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Functional Testing in the Focal Environment [chapter]

Matthieu Carlier, Catherine Dubois
Tests and Proofs  
This article presents the generation and test case execution under the framework Focal. In the programming language Focal, all properties of the program are written within the source code.  ...  These properties are considered, here, as the program specification. We are interested in testing the code against these properties. Testing a property is split in two stages.  ...  Introduction The Focal environment [9] , developed by the Focal project 1 (initiated by T. Hardin and R.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79124-9_7 dblp:conf/tap/CarlierD08 fatcat:7s6urhtltnajjphjfyocoonoda

Genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences

D. Rebar, R. L. Rodriguez
2013 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences  
We used full-sibling split-families as 'treatment' social environments, and reared focal females alongside each treatment family, describing the mate preferences of the focal females.  ...  This proximate-ultimate dynamic brings genetic variation in social environments to the forefront of evolutionary theory. However, the extent of this variation remains largely unknown.  ...  Table 1 . 1 Linear mixed-model testing for differences in the shape of the preference functions of focal females.  ... 
doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0803 pmid:23698010 pmcid:PMC3774231 fatcat:plmwff56xndnhhafpctrhs3egi

Social recognition in wild fish populations

A. J.W Ward, M. M Webster, P. J.B Hart
2007 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences  
The ability of animals to gather information about their social and physical environment is essential for their ecological function.  ...  The focal fish preferred to associate with others that shared the same recent habitat experience Social recognition in wild fish populations A. J. W. Ward et al. 1073  ...  This work was funded by the National Environmental Research Council (UK). The authors would like to thank Prof.  ... 
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.0231 pmid:17284411 pmcid:PMC2124469 fatcat:i26e3tepzndnpdcixzbo6gvhbq

Does diversity beget diversity in microbiomes?

Naïma Jesse Madi, Michiel Vos, Carmen Lia Murall, Pierre Legendre, B. Jesse Shapiro
2020 eLife  
Using high-throughput amplicon sequencing data from the Earth Microbiome Project, we provide evidence that DBD is strongest in low-diversity biomes, but weaker in more diverse biomes, consistent with biotic  ...  Microbes are embedded in complex communities where they engage in a wide array of intra- and inter-specific interactions.  ...  Linear models are shown for the 518 number of orders per class (y-axis) as a function of community diversity (non-focal 519 classes, x-axis) in each of the 17 environments (EMPO3 biomes).  ... 
doi:10.7554/elife.58999 pmid:33215610 pmcid:PMC7755399 fatcat:fy27bzzmrffgffwzo5frxzoiya

Diversity begets diversity in microbiomes [article]

Naïma Jesse Madi, Michiel Vos, Pierre Legendre, B. Jesse Shapiro
2019 bioRxiv   pre-print
Only in the most diverse microbiomes does DBD reach a plateau, presumably because of increasingly saturated niche space.  ...  Microbes are embedded in complex microbiomes where they engage in a wide array of interspecific interactions.  ...  Focal lineage diversity as a function of community diversity in the top two 134 most prevalent taxa at each taxonomic level.  ... 
doi:10.1101/612739 fatcat:uyugr4dvgfc33cx3x7bh5gds2e

Theory and Experiments. (+) Add Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia

Peter R Greene
2017 International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology  
work environmental conditions.  ...  The conclusion is that (+) add lenses, used as reading glasses during study, can prevent the development of myopia for college students in pilot training.  ...  The authors would like to thank Jacob Raphaelson, Frank Young, David Guyton, Antonio Medina, Karel Montor and Sterling Colgate for many helpful discussions.  ... 
doi:10.29328/journal.hceo.1001002 fatcat:k3wq6r3mzngpvaqpxezyyvjuk4

Provably Improved Context-Based Offline Meta-RL with Attention and Contrastive Learning [article]

Lanqing Li, Yuanhao Huang, Mingzhe Chen, Siteng Luo, Dijun Luo, Junzhou Huang
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In this work, we provably improve upon one of the SOTA OMRL algorithms, FOCAL, by incorporating intra-task attention mechanism and inter-task contrastive learning objectives, to robustify task representation  ...  Meta-learning for offline reinforcement learning (OMRL) is an understudied problem with tremendous potential impact by enabling RL algorithms in many real-world applications.  ...  Tasks differ in reward function only. • Walker-2D-Params is a unique environment compared to other MuJoCo environments.  ... 
arXiv:2102.10774v2 fatcat:uahz3jbuwvgzhie3aqumzfyhqa

Focus adjustment method for CBERS 3 and 4 satellites Mux camera to be performed in air condition and its experimental verification for best performance in orbital vacuum condition

Lucimara C. Scaduto, Rodrigo G. Modugno, Erica G. Carvalho, Mario . Stefani, Jarbas C. de Castro Neto, Alexandre T. Malavolta, Luiz F. Vales, Sérgio Evangelista, Errico Armandillo, Nikos Karafolas, Bruno Cugny
2017 International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2012  
The preliminary alignment between the optical system and the CCD sensor, which is located at the focal plane assembly, was obtained in air condition, clean room environment.  ...  The preliminary performance evaluation of the optical channel was registered by compensating the collimator focus position due to changes in the test environment, as an air-to-vacuum environment transition  ...  Preliminary integration and alignment setup in air environment The alignment between the optical system and the focal plane assembly was performed in air environment using the MUX-GSE collimator.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.2309033 fatcat:el5yh7qsm5e6rcaf2kq6eilvdy

Deciding to win: interactive effects of residency, resources and 'boldness' on contest outcome in white-footed mice

Matthew J. Fuxjager, Jon L. Montgomery, Elizabeth A. Becker, Catherine A. Marler
2010 Animal Behaviour  
We examined this issue in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, as males of this species illustrate great flexibility in aggressive and territorial tactics in the field and in the laboratory.  ...  We also found that mice that urine-marked an open arena at a high frequency were more likely to win fights in resource-rich environments compared to resource-poor environments.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Kyla Davidoff, Jan Davidoff, Benjamin Pawlisch and Josh Pultorak for helpful comments on this manuscript, and Kirsten Okpoguma for technical assistance with the animals.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.08.018 fatcat:pdk5ta25pvdjzfmjzgo5saq7vi

Hungry females show stronger mating preferences

Heidi S. Fisher, Gil G. Rosenthal
2006 Behavioral Ecology  
Furthermore, not only is the slope of the preference function condition dependent but also, in all trials, the latency to respond to the presented stimuli was shorter in food-deprived females, suggesting  ...  In the swordtail fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni, females prefer the chemical cues of well-fed males to cues of food-deprived males.  ...  We thank Francisco García de León, Bob Wong, Rhonda Struminger, and Juventino Tovar Ortiz for their assistance in the field as well as Seth Coleman for his comments and discussion.  ... 
doi:10.1093/beheco/arl038 fatcat:ayg4qm6v3rfplilortbr25jncy

Focal Methods for C/C++ via LLVM: Steps Towards Faster Mutation Testing

Sten Vercammen, Serge Demeyer, Lars Van Roy
2021 BElgian-NEtherlands software eVOLution symposium  
In this paper we lay the foundation for identifying such focal methods under test in C/C++ programs by relying on the LLVM compiler infrastructure.  ...  In this paper we explore the use of fine-grained traceability links at the method level (named focal methods), to drastically reduce the execution time of mutation testing, by only executing the tests  ...  Acknowledgments This work is supported by (a) Research Foundation -Flanders (project number 1SA1521N); (b) Flanders Make vzw, the strategic research centre for the manufacturing industry.  ... 
dblp:conf/benevol/VercammenDR21 fatcat:j2cjpye365aktfnkklh2pysliy

Social information use for spatial decision in Zootoca vivipara [article]

Mathieu Brevet, Staffan Jacob, Alexis Rutschmann, Murielle Richard, Julien Cote, Jean Clobert
2021 bioRxiv   pre-print
the opportunity to relocate in one or another of the peripheral environments.  ...  Our analyses revealed that the behavior of informants, their mothers' morphology, as well as the quality of informants' environment, affected movement decisions: the probability to relocate from the focal  ...  This work beneficiated from the scientific environment of the Laboratoire d'Excellence entitled TULIP (ANR-10-LABX-41).  ... 
doi:10.1101/2021.10.08.463627 fatcat:in6c53dqive3bd7umqom54nzyi


Raymond Cheng, H. Dominic Cowey, Carlyle Scase, John Gruer, Michael Bennett
2022 Proceedings of the Annual Conference of CAIS / Actes du congrès annuel de l'ACSI  
Multi-user FOCAL-11 is now running under the RSX-ll/D Executive at our centre. The features of string manipulation and file management are being added to FOCAL.  ...  The u -sea e development of the data management sublanguage was begun m January 197 5 and portions will shortly be operational. a long period of time, a basic system will be operational in late spring,  ...  The language chosen will depend on the function of the routine. It is also possible to write programs under a compiler and to call them in FOCAL through a call statement. .  ... 
doi:10.29173/cais1313 fatcat:bbbgl3lsdngblg5hleqd4pwr2u

Is the initiation of selfing linked to a hermaphrodite's female or male reproductive function?

Philipp Kaufmann, Lukas Schärer
2020 Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology  
By manipulating the social environment of focal individuals, we here provide evidence that explores the respective role that the co-occurring male and female sex functions have on the initiation of selfing  ...  We experimentally created a social environment that allowed focals to outcross via sperm donation, but simultaneously prevented them from receiving sperm-by pairing them with a partner lacking the male  ...  Further, we thank Steven Ramm, Jeremias Brand, Nikolas Vellnow, Pragya Singh, Gudrun Viktorin and Dita Vizoso for their input and support in the laboratory, and Jürgen Hottinger, Lukas Zimmermann, Daniel  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00265-020-2816-3 pmid:32214615 pmcid:PMC7080307 fatcat:lprv46n5ifeflfkxsmikhfv4cu

Appendix from The efficacy of good genes sexual selection under environmental change

Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Claus Rueffler, Göran Arnqvist, David Berger
2019 Figshare  
We then tested if the ratio IM/IF was greater in benign relative to stressful environments.  ...  The competitor and mating partners stem from a standard reference population of the same evolutionary background and raised in the same environment as the focal individual.  ...  Environmental change is represented by the distance between optimal trait value and population mean (|μ -z0|) in units of standard deviation of the Gaussian fitness landscape.  ... 
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.7610900 fatcat:zbqrf5vznjeahghgpszm7y6kqq
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