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Metabolic syndrome: definition and prevalence in children

Wei Chen, Gerald S. Berenson
2007 Jornal de Pediatria  
Na tentativa de esclarecer a influência independente do IMC e resistência à insulina sobre o desenvolvi- Como citar este artigo: Chen W, Berenson GS.  ... 
doi:10.2223/jped.1584 pmid:17279287 fatcat:tdieiv7xtbbenkeqbtt5wdoa4e

Distribution of Acid Mucopolysaccharides in Inner and Outer Layers of Bovine Aorta

1959 Circulation Research  
Bovine aortas were separated into 2 layers, an inner layer composed chiefly of intinia and an outer layer composed of adventitia and most of the media. A greater concentration of acid mucopolysaccharides, especially of the chondroitin sulfuric acid group, was found in the inner layer of the aorta.
doi:10.1161/01.res.7.6.889 pmid:13799169 fatcat:nyyg6j6u7vcijgg2p6zyiu3z74

Síndrome metabólica em crianças e adolescentes

Ayrton Pires Brandão, Andréa Araújo Brandão, Gerald S. Berenson, Valentin Fuster
2005 Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia  
Cardiovascular diseases represent the first cause of death in developed countries, but their importance in underdeveloped ones and in those with a transitional economy has increased 1 . As responsible, a set of risk factors, identified as metabolic syndrome, represented by arterial hypertension, overweight/obesity, elevated levels of triglycerides, reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol, and intolerance to glucose/type 2 diabetes are rapidly evolving 2-4 . The way such association leads to coronary
more » ... rteriosclerosis, which accounts for the great majority of the deaths in affected individuals, has not yet been clearly understood. However, one of the important factors is the presence of insulin resistance/hiperinsulinemia, is frequently identified in a cluster in affected individuals. The latter seems to play an important role in the pathophysiology through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and sodium retention, in addition to stimulation of cell growth. Obesity/hiperinsulinemia seem to be the driving forces related to multiple risk factors and the development of cardiovascular diseases 3,4. .
doi:10.1590/s0066-782x2005001500001 pmid:16113843 fatcat:yvqetn5turbzjei2obr23b5jci

Equations for Estimating Percentage of Body Fat in Children 10-14 Years Old

Ralph R Frerichs, David W Harsha, Gerald S Berenson
1979 Pediatric Research  
derived from a study of 242 volunteer children who participated Measurements of the percentage of body fat (derived by underwater weighing), height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness were determined for r volunteer sample of 214 children, 10-14 years old. The bivariate correlations, by sex, of percentage of body fat with five obesity indices are highest with the triceps skinfold and least with weight-height. Ave sets of equations are presented for predicting percentage of body fat based on
more » ... measurements of either height and weight, triceps skinfold or height, weight, and triceps skinfold. Cumulative frequency distributions of the percentage of b d y fat (based on height, weight, m n d triceps skinfold) 25.8 * 7.7 -17.4 f 6.7 28.8 + 8.3 ' Body fat (%) = [(495/density) -4501; Siri (22).
doi:10.1203/00006450-197903000-00007 pmid:471571 fatcat:g5g73347i5bvxjyqe7snzq5iou

Co-use of alcohol and tobacco among ninth-graders in Louisiana

Carolyn C Johnson, Larry S Webber, Leann Myers, Neil W Boris, Gerald S Berenson
2009 Preventing Chronic Disease  
Boris, MD; Gerald S. Berenson, MDtobacco and alcohol separately.  ... 
pmid:19527586 pmcid:PMC2722390 fatcat:fpp3fgfkebd7dopkztluz6lw3m

Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk in Children

1993 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences  
Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa heart study. New Engl J Med 1998;338:1650-6. 4 Mahoney LT, Burns TL, Stanford W. Coronary risk factors measured in childhood and young adult life are associated with coronary artery calcification in young adults: the Muscatine study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:277-84. 5 Malina RM, Katzmarzyk PT. Validity of the body mass index as an indicator of the risk and presence of
more » ... ht in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:131-6S. 6 World Health Organisation. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Geneva: WHO, 1995. 7 Rolland-Cachera MF, Sempé M, Guilloud-Bataille M, Patois E, Pequignot-Guggenbuhl F, Fautrad V. Adiposity indices in children. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:178-84. 8 Cole TJ, Freeman JV, Preece MA. Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 1995;73:25-9. 9 Power C, Lake JK, Cole TJ. Measurement and long-term health risks of child and adolescent fatness. Int J Obesity 1997;21:507-26. 10 Barlow SE, Dietz WH. Obesity evaluation and treatment: expert committee recommendations. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, and the Department of Health and Human Services. Pediatrics 1998;102:E29. 11 Dietz WH, Robinson TN. Use of the body mass index (BMI) as a measure of overweight in children and adolescents. J Pediatr 1998;132:191-3. 12 Bellizzi MC, Dietz WH. Workshop on childhood obesity: summary of the discussion. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:173-5S. 13 Cole TJ, Freeman JV, Preece MA. British 1990 growth reference centiles for weight, height, body mass index and head circumference fitted by maximum penalized likelihood. Stat Med 1998;17:407-29. 14 Flegal KM. Defining obesity in children and adolescents: epidemiologic approaches. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1993;33:307-12. 15 D'Amato M, Ferro-Luzzi A, Gundry S, Wright J, Worrall J, Mucavele P. A new approach to assessing adolescent malnutrition in low income countries. A case study in Zimbabwe. Abstract presented at the International Biometric Society, Italian region. Rome, 7-9 Jul 1999.
doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb18840.x pmid:8267341 fatcat:thwbzag35jcz3nxgnit5okbj34

Identifying mechanisms of adoption of tobacco and alcohol use among youth: The Bogalusa heart study

Saundra MacD. Hunter, Igor A. Vizelberg, Gerald S. Berenson
1991 Social Networks  
Data During a cross-sectional screening of cardiovascular risk factor variables in the biracial community of Bogalusa, Louisiana (Berenson 1980 (Berenson , 1986 2305 students, ages 8-17, completed a  ... 
doi:10.1016/0378-8733(91)90015-l fatcat:ng5iutrthnefhcsy5fddjjgofu

Secular Trends in Height Among Children During 2 Decades

David S. Freedman, Laura Kettel Khan, Mary K. Serdula, Sathanur R. Srinivasan, Gerald S. Berenson
2000 Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine  
Participants: All schoolchildren residing in Bogalusa, La, were eligible. A total of 24 070 examinations were performed. Results: During the study period, the mean height of schoolchildren increased by 0.70 cm per decade independently of race, sex, and age. Trends were most pronounced among preadolescents, blacks, and boys, with 9-to 12-year-old black boys showing a height increase of 1.8 cm per decade. We observed a decrease in the number of relatively short children (Ͻ10th percentile of
more » ... ) and an increase in the number of tall children (Ͼ90th percentile of height). Because a secular trend was not seen among the 15-to 17-year-old children, our findings likely reflect an acceleration of maturation. Conclusions: It has generally been assumed that secular increases in height among schoolchildren in the United States ceased by the mid-1900s. Our findings, which may be due to various environmental factors, demonstrate that care must be taken when using nonconcurrent reference data to assess the growth of children. Additional study is needed to determine if these secular trends are continuing and to examine possible explanations and consequences of these trends.
doi:10.1001/archpedi.154.2.155 pmid:10665602 fatcat:22hjc6pvpjfepewseyqabhnfpe

Are Energy Dense Diets Also Nutrient Dense?

Theresa A. Nicklas, Carol E. O'Neil, Jason Mendoza, Yan Liu, Issa F. Zakeri, Gerald S. Berenson
2008 Journal of the American College of Nutrition  
Objective-Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Design-Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall was collected on each participant. Subjects/Setting-440 young adults (ages 19-28 years) in Bogalusa, Louisiana participated in this study. Statistical Analysis-Mean nutrient intakes
more » ... d food group consumption were examined across the energy density (ED) tertiles using two calculation methods: one with food and all beverages (excluding water) (ED1) and one including food and only energy containing beverages (ED2). Regression models were used and multiple comparisons were performed using the Tukey-Kramer procedure. A p-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results-With increasing ED, there was a significant increase in the consumption of total meats (ED1 p < 0.05; ED2 p < 0.01). In contrast, there was a significant decrease in consumption of fruits/ juices (ED1 p < 0.01; ED2 p < 0.0001), vegetables (ED1 p < 0.01; ED2 p < 0.05), beverages (both p < 0.0001) and total sweets with increasing ED (both p < 0.0001). There was a significantly higher mean intake of total protein (grams) (ED2 p < 0.0001), amino acids (ED1 histidine/leucine p < 0.05; ED2 p < 0.0001), and total fat (grams) (ED1 p < 0.0001; ED2 p < 0.0001) with higher ED compared to lower ED. The percent energy from protein (ED1 p < 0.05; ED2 p < 0.0001), total fat (both p < 0.001) and saturated fatty acids (both p < 0.0001) significantly increased and the percent energy from carbohydrate (both p < 0.0001) and sucrose (both p < 0.0001) significantly decreased with increasing ED. Conclusion-This study suggests that ED may influence the ND of the diet depending on whether energy containing beverages are included or excluded in the analysis.
doi:10.1080/07315724.2008.10719738 pmid:18845705 pmcid:PMC2769989 fatcat:d4ahxwfurvagvbrtggupeckwvu

Is the Metabolic Syndrome a "Small Baby" Syndrome?: The Bogalusa Heart Study

Emily W. Harville, Sathanur Srinivasan, Wei Chen, Gerald S. Berenson
2012 Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders  
Metabolic syndrome has been called a "small baby syndrome," but other analyses suggest that postnatal growth is more important than birthweight, or that large babies are also at risk. The aim of this analysis was to examine whether there was a relationship between both low and high birthweight and metabolic syndrome, using multiple definitions of metabolic syndrome, and to determine whether this relationship varied by body size across the life course. Methods: Data from the Bogalusa Heart
more » ... a study of cardiovascular disease in children and young adults, were linked to birth certificate data. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, the International Diabetes Foundation, and the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. Smallfor-gestational-age (SGA) was defined as birthweight < 10 th percentile by sex for gestational age and large-forgestational-age (LGA) as birthweight > 90 th percentile. Birthweight-for-gestational-age was also examined as a continuous predictor. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between birth size and metabolic syndrome. Results: Higher birthweight-for-gestational-age was associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome, especially by the WHO definition. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), categorized birthweight was associated with metabolic syndrome, with the protective associations with LGA being stronger than the positive associations with SGA. Among the individual components of metabolic syndrome, higher waist circumference was associated with both SGA and LGA after BMI was controlled for. Effects of SGA and BMI at any age were largely independent rather than interactive. Conclusions: SGA is associated with some, but not all, components of metabolic syndrome. The relationship between SGA and metabolic syndrome is partially confounded by later BMI.
doi:10.1089/met.2012.0031 pmid:22831273 pmcid:PMC3546360 fatcat:wscrvatttbgctgcaravr7uvrue

Factor Structure of a Children's Health Locus of Control Measure: A Confirmatory Maximum-Likelihood Analysis

Bruce Thompson, Larry Webber, Gerald Berenson
1987 Educational and Psychological Measurement  
Address reprint requests to Gerald S. Berenson, MD, Depart- ment of Cardiology, LSU Medical Center, 1542 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112-2822.  ...  L901 EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT 1987, 47 FACTOR STRUCTURE OF A CHILDREN’S HEALTH LOCUS OF CONTROL MEASURE: A CONFIRMATORY MAXIMUM- LIKELIHOOD ANALYSIS BRUCE THOMPSON, LARRY WEBBER, AND GERALD  ... 
doi:10.1177/0013164487474023 fatcat:noxaendbqbf4zan2t3y4c7jcxm

Amplification of the association between birthweight and blood pressure with age: the Bogalusa Heart Study

Wei Chen, Sathanur R Srinivasan, Gerald S Berenson
2010 Journal of Hypertension  
Objectives-Although low birthweight is associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) levels, whether the strength of this relationship is amplified with age is still debated. This study tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of the birthweight-BP association increases with age from childhood to adulthood. Methods- The study cohort included 6251 individuals (64.5% whites and 35.6% blacks, 50.0% males) enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Individuals were examined 1-15 times for BP from
more » ... d to adulthood, with 24 363 observations. Information on birthweight and gestational age was obtained from Louisiana State birth certificates. Results-After adjusting for race, sex, age and gestational age, low birthweight (kg) was associated with higher SBP levels (mmHg) in adolescence (aged 12-17 years, regression coefficient β=−0.80, P=0.004) and adulthood (aged 18-50 years, β=−1.34, P=0.010). Adjustment for current BMI yielded considerably stronger association. Importantly, the magnitude of the birthweight-SBP relationship, measured as standardized β(unit=SD), was significantly amplified with increasing age, regardless of adjustment for current BMI and race. Further, the strengthened association (the increase in standardized β ranging 0.02-0.12) by adjustment for current BMI was closely related to the BMI-SBP and birthweight-BMI correlations, especially noted in childhood. Conclusion-These findings on the potentiating effect of increasing age on the birthweight-BP relationship suggest that the fetal programming and the increasing cumulative burden with age of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors affect the development of adult hypertension in a synergistic manner.
doi:10.1097/hjh.0b013e32833cd31f pmid:20616754 pmcid:PMC3105358 fatcat:pp27zf7qjrg5basw7ohw2swdze

Factor Analytic Study of the Children's Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale'

Thomas M. Wolf, Monny C. Sklov, Saundra Macd. Hunter, Gerald S. Berenson
1982 Educational and Psychological Measurement  
HUNTER, AND GERALD S.  ...  Requests for reprints should be sent to Gerald S.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0013164482421040 fatcat:3yz3fngi2rgrrk2pdutdzava5i

Principal-component-based multivariate regression for genetic association studies of metabolic syndrome components

Hao Mei, Wei Chen, Andrew Dellinger, Jiang He, Meng Wang, Canddy Yau, Sathanur R Srinivasan, Gerald S Berenson
2010 BMC Genetics  
Quantitative traits often underlie risk for complex diseases. For example, weight and body mass index (BMI) underlie the human abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome. Many attempts have been made to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) over the past decade, including association studies. However, a single QTL is often capable of affecting multiple traits, a quality known as gene pleiotropy. Gene pleiotropy may therefore cause a loss of power in association studies focused only on a single
more » ... whether based on single or multiple markers. Results: We propose using principal-component-based multivariate regression (PCBMR) to test for gene pleiotropy with comprehensive evaluation. This method generates one or more independent canonical variables based on the principal components of original traits and conducts a multivariate regression to test for association with these new variables. Systematic simulation studies have shown that PCBMR has great power. PCBMR-based pleiotropic association studies of abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome and its possible linkage to chromosomal band 3q27 identified 11 susceptibility genes with significant associations. Whereas some of these genes had been previously reported to be associated with metabolic traits, others had never been identified as metabolism-associated genes. Conclusions: PCBMR is a computationally efficient and powerful test for gene pleiotropy. Application of PCBMR to abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome indicated the existence of gene pleiotropy affecting this syndrome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-11-100 pmid:21062472 pmcid:PMC2991276 fatcat:ezqvlkhl6vegdhcl3kjmxr3exe

Levels and correlates of LDL and VLDL particle sizes among children: the Bogalusa heart study

David S. Freedman, Barbara A. Bowman, James D. Otvos, Sathanur R. Srinivasan, Gerald S. Berenson
2000 Atherosclerosis  
Levels of lipids and lipoproteins among children vary by sex and race/ethnicity, and are correlated with age, obesity, and other characteristics. There is, however, little information on the distribution and correlates of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses in early life. We used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine mean LDL and VLDL particle sizes among 10-to 17-year-olds (n= 918) who participated in the 1992 -94 examination of
more » ... the Bogalusa heart study. As compared with girls, boys had a smaller (0.1 nm) mean LDL particle size and a larger (0.9 nm) mean VLDL size; furthermore, the average size of VLDL particles increased with age among white boys but not among other children. Although there were also black/white differences in particle sizes, with black children having larger LDL and smaller VLDL particles, these racial contrasts could be attributed to differences in lipid levels. Levels of triglycerides, insulin, and relative weight were associated with the size of VLDL (positive) and LDL (negative) particles. These results suggest that the analysis of lipoprotein subclasses may provide a better understanding of the role of various risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease
doi:10.1016/s0021-9150(99)00495-5 pmid:10998473 fatcat:o4baevayzvbybel77kn2253l2q
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