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[25 Years Ago]

2016 IEEE Control Systems  
ASSOCIATE EDITOR, HISTORY Rolf Findeisen Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg I E E E c o n T r o l s y s T E m s m a g a z I n E b o a r d « The general gaze holding problem is to maintain fixation  ...  In active vision, known observer motion yields improved extraction of physical parameters from visual signals. Visual fixation can attach useful frames of reference to objects in the world.  ...  However, a contribution from position error can achieve foveation as well as stabilization, and seems to play some part.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mcs.2016.2536120 fatcat:ypblnk4gfzbebhqn7mpclzugpe

Real-time vergence control for binocular robots

Thomas J. Olson, David J. Coombs
1991 International Journal of Computer Vision  
The demonstration system uses a PD controller in cascade with the error estimator.  ...  Vergence error is estimated with the cepstral disparity filter, The cepstral filter is analyzed, and it is shown in this application to be equivalent to correlation with an adaptive prefilter; carrying  ...  Acknowledgments Robert Potter was the first to close the vergence loop, and the first to use the cepstral filter for vergence.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf00130490 fatcat:cjo2ha4yffepnaq2han4ri5fwe

Integration of information from several vision systems for a common task of surveillance

Paulo Peixoto, Jorge Batista, Helder Araújo
2000 Robotics and Autonomous Systems  
In this paper we describe the integration of vision information obtained by a fixed camera and the information obtained by a binocular active vision system.  ...  The information redundancy is exploited to achieve a higher degree of robustness in detecting and tracking intruders.  ...  The relationship between each point P i (X i , Y i ) and the pan and vergence rotation angles can be derived directly from the geometry of the active vision system X i = sin θ p i B 2 tan θ v i + D , Y  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0921-8890(99)00080-9 fatcat:35xk43sbjzhbhbgalo5hd3ydxy

Gaze Contingent Depth Recovery and Motion Stabilisation for Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery [chapter]

George P. Mylonas, Ara Darzi, Guang-Zhong Yang
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of real-time binocular eye tracking for empowering the robots with human vision using knowledge acquired in situ, thus simplifying, as well as enhancing  ...  at the fixation points and further be used for adaptive motion stabilization during surgery.  ...  In order to extract quantitative information regarding the depth of the fixation point, ocular vergence which provides a veridical interpretation of stereoscopic depth needs to be measured [1] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-28626-4_38 fatcat:ihj6xihrlzhqpo33553omlpota

Gaze-Contingent Soft Tissue Deformation Tracking for Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery [chapter]

George P. Mylonas, Danail Stoyanov, Fani Deligianni, Ara Darzi, Guang-Zhong Yang
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The potential applications of the technique include motion stabilization and intra-operative planning in the presence of large tissue deformation.  ...  The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to use real-time binocular eye tracking for empowering robots with human vision by using knowledge acquired in situ.  ...  Gaze-Contingent Depth Extraction and Tissue Deformation Tracking The second part of our experiment was to extract gaze-contingent depth information from the phantom.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11566465_104 fatcat:6hmpkjzsdzewtlvjz3glqfu5p4

Integrating primary ocular processes

Kourosh Pahlavan, Tomas Uhlin, Jan-Olof Eklundh
1992 Image and Vision Computing  
The study of active vision using binocular head-eye systems requires answers to some fundamental questions in control of attention.  ...  We suggest an approach based on integration of these processes, resulting in cooperatively extracted unique solutions. The discussion is started by a look at biological vision.  ...  Introduction In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in studying active vision using headeye systems, see e.g. IBm88, ClF88, Kkv87].  ... 
doi:10.1016/0262-8856(92)90010-z fatcat:wpv2rqa4xnadzjor54paaphy7y

Visuo-inertial stabilization in space-variant binocular systems

Francesco Panerai, Giorgio Metta, Giulio Sandini
2000 Robotics and Autonomous Systems  
In this paper we present an artificial system, the LIRA robot head, capable of controlling its cameras/eyes to stabilize gaze.  ...  Stabilization of gaze is a major functional prerequisite for robots exploring the environment.  ...  Binocular vision systems can be more efficient in gaze stabilization in at least two senses: (i) If a robust control of vergence exists, they can derive consistent depth information and use it to tune  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0921-8890(99)00072-x fatcat:b3uhferbfffonpnq6ohsc36f64

Stabilization of gaze: A relationship between ciliary muscle contraction and trapezius muscle activity

H.O. Richter, T. Bänziger, S. Abdi, M. Forsman
2010 Vision Research  
of gaze.  ...  The target was placed close to the individual's age-appropriate near point of accommodation in conditions (i-iii) and at 3 m in condition (iv).  ...  The end result achieved may be 'too much' gaze stabilization. Afferentation from muscle spindles may signal when gaze stabilization has been achieved.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.visres.2010.08.021 pmid:20732346 fatcat:3sur4cqf65h6pieazbjcjzzug4

An active vision system for obtaining high resolution depth information [chapter]

W. Fellenz, K. Schlüns, A. Koschan, M. Teschner
1997 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A low-cost active vision head with ten degrees of freedom is presented that has been build from off-the-shelf parts.  ...  To obtain high resolution depth information of fixated objects in the scene a general purpose calibration procedure is proposed which estimates intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters including the vergence  ...  Introduction Biological and engineering active vision systems share mechanisms that allow to accomplish visual tasks by varying view parameters like direction of gaze, vergence, focus, zoom and aperture  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-63460-6_184 fatcat:nwa6qahc3jdqjgo3dpsvel62ga

Space-variant vision for an active camera mount

Francesco M. Panerai, Carla Capurro, Giulio Sandini, Friedrich O. Huck, Richard D. Juday
1995 Visual Information Processing IV  
This paper focuses the attention on log-polar vision in the context of active control of visual sensors.  ...  It is also shown how image shifts can be detected by using one-dimensional correlation measurements in the log-polar domain, and a possible use of this technique aimed at stabilizing gaze or tracking moving  ...  in active vision tasks 8].  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.211981 dblp:conf/spieVIP/PaneraiCS95 fatcat:6zgu4ayey5g6rhu4h7bmvrtp5u

A Portable Bio-Inspired Architecture for Efficient Robotic Vergence Control

Agostino Gibaldi, Mauricio Vanegas, Andrea Canessa, Silvio P. Sabatini
2016 International Journal of Computer Vision  
Keywords Vergence control · Active vision · Stereo vision · Binocular energy models · Neuromorphic architectures Project FP7-ICT-217077 EYESHOTS -Heterogeneous 3D perception across visual fragments (see  ...  The obtained vergence servos are able to actively drive both the horizontal and the vertical alignment of the optical axes on the object of interest, thus ensuring a correct vergence posture.  ...  Bio-Inspired Vergence Control When the camera axes are moving freely, as it occurs in a binocular active vision system, stereopsis cannot longer be considered a 1D problem and both horizontal and vertical  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11263-016-0936-z fatcat:axgcmq7x3fcndad42ipfybbney

A Novel Binocular Eye-Tracking SystemWith Stereo Stimuli for 3D Gaze Estimation [article]

Jinglin Sun, Zhipeng Wu, Han Wang, Peiguang Jing, Yu Liu
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Experimental results show that the average error for 2D gaze estimation was 0.66and for 3D PoG estimation, the average errors are 1.85 cm/0.15 m over the workspace volume 50 cm × 30 cm × 75 cm/2.4 m ×  ...  Eye-tracking technologies have been widely used in applications like psychological studies and human computer interactions (HCI).  ...  Then, the 2D gaze of the two eyes in pixels, (x l , y l ) and (x r , y r ), can be located at the intersections between the gaze vectors V l , V r and the gaze planes I l , I r , respectively (see Fig.  ... 
arXiv:2104.12167v3 fatcat:rvb4ck7rsvcf5aycxzyjaxqrym

Providing distinct vergence and version dynamics in a bilateral oculomotor network

Armando Cova, Henrietta L. Galiana
1995 Vision Research  
This model provides for both vergence and conjugate integrators in a single controller, and explains the observed modulation on abducens interneurons and mesencephalic vergence cells during vergence responses  ...  Major implications include: the need to record both eyes in a protocol, since cross-talk is always possible; and adaptation to monocular changes could be distributed in all motor projections to both eyes  ...  in the extraction of target retinal error and slip.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0042-6989(95)00105-n pmid:8560805 fatcat:nm5auycedzgmzlkgpyxq4n7xxu

A neuromorphic control module for real-time vergence eye movements on the iCub robot head

Agostino Gibaldi, Andrea Canessa, Manuela Chessa, Silvio P. Sabatini, Fabio Solari
2011 2011 11th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots  
The eye posture resulting from the vergence movement, is instrumental for an active vision system to optimally perceive the 3D structure of the environment from disparity.  ...  Experimental tests demonstrated that the robot head executes effective vergence movements, on a visual stimulus posed within the peripersonal space, that falls in the perifoveal field of view.  ...  I. INTRODUCTION Stereoscopic vision is a fundamental feature for active vision systems.  ... 
doi:10.1109/humanoids.2011.6100861 dblp:conf/humanoids/GibaldiCCSS11 fatcat:zmvjhchpmvf2xj33skvnzu44ly

Dynamic fixation and active perception

Kourosh Van Pahla, Tomas Uhlin, Jan-Olof Eklundh
1996 International Journal of Computer Vision  
In this respect, fixation is dynamical in two senses: in response to voluntary changes of fixation point or attentive cues-gaze shiftings, and in response to the desire to compensate for the retinal slip-gaze  ...  The two vergence processes, disparity vergence and accommodative vergence, are described; a novel algorithm for robust disparity vergence and an active approach for blur detection and depth from defocus  ...  vision by The Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf00058748 fatcat:xt7jmj7b5vcqtbjbud7ah6p6im
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