10.1107/s0907444908041085</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19171969">pmid:19171969</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC2631636/">pmcid:PMC2631636</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/d2dvpvmrvrecrkpqqgsr7keupm">fatcat:d2dvpvmrvrecrkpqqgsr7keupm</a> </span>
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A chemogenomics view on protein-ligand spaces

Helena Strömbergsson, Gerard J Kleywegt
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/n5zrklrhlzhtdorf4rk4rmeo3i" style="color: black;">BMC Bioinformatics</a> </i> &nbsp;
Chemogenomics is an emerging inter-disciplinary approach to drug discovery that combines traditional ligand-based approaches with biological information on drug targets and lies at the interface of chemistry, biology and informatics. The ultimate goal in chemogenomics is to understand molecular recognition between all possible ligands and all possible drug targets. Protein and ligand space have previously been studied as separate entities, but chemogenomics studies deal with large datasets that
more &raquo; ... cover parts of the joint protein-ligand space. Since drug discovery has traditionally focused on ligand optimization, the chemical space has been studied extensively. The protein space has been studied to some extent, typically for the purpose of classification of proteins into functional and structural classes. Since chemogenomics deals not only with ligands but also with the macromolecules the ligands interact with, it is of interest to find means to explore, compare and visualize protein-ligand subspaces. Results: Two chemogenomics protein-ligand interaction datasets were prepared for this study. The first dataset covers the known structural protein-ligand space, and includes all non-redundant protein-ligand interactions found in the worldwide Protein Data Bank (PDB). The second dataset contains all approved drugs and drug targets stored in the DrugBank database, and represents the approved drug-drug target space. To capture biological and physicochemical features of the chemogenomics datasets, sequence-based descriptors were computed for the proteins, and 0, 1 and 2 dimensional descriptors for the ligands. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the multidimensional data and to create global models of protein-ligand space. The nearest neighbour method, computed using the principal components, was used to obtain a measure of overlap between the datasets. Conclusion: In this study, we present an approach to visualize protein-ligand spaces from a chemogenomics perspective, where both ligand and protein features are taken into account. The method can be applied to any protein-ligand interaction dataset. Here, the approach is applied to analyze the structural protein-ligand space and the protein-ligand space of all approved drugs and their targets. We show that this approach can be used to visualize and compare chemogenomics datasets, and possibly to identify cross-interaction complexes in protein-ligand space.
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-10-s6-s13">doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-s6-s13</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19534738">pmid:19534738</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC2697636/">pmcid:PMC2697636</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/a5xujvulxfg7hiw3egsinm345y">fatcat:a5xujvulxfg7hiw3egsinm345y</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170829005153/https://bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1471-2105-10-S6-S13?site=http://bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/d9/26/d926efcfd1ad19076c47f6f950eac94bded1e55b.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-10-s6-s13"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> springer.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2697636" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Crystallographic refinement of ligand complexes

Gerard J. Kleywegt
<span title="2006-12-13">2006</span> <i title="International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/6inoqqfovnhtledhw3uuo322xa" style="color: black;">Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography</a> </i> &nbsp;
Table 2 Example of statistics derived from the Uppsala Electron Density Server (EDS; Kleywegt et al., 2004) that are available from HIC-Up (Kleywegt & Jones, 1998) .  ...  & Jones, 1998; Kleywegt, 2000; Boströ m, 2001; Nissink et al., 2002; Davis et al., 2003; Kleywegt et al., 2003; Schü ttelkopf & van Aalten, 2004; Lü tteke & von der Lieth, 2004) .  ... 
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Validation of protein crystal structures

Gerard J. Kleywegt
<span title="2000-03-01">2000</span> <i title="International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/6inoqqfovnhtledhw3uuo322xa" style="color: black;">Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography</a> </i> &nbsp;
These include (i) the use of information derived from databases of well re®ned structures in model building (Kleywegt & Jones, 1998) Gerard J.  ...  In 1992, Bru È nger introduced the free R value (R free ; R w jF o j À kjF c j a jF o jX Kleywegt Validation of protein crystal structures Acta Cryst. (2000).  ... 
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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180827003852/http://greeley.org:80/~hod/papers/ByAuthor/Kleywegt/acd56_2000_249.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/25/94/2594807842e2cbcbd297cc4298ebb667d9c12208.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1107/s0907444999016364"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Databases in Protein Crystallography

Gerard J. Kleywegt, T. Alwyn Jones
<span title="1998-11-01">1998</span> <i title="International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/6inoqqfovnhtledhw3uuo322xa" style="color: black;">Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography</a> </i> &nbsp;
Two additional examples are shown in Fig. 8 , and others are discussed by Kleywegt (1998) . RIGOR (Kleywegt, 1998 ) is a program that does essentially the opposite of SPASM.  ...  & Jones, 1997c) , or at the level of, e.g., loops and active-site residues (Kleywegt, 1998) .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1107/s0907444998007100">doi:10.1107/s0907444998007100</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10089488">pmid:10089488</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ivfvcles7jadvhxrdv7n6f45ya">fatcat:ivfvcles7jadvhxrdv7n6f45ya</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170829061435/http://journals.iucr.org/d/issues/1998/06/01/ba0001/ba0001.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/30/d8/30d8b2b4a011dffff998b4861f60291695f2fed4.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1107/s0907444998007100"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Checking your imagination: applications of the free R value

Gerard J Kleywegt, Axel T Brünger
<span title="">1996</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/y4oayrlrkfebxgzkm3rrzcps2m" style="color: black;">Structure</a> </i> &nbsp;
ATB thanks Drs P Adams, FT Burling, P Gros, J-S Jiang, RJ Read, LM Rice, and ALU Roberts for stimulating discussions about cross-validation in crystallography.  ...  Acknowledgements GJK thanks Dr T Alwyn Jones for many stimulating discussions concerning model quality, validation and the free R value, and Dr Randy J Read for suggesting the test with a backward-traced  ...  D 32 41 13 32 J. Mol. Biol. 54 92 25 27 Biochemistry 49 99 26 26 Protein Sci. 17 32 7 22 Proteins 4 5 1 2 0 TOTAL 260 406 179 44  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/s0969-2126(96)00097-4">doi:10.1016/s0969-2126(96)00097-4</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8805582">pmid:8805582</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/goagpztwirewxbleiheejajcxu">fatcat:goagpztwirewxbleiheejajcxu</a> </span>
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Low-resolution structure determination and validation

Randy J. Read, Gerard J. Kleywegt
<span title="2009-01-20">2009</span> <i title="International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/6inoqqfovnhtledhw3uuo322xa" style="color: black;">Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography</a> </i> &nbsp;
Gerard Kleywegt introduced the session with a general discussion of the philosophy and principles of validation.  ...  Gerard Kleywegt introduced the session with a general discussion of the philosophy and principles of validation.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1107/s0907444909000511">doi:10.1107/s0907444909000511</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/fyg3j5a4kndohomaawhtpof7oe">fatcat:fyg3j5a4kndohomaawhtpof7oe</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180724105346/http://journals.iucr.org/d/issues/2009/02/00/me0386/me0386.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/cb/ff/cbff888bd1492d142091f1f725d580078cd1486e.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1107/s0907444909000511"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Resolution ofab initioshapes determined from small-angle scattering

Anne T. Tuukkanen, Gerard J. Kleywegt, Dmitri I. Svergun
<span title="2016-10-27">2016</span> <i title="International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/4rhfyrx7xvh4bmdqhfismcwocu" style="color: black;">IUCrJ</a> </i> &nbsp;
The partial amplitudes are computed using the form factor f k (s) of either a bead or a dummy residue and using the equation A lm ðsÞ ¼ 4i l P N k¼1 f k ðsÞj l ðsr k ÞY Ã lm ð k Þ; ð4Þ where j l (sr) are  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1107/s2052252516016018">doi:10.1107/s2052252516016018</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840683">pmid:27840683</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC5094446/">pmcid:PMC5094446</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ctgno5bd3rhcphaery5piq5adq">fatcat:ctgno5bd3rhcphaery5piq5adq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161109061539/http://journals.iucr.org:80/m/issues/2016/06/00/hi5642/hi5642.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/cc/de/ccde9363edc3b4901747e9aa37c314ba3b476d2f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1107/s2052252516016018"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5094446" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

The future of the protein data bank

Helen M. Berman, Gerard J. Kleywegt, Haruki Nakamura, John L. Markley
<span title="2012-09-29">2012</span> <i title="Wiley"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/3srr4nbeerdwvccdmou3vgtjmy" style="color: black;">Biopolymers</a> </i> &nbsp;
The Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) is the international collaboration that manages the deposition, processing and distribution of the PDB archive. The wwPDB's mission is to maintain a single archive of macromolecular structural data that are freely and publicly available to the global community. Its members [RCSB PDB (USA), PDBe (Europe), PDBj (Japan), and BMRB (USA)] host data-deposition sites and mirror the PDB ftp archive. To support future developments in structural biology, the wwPDB
more &raquo; ... artners are addressing organizational, scientific, and technical challenges.
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1002/bip.22132">doi:10.1002/bip.22132</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023942">pmid:23023942</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC3684242/">pmcid:PMC3684242</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tkdo6ykibnhebfbavqjb55nhsq">fatcat:tkdo6ykibnhebfbavqjb55nhsq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200211051112/http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=PMC3684242&amp;blobtype=pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/df/65/df65d60cbee018300a4c08eeecbc4f067e75c0d5.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1002/bip.22132"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> wiley.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684242" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Safeguarding the integrity of protein archive

Helen M. Berman, Gerard J. Kleywegt, Haruki Nakamura, John L. Markley, Stephen K. Burley
<span title="">2010</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/drfdii35rzaibj3aml5uhvr5xm" style="color: black;">Nature</a> </i> &nbsp;
To date, the paper describing one of the 12 PDB entries in question has been retracted (J. Biol.  ...  Integrating insights from different perspectives will help to break down the social and political barriers that obstruct ways of finding a sustainable future (J. Fischer et al. Trends Ecol.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1038/463425c">doi:10.1038/463425c</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20110969">pmid:20110969</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC4456675/">pmcid:PMC4456675</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/xgb4narv2vaklpvrndym6eyrgi">fatcat:xgb4narv2vaklpvrndym6eyrgi</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210429081525/https://www.nature.com/articles/463425c.pdf?error=cookies_not_supported&amp;code=5f4d157b-bc68-4efd-a725-28e3cabbf7d4" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/cf/1c/cf1c67ffa5cb92921be66e916ff5c327752bf2a6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1038/463425c"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> nature.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4456675" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>
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