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We tested the hypothesis that the addition of a sodium salt to some, but not all, bitter tasting liquids enhances acceptance and reduces the perceived bitterness in 7-to 10-year-old children and their ... For both children and adults, sodium gluconate significantly suppressed the perceived bitterness and enhanced the acceptance of urea and caffeine whereas the reverse was true for another bitter stimulus ... If this is the case, why does sodium gluconate differentially reduce the bitterness of some bitter compounds and enhance the bitterness of others? ...doi:10.1002/dev.10127 pmid:12918091 pmcid:PMC2799510 fatcat:ifgwy4iq5bczlp6xad6j327pda
Here it is suggested that the perceptual ratio of sweet taste to bitter taste (a signal for toxicity) may be a better gauge of a plant's broadly conceived food value than sweetness alone and that it is ... There is a substantial literature on sweet-bitter interactions in humans. In general, as is often the case for taste mixtures, bitterness and sweetness mutually suppress each other   . ... Perhaps a more accurate metric of overall beneficial value of a food would be a measure that includes the extent to which sweet-bitter mixtures in foods are perceived as more sweet or more bitter. ...doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.05.007 pmid:27174610 pmcid:PMC5003684 fatcat:ofpyjfx3ojdfresahpwpa3wrny
Supplemental Information Supplemental Information includes Supplemental Experimental Procedures and can be found with this article online at doi:10.1016/ j.cub.2011.02.028. des Gachons 1 , Gary K. ... Because most plant-derived toxins taste bitter, there is a rational link between bitter tasting compounds in the mouth and nausea that often results from their ingestion. ...doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.02.028 pmid:21481757 fatcat:udpi3wytr5e4tcnnfiqisve25a
Networking the Learner
BIOGRAPHIES Gary G. Bitter is Professor of Educational Technology, and Executive Director, Technology Based Leaming and Research, both at Arizona State University. ... Building on an earlier investigation of teacher use of the program's pilot (Bitter and Pryor 1999) this exploratory study examined use ofan interactive multimedia program, with video of classroom instruction ...doi:10.1007/978-0-387-35596-2_41 fatcat:kkuf2mpgjjburavz6cgnkvkmvi
also have reduced bitter receptor function. ... that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus) should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should ... 25 bitter compounds. ...doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139670 pmid:26488302 pmcid:PMC4619199 fatcat:fe2kmcjcovdrhpwvhuukpln4hy
Since many plants are bitter, it has been proposed that high tolerance for bitterness would be adaptive for herbivores. ... Rejection of bitter substances is common in many species and may function to protect an animal from ingestion of bitter-tasting toxins. ... The tendency to reject bitter tastants (defined herein as stimuli perceived as bitter by humans) is often assumed to be an adaptation that protects animals from consuming toxic foods (Bachmanov & Beauchamp ...doi:10.1037/a0020792 pmid:21090891 pmcid:PMC2999000 fatcat:zsn2gkcp4je3zdpug2kjlcjn7q
The latest advances in Internet and multimedia have increased the popularity of online learning environments. Although every new online learning environment (OLE) claims to have introduced one or more novelties, not every OLE is successful in creating a long and lasting impact in learners' knowledge. In this article, we have analyzed the recent research literature relevant to online and e-learning as well as computer based instruction with the purpose of identifying the desirabledoi:10.5901/jesr.2015.v5n1p203 fatcat:3rhboaj43ncqrea5wjiy2bvxgu
more »... of an ideal new generation OLE. Ultimately, this research aims to serve as a guideline for the creators of the existing and novel OLE's for superior teaching and learning experiences. 212 different settings. The Need for Professional Development Lindstrom and Speck (2004) defined that professional development as a "lifelong, collaborative learning process that nourishes the growth of individuals, teams, and the school through a daily, job-embedded, learner-centered, focused approach". Professional development in the context of education generally refers to the ongoing learning opportunities made available to teachers and other education personnel, through their schools and districts. Professional development has two specific goals: 1) to meet the needs of the participants (teachers), and 2) to improve student learning and success (Stiles et al., 2009) . Thus professional development is of utmost significance in order to achieve high levels of implementation fidelity. Therefore it follows that: Desirable Characteristic 15: In order for an OLE to be successful, it must be implemented withy fidelity and for this to happen, the facilitators must know how to use the OLE intimately. Thus, the OLE must come with online and/or offline professional development modules such as tutorials, seminars, webinars, etc. Adopting of new instructional paradigms In view of the changing and constantly increasing demands for e-learning, Greiner et al. (2004) claim that educators needs to develop new instructional paradigms in order to effectively meet the needs of learners. There are examples of innovative instructional models which support efficient knowledge construction in a web-based environment enabling long-term knowledge retention. Therefore it follows that: Desirable Characteristic 16: An OLE must possess the flexibility to adopt new and useful instructional paradigms as they emerge. Conclusion This literature review concentrated on one central theme; the desirable characteristics of an OLE. In summary, an ideal OLE uses computer tutorials and online learning activities; uses multimedia elements, simulations and manipulatives in an interactive way; uses the dimensions of online learning to create positive attitudes in learners; supports different types of learning experiences; provides online quizzes and gives feedback on the results; enables customized and adaptive instruction; provides assistance for learner reflection; provides scaffolding for online learning; is accessible anywhere, anytime; enables distance learning through interactive online learning activities; supports cooperative learning; addresses multiple intelligences; conforms to educational standards; provides guidelines for high fidelity of implementation in diverse settings; provides online and offline professional development modules; and is flexible to adopt new and useful instructional paradigms fast as they emerge.
Because hop extracts are used as flavoring agents for their bitter properties, we hypothesized that bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) could be mediating their beneficial effects in metabolic disease. ... Targeting extraoral bitter taste receptors may be useful in metabolic disease. ... Bitter taste receptors provide the sensory capacity to detect bitterness in food [17, 21] . ...doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2018.07.013 pmid:30120064 pmcid:PMC6158035 fatcat:5ow6jyhas5ckdkthwdo7xgerfq
., 2012) (Devlin, 2013) (Bitter & Meylani, 2013) . ... Much of the utility and effectiveness of math apps had been envisioned by prominent educators long before it became a booming industry (Bitter G. , 1978 ). www.ijier.net Vol.3-3, 2015 International Educative ...doi:10.31686/ijier.vol3.iss3.337 fatcat:hzbvfsj5mbc7ngknx2jcjgf4yi
Interested in a computing career 45.5 9.1 27.3 18.2 Gary Bitter is Professor of Educational Technology at Arizona State University and Executive Director of Technology Based Learning & Research ... Bitter earned his Ph.D. in Mathematics and Computer Education at the University of Denver. Dr. Mary White is currently a Senior Research Specialist for Technology Based Learning and Research. ...doi:10.28945/192 fatcat:6pti43pr6bdybig4wb3aeq37de
In this study regression and neural networks based methods are used to predict statewide high-stakes test results for middle school mathematics using the scores obtained from third party tests throughout the school year. Such prediction is of utmost significance for school districts to live up to the state's educational standards mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act by helping them take the necessary measures in a timely manner and avoid penalties such as decreased funding, salary cuts, jobdoi:10.5539/jel.v3n3p135 fatcat:tpyvmgkhdfgmfdsw7hj4o5wiee
more »... losses, the state taking over the school administration, etc. Although the predictive analyses were performed in the context of middle school mathematics, the suggested models can readily be applied to other grade levels and content areas as well. In order to keep track of the students' progress, many schools employ third party testing instruments developed in accordance with the state's educational standards and known to be highly correlated with the AIMS test. In this study, the scores obtained from such a third party testing system throughout the school year are used to predict the actual AIMS mathematics test results at grades 6, 7 and 8, using regression based methods, for an urban middle school district in Arizona. Organization of this paper is as follows: First, the related theoretical framework and literature review will be given followed by the rationale and the research questions answered in this paper. In the methodology section, the regression and neural networks based algorithms, the prediction process and the participant profile will be elaborated. The analyses and results will separately display the findings while predicting the scaled score, placement rating and the pass/fail rating in the AIMS Mathematics test. Finally, the results will be discussed in www.ccsenet.org/jel
Thailand is beginning to emphasize the teaching of elementary, junior and senior high students to speak English. One of the key problems has been the availability of an effective English learning program. This research study evaluated the effects of a mobile English speaking software app (Qooco Kids English) for two schools using mobile devices in which 95% of the phone s were Android, The research questions' focus was on English speaking ability. Qooco Kids English is an online programdoi:10.31686/ijier.vol4.iss12.71 fatcat:5ciruisd6balfge2k2vl6vzhyy
more »... d via a mobile device. The Qooco Kids English App was used to teach children to speak English fluently by providing English audio models and frequent speaking practice with immediate actionable feedback on the English speaking of the students. Qooco Kids English has twelve instant feedback lesson modules with gamified, progressive lessons which result in faster and more engaging learning lessons. Through a pre post experimental design, the researchers studied the speaking ability of 192 grade 5 and grade 6 students in Chiang Rai Municipality School 6 and 89 Junior and senior high students in Chiang Rai Municipality School 7 for one semester in Thailand. Specifically, effects on students' English speaking ability after one semester were measured through the iTest pre and post-tests. The significant statistical findings indicated that the Qooco software English speaking app increases student achievement in both spoken and written English for Grades 5 and 6 as well as junior and senior high school students.
Thailand is beginning to emphasize the teaching of elementary, junior and senior high students to speak English. One of the key problems has been the availability of an effective English learning program. This research study evaluated the effects of a mobile English speaking software app (Qooc o Kids English) for two schools using mobile devices in which 95% of the phones were Android, The research questions' focus was on English speaking ability. Qooco Kids English is an online programdoi:10.31686/ijier.vol4.iss11.9 fatcat:xpxipmansrbgtpwsbwejnjpfze
more »... d via a mobile device. The Qooco Kids English App w as used to teach children to speak English fluently by providing English audio models and frequent speaking practice with immediate actionable feedback on the English speaking of the students. Qooco Kids English has twelve instant feedback lesson modules w ith gamified, progressive lessons which result in faster and more engaging learning lessons. Through a pre post experimental design, the researchers studied the speaking ability of 192 grade 5 and grade 6 students in Chiang Rai Municipality School 6 and 89 Junior and senior high students in Chiang Rai Municipality School 7 for one semester in Thailand. Specifically, effects on students' English speaking ability after one semester were measured through the iTest pre and post tests. The significant statistic al findings indicated that the Qooco software English speaking app increases student achievement in both spoken and written English for Grades 5 and 6 as well as junior and senior high school students.
, 1994; Bitter, 2008a; Bitter, 2008b; Isaacs, 2001) . ... theories of guided discovery learning (Bruner, 1961; Mayer, 2004) and situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991) , as well as research on the way elementary school students learn math (Baroody, 1989; Bitter ...doi:10.31686/ijier.vol4.iss7.568 fatcat:hxzu4wyozze2liulwe65daspge
Introduction-Increasing evidence links COPD pathogenesis with pulmonary capillary apoptosis. We previously demonstrated that plasma levels of circulating microparticles released from endothelial cells (EMPs) due to apoptosis are elevated in smokers with normal spirometry but low diffusion capacity, i.e., with early evidence of lung destruction. We hypothesized that pulmonary capillary apoptosis persists with development of COPD and assessed its reversibly in healthy smokers and COPD smokersdoi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-208274 pmid:27462120 pmcid:PMC5536242 fatcat:vrscizj5ojerpatx6kbwn7fky4
more »... owing smoking cessation. Methods-Pulmonary function and HRCT were assessed in 28 nonsmokers, 61 healthy smokers and 49 COPD smokers; 17 healthy smokers and 18 COPD smokers quit smoking for 12 months following the baseline visit. Total EMP (CD42b − CD31 + ), pulmonary capillary EMP (CD42b − CD31 + ACE + ) and apoptotic EMP (CD42b − CD62E + /CD42b − CD31 + ) levels were quantified by flow cytometry. Results-Compared to nonsmokers, healthy smokers and COPD smokers had elevated levels of circulating EMPs due to active pulmonary capillary endothelial apoptosis. Levels remained elevated over 12 months in healthy smokers and COPD smokers who continued smoking but returned to nonsmoker levels in healthy smokers who quit. In contrast, levels remained significantly abnormal in COPD smokers who quit. Conclusion-Pulmonary capillary apoptosis is reversible in healthy smokers who quit, but continues to play a role in COPD pathogenesis in smokers who progressed to airflow obstruction despite smoking cessation.
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