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Fuel Minimization of a Hybrid Electric Racing Car by Quasi-Pontryagin's Minimum Principle

Tong Liu, Lei Feng, Wenyao Zhu
2021 IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology  
This paper improves the fuel efficiency of a studentmade parallel hybrid electric racing car whose internal combustion engine (ICE) either operates with peak efficiency or is turned off.  ...  Index Terms-Hybrid electric vehicle, Energy management strategy, Dynamic programming, Pontryagin's minimum principle, Binary controlled internal combustion engine This work is licensed under a Creative  ...  VEHICLE AND POWERTRAIN MODELING Illustrated by Fig. 1 , this hybrid electric racing car is a light-weight HEV and has a parallel powertrain.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tvt.2021.3075729 fatcat:nlo3ndw5tnhg5f2orma2wp2rce

Equivalent Lap Time Minimization Strategies for a Hybrid Electric Race Car

Mauro Salazar, Camillo Balerna, Eugenio Chisari, Carlo Bussi, Christopher H. Onder
2018 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC)  
The powertrain of the Formula 1 car is composed of an electrically turbocharged internal combustion engine and an electric motor used for boosting and regenerative braking.  ...  The energy management system that controls this hybrid electric power unit strongly influences the achievable lap time, as well as the fuel and battery consumption.  ...  We identify three main areas of research related to the minimum lap time energy management of hybrid electric race cars.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cdc.2018.8618724 dblp:conf/cdc/SalazarBCBO18 fatcat:epd4v3agzffsrfqgxxlzsqyise

Time-optimal Control Strategies for Electric Race Cars with Different Transmission Technologies [article]

Olaf Borsboom, Chyannie A. Fahdzyana, Mauro Salazar, Theo Hofman
2020 arXiv   pre-print
This paper presents models and optimization methods to rapidly compute the achievable lap time of a race car equipped with a battery electric powertrain.  ...  Specifically, we first derive a quasi-convex model of the electric powertrain, including the battery, the electric machine, and two transmission technologies: a single-speed fixed gear and a continuously  ...  The first line consists of offline control strategies for the fuel-optimal energy management of hybrid electric vehicles.  ... 
arXiv:2005.07592v1 fatcat:o4lbtdtgzvgm7jkmj6cz7fbkjm

Time-Optimal Low-Level Control and Gearshift Strategies for the Formula 1 Hybrid Electric Powertrain

Camillo Balerna, Marc-Philippe Neumann, Nicolò Robuschi, Pol Duhr, Alberto Cerofolini, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Christopher Onder
2020 Energies  
Today, Formula 1 race cars are equipped with complex hybrid electric powertrains that display significant cross-couplings between the internal combustion engine and the electrical energy recovery system  ...  First, we describe the powertrain dynamics by means of first principle modeling approaches and neural network techniques, with a strong focus on the low-level actuation of the internal combustion engine  ...  The data displayed in the Figures 3, 5-10 are telemetry data acquired during a race week-end on a current F1 hybrid electric race car by our industrial partner.  ... 
doi:10.3390/en14010171 fatcat:k2hcsptdpnfz3cn7njzeqh6m24

MPC-based Energy Management Strategy for an Autonomous Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Saeed AmirfarhangiBonab, Ali Emadi
2020 IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications  
In this article, we present a novel approach for improving the fuel economy of an autonomous hybrid electric vehicle by taking advantage of this data.  ...  Specifically, we show how a more fuel-optimal energy management strategy (EMS) can be achieved for the power-split powertrain of an autonomous hybrid electric vehicle using the motion planning data.  ...  This research was undertaken, in part, thanks to funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).  ... 
doi:10.1109/ojia.2020.3029969 fatcat:7wvv72flhvdfbdgbkq3yyekkpq

Faster, Higher, and Greener: Vehicular Optimal Control

2015 IEEE Control Systems  
ACKNOWLEDGMENT The work was supported by the U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and by the U.S. National Science Foundation.  ...  Equation (37) is known as Pontryagin's minimum principle [51] and is a classical result to determine the optimal control.  ...  Optimal control is used in [12] to optimize the powertrain energy flow and racing line of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) around a closed race track.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mcs.2014.2384951 fatcat:4mlmleeknbgzvllp5iscg7ggx4

Fuel-optimal Energy Management Strategy for a Power-split Powertrain via Convex Optimization

Saeed Amirfarhangi Bonab, Ali Emadi
2020 IEEE Access  
This paper presents a framework to address the problem of the fuel-optimal control strategy for an energy management strategy of power-split powertrains using convex optimization.  ...  INDEX TERMS Convex optimization, energy management, fuel-optimal, hybrid powertrains, optimal control, power-split.  ...  This includes deterministic rule-based [5] or fuzzy logic-based [6] methods, equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) [7] , Pontryagin's maximum (or minimum) principle (PMP) [8] - [10  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2972346 fatcat:yed7jfd3pjchvejghgxrmld7gm

Table of Contents

2021 IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology  
Zhou 5537 Fuel Minimization of a Hybrid Electric Racing Car by Quasi-Pontryagin's Minimum Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ...  Zhu 5551 A Distributed Integrated Control Architecture of AFS and DYC Based on MAS for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ... 
doi:10.1109/tvt.2021.3085041 fatcat:a3mnra3v2fb47husbanbnfjo5i

Equivalent Lap Time Minimization Strategies for a Hybrid Electric Race Car

Mauro Salazar Villalon, Camillo Balerna, Eugenio Chisari, Carlo Bussi, Christopher H. Onder
2018
We identify three main areas of research related to the minimum lap time energy management of hybrid electric race cars.  ...  Equivalent Lap Time Minimization Strategies for a Hybrid Electric Race Car Mauro Salazar 1 , Camillo Balerna 1 , Eugenio Chisari 1 , Carlo Bussi 2 , and Christopher H.  ... 
doi:10.3929/ethz-b-000319994 fatcat:2qtvdhceu5eore7eantfv5bk24

Convex Optimization for Trajectory Generation [article]

Danylo Malyuta, Taylor P. Reynolds, Michael Szmuk, Thomas Lew, Riccardo Bonalli, Marco Pavone, Behcet Acikmese
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In this article, trajectory generation is the computation of a dynamically feasible state and control signal that satisfies a set of constraints while optimizing key mission objectives.  ...  By the end of the article, the reader should be ready to use the methods, to extend them, and to contribute to their many exciting modern applications.  ...  We begin by pears in (97f). Following “Convex Relaxation of an Input stating the raw minimum fuel 3-DoF PDG problem.  ... 
arXiv:2106.09125v1 fatcat:owlktd5o7bhsrowgkmyz4kqu3y

Fuel Optimal Control Algorithms for Connected and Automated Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles [article]

Di Chen, University, My
2021
The PHEV powertrain, consisting of engine and electric motors, is mathematically modeled as a hybrid system as the state is defined by the values of the continuous variable, SOC, and discrete modes, hybrid  ...  Over the years, there has been a considerable shift in the market of LDVs toward powertrain electrification, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are the most cost-effective in avoiding GHG emissions  ...  The performance of the proposed controller is compared with an MPCbased car-following approach, precisely, acceleration minimization, in consideration of electrical and hybrid powertrain operations.  ... 
doi:10.7302/2921 fatcat:j254kcp3kfcq5lcvjuq4ejpyqu