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Generative Adversarial Networks are Special Cases of Artificial Curiosity (1990) and also Closely Related to Predictability Minimization (1991) [article]

Juergen Schmidhuber
2020 arXiv   pre-print
(ii) Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs, 2010-2014) are an application of AC where the effect of an output is 1 if the output is in a given set, and 0 otherwise.  ...  One network learns to generate a probability distribution over outputs, the other learns to predict effects of the outputs. Each network minimizes the objective function maximized by the other.  ...  of this paper.  ... 
arXiv:1906.04493v3 fatcat:rigrb7az65hjvpvwt6kcbldh3y

Deep Learning: Our Miraculous Year 1990-1991 [article]

Juergen Schmidhuber
2021 arXiv   pre-print
" 1990-1991 at TU Munich.  ...  Back then, few people were interested, but a quarter century later, neural networks based on these ideas were on over 3 billion devices such as smartphones, and used many billions of times per day, consuming  ...  It also influenced some of the most popular posts and comments of 2019 at reddit/ml: at the time the largest machine learning forum with over 800k subscribers. [R2-R8]  ... 
arXiv:2005.05744v2 fatcat:5udqp5zwzfd7veedfpqrvsathe

The Great Powers and Global Struggle, 1490-1990

Francis Fukuyama, Karen A. Rasler, William R. Thompson
1995 Foreign Affairs  
The Dutch chose to demobilize their naval forces at war's end, only to be almost immediately beset by a series of inconclusive English challenges (1652-54, 1663-67, and 1672-74).  ...  parameters are computed with the assistance of the Scientific Computing Associates (SCA) Statistical System (Liu et al. 1985 ). 6.  ...  The End of Predictability Robert Jervis's (1991-92) argument evidently is a more general response to the Mearsheimer (1990) argument on the future of Europe.  ... 
doi:10.2307/20047218 fatcat:ajglsmlacfbmxhaexxbwzbck3y

Irish literature since 1990: diverse voices

2010 ChoiceReviews  
The place will be flooded to create an artificial lake, also causing Susan's father to go and make a new home elsewhere.  ...  Space, both public and private, is closely related to the construction of identity and to its textual representation.  ...  More specifically, I want to closely examine how artistic silence and narrative breakdown in texts by Northern Irish writers and visual artists often result from an unwillingness to respond to atrocity  ... 
doi:10.5860/choice.47-3658 fatcat:bq554wdaffb6hm6h2di5lyxhdi

Ignorance-Aware Approaches and Algorithms for Prototype Selection in Machine Learning [article]

Vagan Terziyan, Anton Nikulin
2019 arXiv   pre-print
and adversarial) to improve the performance of the nearest neighbor classifiers.  ...  We present experiments with artificial and real datasets to test the concept of the usefulness of ignorance discovery in machine learning.  ...  In this paper, we are not going to copy the generative adversarial networks as such, but rather use the idea of two models (two selected prototype sets in our case), which are improving each other while  ... 
arXiv:1905.06054v1 fatcat:rvrzrpnm2nalldsk5ushofspwu

Computational Foundations of Natural Intelligence [article]

Marcel van Gerven
2017 bioRxiv   pre-print
Subsequently, I concentrate on the use of artificial neural networks as a framework for modeling cognitive processes.  ...  New developments in AI and neuroscience are revitalizing the quest to understanding natural intelligence, offering insight about how to equip machines with human-like capabilities.  ...  I would like to thank Nadine Dijkstra, Andrew Reid and Katja Seeliger for their useful comments on a previous version of this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1101/166785 fatcat:n347rhnrards7oz352nkuscjb4

Computational Foundations of Natural Intelligence

Marcel van Gerven
2017 Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience  
Subsequently, I concentrate on the use of artificial neural networks as a framework for modeling cognitive processes.  ...  New developments in AI and neuroscience are revitalizing the quest to understanding natural intelligence, offering insight about how to equip machines with human-like capabilities.  ...  Other, more recent examples of ANN-based generative models are deep belief networks (Hinton et al., 2006) , variational autoencoders (Kingma and Welling, 2014) and generative adversarial networks (  ... 
doi:10.3389/fncom.2017.00112 pmid:29375355 pmcid:PMC5770642 fatcat:msvy2ut7dvcvpinop2uqvldtfu

International Relations [chapter]

Jeremy Black
1990 Eighteenth Century Europe 1700–1789  
If the identity is the understanding of one in relationship to others, states' identities are also constructed and shaped in relation to other states.  ...  Another striking indicator is related with young generation. 61% of Maanis are under eighteen and they think that they are socioeconomically and politically neglected by their state.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-349-20632-2_10 fatcat:zyl6kxe76ne3zfcxsxlrefzvha

International Relations, 1919–29 [chapter]

Jon Nichol, Sean Lang
1990 Work Out Modern World History GCSE  
If the identity is the understanding of one in relationship to others, states' identities are also constructed and shaped in relation to other states.  ...  Another striking indicator is related with young generation. 61% of Maanis are under eighteen and they think that they are socioeconomically and politically neglected by their state.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-349-10323-2_2 fatcat:6enoqtal3zbixik7hveaz5grdy

International Relations, 1929–41 [chapter]

Jon Nichol, Sean Lang
1990 Work Out Modern World History GCSE  
If the identity is the understanding of one in relationship to others, states' identities are also constructed and shaped in relation to other states.  ...  Another striking indicator is related with young generation. 61% of Maanis are under eighteen and they think that they are socioeconomically and politically neglected by their state.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-349-10323-2_3 fatcat:ro5azgjgvfh6jc7s3mbtebnapi

Deep Reinforcement Learning: A State-of-the-Art Walkthrough

Aristotelis Lazaridis, Anestis Fachantidis, Ioannis Vlahavas
2020 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research  
In this work we gather the essential methods related to Deep Reinforcement Learning, extracting common property structures for three complementary core categories: a) Model-Free, b) Model-Based and c)  ...  It is, however, deemed necessary to provide a compact, accurate and comparable view of these methods and their results for the means of gaining valuable technical and practical insights.  ...  Typically, adversarial problems in Machine Learning are closely related to minimax optimization problems (Myerson, 2013) , where the objective is to find a Nash equilibrium in two-player zero-sum games  ... 
doi:10.1613/jair.1.12412 fatcat:mlytimfmuffz7he4uwjwsce2dy

Deep Reinforcement Learning [article]

Yuxi Li
2018 arXiv   pre-print
We start with background of artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, and reinforcement learning (RL), with resources.  ...  Then we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsupervised learning, hierarchical RL, multi-agent RL, relational RL, and learning to learn.  ...  The authors propose policy-space response oracle (PSRO), and its approximation, deep cognitive hierarchies (DCH), to compute best responses to a mixture of policies using deep RL, and to compute new meta-strategy  ... 
arXiv:1810.06339v1 fatcat:kp7atz5pdbeqta352e6b3nmuhy

Managing American Wildlife: A History of the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies

Craig W. Allin, Dian Olson Belanger
1990 American Historical Review  
Game and Fish Wardens and Commissioners (predecessor), 11, 18 National Association of Photographic Manufacturers, 231 National Biological Survey (NBS).  ...  September 10-11 September 24-26 September 14-16 September 19-22 September 10-14 September 8-11 September 11-14 September 14-18 * Meetings Postponed, 1942 -1945 Year National Association of  ...  He also admitted that concern that the money collected would go into a general, not special, fund also contributed to its defeat.  ... 
doi:10.2307/2163930 fatcat:bneoxlh6crde7grmmn5q22v6r4

Ordering Proof: Beyond Adversarial and Inquisitorial Trial Structures

Mark Spottswood
2015 Social Science Research Network  
In lieu of separate, partisan cases-in-chief, this neutral third party would also decide the order of testifying witnesses, balancing considerations of clarity, efficiency, and neutrality between the parties  ...  In this article, I propose a new method of ordering proof, designed to minimize the inaccuracy or unfairness that arises due to primacy effects.  ...  Thus, existing attempts to compare adversary and discretionary models focused on a few related questions: (1) which approach minimizes discovery costs; (2) which system exacerbates pre-existing bias in  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2573911 fatcat:hwauvemhdzf6zit6cok5c7kjuq

WITHDRAWN: Implicit Prejudice and Accountability Systems: What Must Organizations Do to Prevent Discrimination?

Philip E. Tetlock, Gregory Mitchell
2009 Research in organizational behavior  
curiosity even though objective inequalites are persisting.  ...  of frivolous litigation in general are minimal compared to the costs of discrimination. 21 Tetlock's (2005) work on expert judgment suggests that most experts prefer belief-system over value-threshold  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.riob.2009.06.006 fatcat:t5uzqctafnb3tnt23oslayxixa
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