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Developing and Validating a New Version of an EFL Multiple-Choice Reading Comprehension Test Based on Fuzzy Logic

Amir Hossein Shahballa, Behzad Ghonsooly, Hosein Karami
<span title="">2019</span> <i title="Alzahra University"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/jmihyxoduzgfddzdrw4ptetyle" style="color: black;">Journal of language horizons</a> </i> &nbsp;
Multiple-choice tests do not assess examinees' knowledge in accord with reality. In fact, the partial knowledge of examinees is not assessed.  ...  The results showed that the approach is fairer as it considers the partial knowledge of the examinees while in other common multiple-choice tests this is ignored.  ...  Is there a significant difference between participants' understandings in testing through common multiple-choice questions and through fuzzy multiple-choice questions?  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.22051/lghor.2019.27083.1154">doi:10.22051/lghor.2019.27083.1154</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://doaj.org/article/1eb636928eab4f88b5d0c29969c1b525">doaj:1eb636928eab4f88b5d0c29969c1b525</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/g6x6eb3jgbfktgbo4dhd4ibxie">fatcat:g6x6eb3jgbfktgbo4dhd4ibxie</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210618022800/https://lghor.alzahra.ac.ir/article_4426_0abf5dd9d8cd691e66dc67e6be00a901.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/7c/d0/7cd014bc56ab27f5147c7a77443bcd28a2d4a7f3.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.22051/lghor.2019.27083.1154"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

LMS assessment: using IRT analysis to detect defective multiple-choice test items

Panagiotis Fotaris, Theodoros Mastoras
<span title="">2014</span> <i title="Inderscience Publishers"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/nucbldt6kvhu3o5kzsvzmpxuxm" style="color: black;">International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning</a> </i> &nbsp;
Due to the computerization of assessment tests, the use of Item Response Theory (IRT) has become commonplace for educational assessment development, evaluation, and refinement.  ...  of their content.  ...  et al. (2008) , we considered a set of four potential criteria in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system as a detector of defective multiple-choice test items: First, an ideal detector  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1504/ijtel.2014.069015">doi:10.1504/ijtel.2014.069015</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/x2tgy7vfnvab3kprbjbatztmeq">fatcat:x2tgy7vfnvab3kprbjbatztmeq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180719180754/http://eprints.brighton.ac.uk/18163/1/fotaris-final-draft-2014.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/64/a5/64a50d3b05b564eee9061100f39f2857c6cd4605.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1504/ijtel.2014.069015"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Enhancement of Online Computerized Examination by Incorporating Artificial Intelligence to One Word Answer Questions Along with Multiple Choice Questions

Vimal P., C.K. Kumbharana
<span title="2015-12-17">2015</span> <i title="Foundation of Computer Science"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/b637noqf3vhmhjevdfk3h5pdsu" style="color: black;">International Journal of Computer Applications</a> </i> &nbsp;
Today due to the increased number of various courses and increased number of appearing students, the process of examination has become more complex.  ...  Many hours of examiners and human efforts are required for effective  ...  It is easier for a computer to evaluate objective type multiple choice questions but it is too much difficult for a computer to evaluate subjective type questions as similar as intelligent human efforts  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5120/ijca2015907705">doi:10.5120/ijca2015907705</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/pac7hrqh65gsbovtp4omojeyjm">fatcat:pac7hrqh65gsbovtp4omojeyjm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180603073545/https://www.ijcaonline.org/research/volume132/number17/parmar-2015-ijca-907705.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/cc/21/cc21d4f26375ebc6ab8a2951affab834eac0b787.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5120/ijca2015907705"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Design of English hierarchical online test system based on machine learning

Xiahui Wang, Dan Zhang, Abhinav Asthana, Sudeep Asthana, Shaweta Khanna, Chaman Verma
<span title="2021-01-01">2021</span> <i title="Walter de Gruyter GmbH"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/fvcuwwb4brauziwelchs6y6lzi" style="color: black;">Journal of Intelligent Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
The online English test system based on ML breaks the shackles of the traditional paper English test and improves the efficiency of the English test.  ...  modules, key technologies, and functional realization of the online English test.  ...  single-choice questions (set to 0), and the scores of multiple topics (set to 0) to the information table of the candidates' score sheet.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1515/jisys-2020-0150">doi:10.1515/jisys-2020-0150</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/rcsp25upavhwfd3ltqeel73usm">fatcat:rcsp25upavhwfd3ltqeel73usm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210718055714/https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/jisys-2020-0150/pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/a3/b9/a3b93547982f3c1d55243c68da067838e50b565c.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1515/jisys-2020-0150"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> degruyter.com </button> </a>

Method of Information Technology Enhanced Japanese Vocabulary Learning and Evaluation

Duen-Huang Huang, Hao-En Chueh, Huai-Te Huang, Hong-Fa Ho, Chang-Yi Kao
<span title="2021-06-18">2021</span> <i title="International Association of Online Engineering (IAOE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2mtfrrh4zrcn5opulbqvn7baxm" style="color: black;">International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET)</a> </i> &nbsp;
To prove the evaluation ability of the proposed method and implemented system, we conducted an experiment involving 80 students from the Japanese Group of the department of applied foreign languages of  ...  improve the efficiency and effectiveness in evaluating the Japanese vocabulary of learners.  ...  Some researchers used true-false questions [23, 24] , whereas others adopted multiple-choice questions [21, 22] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v16i12.22207">doi:10.3991/ijet.v16i12.22207</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zxsbu2xklfgmvncgtwppz4n7xe">fatcat:zxsbu2xklfgmvncgtwppz4n7xe</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210621231313/https://online-journals.org/index.php/i-jet/article/download/22207/9403" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/a8/65/a86569805e0416c35bebe5a11bcd9f2727f55c7c.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v16i12.22207"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

A Comparative Study of Modified Principal Component Analysis and Generalized Latent Semantic Analysis Approach to Automated Marking of Theoretical-Based Exams

Odunayo Esther Oduntan, Ibrahim Adepoju Adeyanju
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="IOSR Journals"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/3o6d7ann3ngcpkk2sqs4ileiim" style="color: black;">IOSR Journal of Mobile Computing &amp; Application</a> </i> &nbsp;
Examination is a means by which individual's ability on an acquired skill or knowledge is evaluated. Some examiners useMultiple Choice Questions (MCQ), while others use the theory-based Questions.  ...  coefficient of determination (R 2 ).These performance evaluation shows that MPCA is a better feature extraction techniques.  ...  The mode of the questions administered to students' are usually multiple choice questions, multiple choice multiple answers, multiple choice single answer e.t.c.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.9790/0050-04023141">doi:10.9790/0050-04023141</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wnrmk3rcxrf3hdvvizzwmm4jfa">fatcat:wnrmk3rcxrf3hdvvizzwmm4jfa</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180602144001/http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jmca/papers/Vol4-Issue2/G04023141.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/be/3f/be3f0e0297366a86dd752d8fbe0b093d9ca473c8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.9790/0050-04023141"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

A Rule-Based System for Test Quality Improvement

Gennaro Costagliola, Vittorio Fuccella
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="IGI Global"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/yknysoli6zhcfagx6rxmshv5ce" style="color: black;">International Journal of Distance Education Technologies</a> </i> &nbsp;
To correctly evaluate learners' knowledge, it is important to administer tests composed of good quality question items.  ...  This paper presents a rulebased e-testing system which assists tutors in obtaining better question items through subsequent test sessions.  ...  Multiple choice question type is frequently employed, since, among other advantages, a large number of tests based on it can be easily corrected automatically.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4018/jdet.2009040104">doi:10.4018/jdet.2009040104</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/hf463pfv4nbete3k6d3ukjt2zu">fatcat:hf463pfv4nbete3k6d3ukjt2zu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170810024300/http://cluelab.di.unisa.it/images/stories/papers/jdet09.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b8/f3/b8f3f014c3afa1243afa5c86770b336d0fe922cb.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4018/jdet.2009040104"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Computerized Adaptive and Fixed-Item Versions of the Ited Vocabulary Subtest

Walter P. Vispoel
<span title="">1993</span> <i title="SAGE Publications"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2yqga3ewqbcl7flziftijznjfy" style="color: black;">Educational and Psychological Measurement</a> </i> &nbsp;
First, examinees respond to a 5-option multiple-choice vocabulary item, then they rate their level of confidence for answering items of comparable difficulty correctly using an 11-point confidence scale  ...  of the vocabulary subtest from the Iowa Tests of Educational Development (ITED), and (b) to evaluate examinees’ attitudes toward the tests.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164493053003022">doi:10.1177/0013164493053003022</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/mxakr7tuerbvvoudzsgssxwmre">fatcat:mxakr7tuerbvvoudzsgssxwmre</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://archive.org/details/sim_educational-and-psychological-measurement_autumn-1993_53_3/page/779" title="read fulltext microfilm" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Archive [Microfilm] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://archive.org/serve/sim_educational-and-psychological-measurement_autumn-1993_53_3/__ia_thumb.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164493053003022"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> sagepub.com </button> </a>

Muddles in Pentatonic Likert-type scale: Accuracy Cost in Psychometric Measurements for Small Enterprise Development

Dr.Sc. Francis Okumu Omillo
<span title="">2019</span> <i title="Felix-Verlag"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/nq4efitcpjbxrlpqjjupejupym" style="color: black;">ILIRIA International Review</a> </i> &nbsp;
Thirdly, adopt newest models of Likert type scale, that is; novel fuzzy Likert scale, phrase completion scale and two-stages Likert scale for measuring direction and intensity dimensions seperately.  ...  The findings and suggestions of the study are relevant for researchers in both academic, clinical and enterprise development for attainment of the Kenya Vision 2030.  ...  Novel fuzzy Likert scale A fuzzy Likert scale is a new construction of fuzzy rating score on a traditional pentatonic Likert scale using survey questions based on fuzzy set theory.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.21113/iir.v9i1.476">doi:10.21113/iir.v9i1.476</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://doaj.org/article/46c6e7c6493d4b91bfc5351373aaf744">doaj:46c6e7c6493d4b91bfc5351373aaf744</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/xz64bpathjet3ccwmphauzxp6i">fatcat:xz64bpathjet3ccwmphauzxp6i</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201125173330/http://www.iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/download/476/328" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/18/74/1874f227d5bc75d6b13a2d71cb2393fc1002eeed.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.21113/iir.v9i1.476"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

PROFICIENCY SCALING BASED ON CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY FUNCTIONS FOR ATTRIBUTES

Kikumi K. Tatsuoka, Menucha Birenbaum, Charles Lewis, Kathleen M. Sheehan
<span title="">1993</span> <i title="Wiley"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/jf5pdoipu5gyfag6ffep34ce3e" style="color: black;">ETS Research Report Series</a> </i> &nbsp;
Analysis results show 'chat almost 98 percent of 2,334 examinees are successfully classified into one of 468 cognitive states.  ...  A task analysis is summarized in a mapping sentence, and then 14 processes and content attributes are identified for explaining the underlying cognitive aspects of the examinees' performance on tl..e SAT  ...  Saucture answer type response format Logic (if...then) exact number multiple choice 11. yes1 2.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2333-8504.1993.tb01561.x">doi:10.1002/j.2333-8504.1993.tb01561.x</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/edvkw5pfdja3xikn3ftt7cyrm4">fatcat:edvkw5pfdja3xikn3ftt7cyrm4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150430055923/http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED366651.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/a3/6f/a36f3e92f1b1f8a45addcb0da6d054f03502cfed.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2333-8504.1993.tb01561.x"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> wiley.com </button> </a>

Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing

Russell G. Almond, Robert J. Mislevy
<span title="">1999</span> <i title="SAGE Publications"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/femq66fbivd3dlxwf2pjdav6ye" style="color: black;">Applied Psychological Measurement</a> </i> &nbsp;
IRT-CAT can offer graphical modelers several ways of treating sources of variability other than including more variables in the model.  ...  The Graduate Record Examination is used to illustrate ideas in the context of IRT-CAT, and extensions are discussed in the context of language proficiency testing.  ...  They could be as simple as "did the examinee give the correct response to a multiple-choice question" or as complex as dimensions of a multi-attribute rating produced by a human judge or by running a parser  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1177/01466219922031347">doi:10.1177/01466219922031347</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/cxikfza3xvdodgiwtwgxnac5v4">fatcat:cxikfza3xvdodgiwtwgxnac5v4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170428122018/http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED424258.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/62/90/62900604d5679ca4d1ba58ea298758c2208c2964.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1177/01466219922031347"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> sagepub.com </button> </a>

User-system cooperative evolutionary computation for both quantitative and qualitative objective optimization in image processing filter design

Satoshi Ono, Hiroshi Maeda, Kiyomasa Sakimoto, Shigeru Nakayama
<span title="">2014</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/spnlkxfb7fevrarnlb7rv32roy" style="color: black;">Applied Soft Computing</a> </i> &nbsp;
This is achieved by a combination of user evaluation prediction and the integration of interactive and non-interactive EC.  ...  In contrast, the proposed CEUS allows the user to dynamically change the allocation of search roles between the system and user, resulting in simultaneous optimization of qualitative and quantitative objective  ...  (a)-(c), the filters obtained by CEUS produced various output images according to the examinees' choice of fruit.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2013.10.019">doi:10.1016/j.asoc.2013.10.019</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/kocoz54wlvdvfkuo66dchf7kna">fatcat:kocoz54wlvdvfkuo66dchf7kna</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170812125848/http://www.ics.kagoshima-u.ac.jp/%7Eono/PDFFiles/Ono2014_ASoC.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/95/37/9537ac04ce1837bbfdd80b1698eaf13b080cb237.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2013.10.019"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

The Semiotics of Test Design: Conceptual Framework on Optimal Item Features in Educational Assessment Across Cultural Groups, Countries, and Languages

Guillermo Solano-Flores
<span title="2021-04-14">2021</span> <i title="Frontiers Media SA"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/kcfm7c53ezacnpbgxaq775wy3q" style="color: black;">Frontiers in Education</a> </i> &nbsp;
the maximum number of individuals in diverse populations of examinees.  ...  The conceptual framework offers a typology of semiotic resources used to create items and discusses item representational complexity—the multiple ways in which the semiotic resources of an item are related  ...  , abbreviations, graph axes, ways of asking questions, ways of arranging options in multiple-choice items, buttons to click, cascade menus, and boxes to type or write answers to questions.  ... 
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A Systematic Review of Online Exams Solutions in E-learning: Techniques, Tools and Global Adoption [article]

Abdul Wahab Muzaffar, Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad Waseem Anwar, Qaiser Chaudry, Shamaila Rasheed Mir, Yawar Rasheed
<span title="2021-02-12">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
This facilitates the selection of right online exam system for a particular country on the basis of existing E-learning infrastructure and overall cost.  ...  Finally, the participation of countries in online exam research is investigated. Key factors for the global adoption of online exams are identified and investigated.  ...  Acknowledgement The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at Saudi Electronic University for funding this work under the grant number ELI-CCI20134.  ... 
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A Systematic Review of Online Exams Solutions in E-learning: Techniques, Tools and Global Adoption

Abdul Wahab Muzaffar, Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad Waseem Anwar, Qaiser Chaudry, Shamaila Rasheed Mir, Yawar Rasheed
<span title="">2021</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/q7qi7j4ckfac7ehf3mjbso4hne" style="color: black;">IEEE Access</a> </i> &nbsp;
This facilitates the selection of right online exam system for a particular country on the basis of existing Elearning infrastructure and overall cost.  ...  Finally, the participation of countries in online exam research is investigated. Key factors for the global adoption of online exams are identified and compared with major online exams features.  ...  There are studies (e.g. [58] ) where certain techniques are proposed for the generation of multiple-choice and / or descriptive questions for online exams.  ... 
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