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### General failure of logic programs

Van Tu Le
1985 The Journal of Logic Programming
A classification of any logic program's failures into different levels of general finite failure is introduced.  ...  The general failure is then shown to be the limit of those general finite failures, and its interpretation coincides with the complement of the greatest model of the program.  ...  In this paper, we define derivation sequences for a logic program at the ground level, and we classify the program's failures into different categories of general finite failures.  ...

### Comments on "general failure of logic programs"

Joxan Jaffar, Jean-Louis Lassez, Michael J. Maher
1986 The Journal of Logic Programming
The paper [1] purports to present a classification of the general failure sets of logic programs and a simple proof of the theorem on the soundness and completeness of the negation-as-failure rule.  ...  Our main purpose, however, is to point out major errors, in particular, one in the proof of the above mentioned theorem.  ...  INTRODUCTION In [1] , results are claimed to be established about general failure sets, ground general failure sets and negation as failure.  ...

### Negation-as-failure rule for general logic programs with equality

Van Tu Le
1985 The Journal of Logic Programming
In this paper, the success and failure of general logic programs are defined mutually recursively.  ...  General logic programs are programs that have clauses containing inequations and negative literals in their bodies.  ...  INTRODUCTION This paper studies the negation-as-failure rule for general logic programs, that is, programs that have clauses containing inequations and negative literals in their bodies.  ...

### Negation as failure using tight derivations for general logic programs

Allen Van Gelder
1989 The Journal of Logic Programming
A general logic program is a set of rules that have both positive and negative subgoals.  ...  We define negation in general logic programs as finite failure, but we limit proof attempts to tight derivations, that is, derivations expressed by trees in which no node has an identical ancestor.  ...  RULE-BASED NEGATION-AS-FAILURE SEMANTICS In this section we describe informally the semantics of general logic programs with negation as failure interpreted as the "traditional" finite failure [5, 3,  ...

### Page 6500 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 98J [page]

1998 Mathematical Reviews
logic programming.  ...  Summary: “Local consistency techniques have been introduced in logic programming in order to extend the application domain of logic programming languages.  ...

### Page 4343 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 2000f [page]

2000 Mathematical Reviews
This is obtained by reversing the deduction process, which is usually applied in static-dataflow anal- ysis of logic programs, on generic, possibly abstract, domains for analysis.  ...  4343 logic programming without negation as failure (LPwNF). Our results show that the former has a strictly stronger expressive power.  ...

### Page 7886 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 99k [page]

1999 Mathematical Reviews
99k:68027 applied to combine general logic programs, that is, logic programs possibly containing negative premises.  ...  We show how the intro- duction of a basic set of (meta-level) composition operations over general programs increases the knowledge representation capabili- ties of logic programming for non-monotonic reasoning  ...

### Page 3841 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 87g [page]

1987 Mathematical Reviews
Stépdnek (Prague) 87¢:68069 Van Tu Le [Le Van Tu] 87g:68070 Negation-as-failure rule for general logic programs with equality. J. Logic Programming 2 (1985), no. 4, 285-294.  ...  The author studies the negation-as-failure rule for general logic programs, i.e., programs that have clauses containing negative lit- erals and inequations in their bodies.  ...

### Some issues and trends in the semantics of logic programming [chapter]

J. Jaffar, J -L. Lassez, M. J. Maher
1986 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
This results in a formalism which brings the theory of logic programming closer to standard programming practice.  ...  In a second part we consider extensions to definite clause logic programs.  ...  Negation as Failure Clark provided a formal framework to study negation as failure [3] , via the notion of complete logic programs, and proved the soundness of this rule.  ...

### Page 8159 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 2004j [page]

2004 Mathematical Reviews
While the negation-as-failure is based on the existence of a finite, failed search tree for the negated goal (in the logic program), the failure of reduction is based on the logical interpretation of nega  ...  Failure of reduction to head normal form in CRWL is a notion that plays a similar role to that of negation-as-failure in (classical) logic programming, but with a different operational interpretation.  ...

### Generative Modeling with Failure in PRISM

Taisuke Sato, Yoshitaka Kameya, Neng-Fa Zhou
2005 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Introducing failure extends the class of definable distributions but needs a generalization of the semantics of PRISM programs.  ...  In this paper,we enhance the modeling power of PRISM by allowing general PRISM programs to fail in the generation process of observable events.  ...  To perform EM learning of a general PRISM program that may fail, we need a 'failure program' which positively describes how failure occurs in the original program.  ...

### Page 5796 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 86m [page]

1986 Mathematical Reviews
Logic Programming 2 (1985), no. 2, 157-165. Author summary: “A classification of any logic program’s failures into different levels of general finite failure is introduced.  ...  The general failure is then shown to be the limit of those general finite failures, and its interpretation coincides with the complement of the greatest model of the program.  ...

### Reporting Failures in Functional Logic Programs

Michael Hanus
2007 Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science
Computing with failures is a typical programming technique in functional logic programs.  ...  In this case, the programmer is interested in the context of the failed program point in order to analyze the reason of the failure.  ...  Failures in Encapsulated Search As mentioned at the beginning, computing with failures is a typical programming technique in functional logic programs.  ...

### Complete logic programs with domain-closure axiom

Paolo Mancarella, Simone Martini, Dino Pedreschi
1988 The Journal of Logic Programming
Thus the notion of completion of a logic program, or complete logic program, was introduced, which consists of a simple transformation of a logic program P.  ...  Complete logic programs augmented with the domain-closure axiom are proposed as the reference theory for logic programming with negation as failure.  ...  Appropriate generalizations of the notions of derivation sequence, success set, and finite failure set can also be given for generalized logic programs.  ...

### Page 4890 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 95h [page]

1995 Mathematical Reviews
We discuss the closed world assumption, the completion of a program, the generalized closed world assumption and negation as failure, and give definitions, consistency results and relations among them.  ...  Summary: “A new fixpoint semantics for abductive logic programs is provided, in which the generalized stable models of an abductive program are characterized as the fixpoint of a disjunctive program obtained  ...
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