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Frodo

Joppe Bos, Craig Costello, Leo Ducas, Ilya Mironov, Michael Naehrig, Valeria Nikolaenko, Ananth Raghunathan, Douglas Stebila
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS'16  
Following increasing interest from both companies and government agencies in building quantum computers, a number of works have proposed instantiations of practical post-quantum key exchange protocols  ...  Despite conventional wisdom that generic lattices might be too slow and unwieldy, we demonstrate that LWE-based key exchange is quite practical: our constant time implementation requires around 1.3ms computation  ...  Security of the key exchange protocol To prove security of the key exchange protocol, consider an LWE key-exchange adversary that tries to distinguish the session key K from a uniformly random key K given  ... 
doi:10.1145/2976749.2978425 dblp:conf/ccs/BosCDMNNRS16 fatcat:lgev5d3lkjctjh37m2t5dtnxgm

Module-lattice KEM Over a Ring of Dimension 128 for Embedded Systems [article]

François Gérard
2018 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
Following the development of quantum computing, the demand for post-quantum alternatives to current cryptosystems has firmly increased recently.  ...  It can be seen as a lightweight version of Kyber [7] or a module version of Frodo [8] . We propose parameters targeting popular 8-bit AVR microcontrollers and security level 1 of NIST.  ...  key encapsulation mechanism constructed from the CPA-secure LWE encryption of Lindner and Peikert [18] .  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/Gerard18 fatcat:k6hr3etkgvcfxp3etmxpqqbcju

Post-quantum Key Exchange for the Internet and the Open Quantum Safe Project [chapter]

Douglas Stebila, Michele Mosca
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We review two protocols for quantum-resistant key exchange based on lattice problems: BCNS15, based on the ring learning with errors problem, and Frodo, based on the learning with errors problem.  ...  In this paper, we explore post-quantum cryptography in general and key exchange specifically.  ...  Acknowledgements Research on LWE and ring-LWE based key exchange discussed in this paper includes joint work with Joppe W.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-69453-5_2 fatcat:lhen3goh6rb4nft6ui6p4gjuoa

Portable Implementation of Postquantum Encryption Schemes and Key Exchange Protocols on JavaScript-Enabled Platforms

Ye Yuan, Junting Xiao, Kazuhide Fukushima, Shinsaku Kiyomoto, Tsuyoshi Takagi
2018 Security and Communication Networks  
Therefore, we investigate and implement several recent lattice-based encryption schemes and public-key exchange protocols including Lizard, ring-Lizard, Kyber, Frodo, and NewHope in JavaScript, which are  ...  The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has opened a formal call for the submission of proposals of quantum-resistant public-key cryptographic algorithms to set the next-generation cryptography  ...  Figure 1 : 1 Quantum-secure key exchange protocol Frodo. Figure 2 : 2 Ring-LWE based public-key exchange protocol NewHope.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2018/9846168 fatcat:ookuupyx6rf5bbtqgnmthttm2e

Speedy Error Reconciliation [article]

Kaibo Liu, Xiaozhuo Gu, Peixin Ren, Xuwen Nie
2022 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
We integrate SER into key exchange protocols based on the learning with errors (LWE), the ring LWE (RLWE) and the module LWE (MLWE) problems, such as Frodo and NewHope, to test the generality and practical  ...  Although the introduction of small errors in the lattice-based key exchange protocol can increase the strength of the protocol against quantum computing attacks, it will result in only approximately equal  ...  Under the pressing requirement of the transition from traditional public-key cryptography to the post-quantum cryptography, many works proposed simple and practical post-quantum KE schemes based-on LWE  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/LiuGRN22 fatcat:ey556itov5fkzgodgg4fy56pte

Module-LWE-Based Key Exchange Protocol Using Error Reconciliation Mechanism

Wenjuan Jia, Guanhao Xue, Baocang Wang, Yupu Hu, Rongmao Chen
2022 Security and Communication Networks  
Lattice-based key exchange protocols have attracted tremendous attention for its post-quantum security.  ...  Compared with Kyber.KE, our key exchange protocol reduces the total communication cost by 96-byte, i.e., 3.2% ∼ 6.1%, under the different parameter sets, and without reducing the post-quantum security  ...  In this paper, we focus on the key exchange protocols based on Module-LWE, as Module-LWE provides a nice security-efficiency trade-off by bridging LWE and Ring-LWE.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2022/8299232 fatcat:cqececestrhflo5c5ryswbzygy

CRYSTALS - Kyber: A CCA-Secure Module-Lattice-Based KEM

Joppe Bos, Leo Ducas, Eike Kiltz, T Lepoint, Vadim Lyubashevsky, John M. Schanck, Peter Schwabe, Gregor Seiler, Damien Stehle
2018 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P)  
We implemented and benchmarked the CCA-secure KEM and key exchange protocols against the ones that are based on LWE and Ring-LWE: we conclude that our schemes are not only as efficient but also feature  ...  , key exchange, and authenticatedkey-exchange schemes.  ...  We show that the flexibility and security improvements by moving from Ring-LWE to Module-LWE come at almost no cost.  ... 
doi:10.1109/eurosp.2018.00032 dblp:conf/eurosp/BosDKLLSSSS18 fatcat:o7dl5wpwcndarjp3wtm2eqwycm

Lizard: Cut Off the Tail! A Practical Post-quantum Public-Key Encryption from LWE and LWR [chapter]

Jung Hee Cheon, Duhyeong Kim, Joohee Lee, Yongsoo Song
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The Learning with Errors (LWE) is one of the most promising primitive for post-quantum cryptography due to its strong security reduction from the worst-case of NP-hard problems and its lightweight operations  ...  We prove that our scheme is IND-CPA secure under the hardness of LWE and can be converted into an IND-CCA scheme in the quantum random oracle model.  ...  The authors would like to thank Leo Ducas, Andrey Kim, Kyoohyung Han, Junbeom Shin, and Estsoft for valuable discussions.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-98113-0_9 fatcat:iois4ha23ndnncav35gtuiuxam

Lattice-based Cryptography for IoT in A Quantum World: Are We Ready?

Ayesha Khalid, Sarah McCarthy, Maire O'Neill, Weiqiang Liu
2019 2019 IEEE 8th International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI)  
It can be seen from that SABER has very competitive performance among all lattice-based candidates for post-quantum key exchange.  ...  This work investigates the practicality of lattice-based post quantum schemes, both for digital signatures and key exchange, based on the following bench-marks critical to IoT applications. • Communication  ...  Lattice-based PQC KEMs Saber [16] Key  ... 
doi:10.1109/iwasi.2019.8791343 dblp:conf/iwasi/KhalidMOL19 fatcat:7evkdnumwjaqbc23e6pz3uz4sa

A Hybrid Lattice Basis Reduction and Quantum Search Attack on LWE [chapter]

Florian Göpfert, Christine van Vredendaal, Thomas Wunderer
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In addition, we analyze the concrete post-quantum security levels of the parameter sets proposed for the New Hope and Frodo key exchange schemes, as well as several instances of the Lindner-Peikert encryption  ...  We further show that our Quantum Hybrid Attack improves upon the Classical Hybrid Attack in the case of LWE with binary error.  ...  New Hope and Frodo We analyze and optimize the runtime of the Quantum Hybrid Attack against the New Hope [3] and Frodo [7] key exchange schemes and compare our results to the security levels produced  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-59879-6_11 fatcat:343hw4m3cnaalhfxdrea6lxolu

Optimal Key Consensus in Presence of Noise [article]

Zhengzhong Jin, Yunlei Zhao
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Based on KC and AKC, we present generic constructions of key exchange (KE) from LWR, LWE and RLWE.  ...  In this work, we abstract some key ingredients in previous LWE- and RLWE-based key exchange protocols, by introducing and formalizing the building tool, referred to as key consensus (KC) and its asymmetric  ...  The work [BCD + 16] proposes a key exchange protocol Frodo only based on LWE, and demonstrates that LWE-based key exchange can be practical as well.  ... 
arXiv:1611.06150v4 fatcat:rj3f2uzzxvfgvkxisijufrpvxa

Standard Lattice-Based Key Encapsulation on Embedded Devices

James Howe, Tobias Oder, Markus Krausz, Tim Güneysu
2018 Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems  
In 2016, Bos et al. proposed the key exchange scheme FrodoCCS, that is also a submission to the NIST post-quantum standardization process, modified as a key encapsulation mechanism (FrodoKEM).  ...  In this work, we take the final step of efficiently implementing the scheme on a low-cost FPGA and microcontroller devices and thus making conservative post-quantum cryptography practical on small devices  ...  We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their very valuable and helpful feedback.  ... 
doi:10.13154/tches.v2018.i3.372-393 dblp:journals/tches/HoweOKG18 fatcat:st44pel5lje3fao6qxu2lgbzoa

Lattice-based Key Sharing Schemes - A Survey [article]

Prasanna Ravi, James Howe, Anupam Chattopadhyay, Shivam Bhasin
2020 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
In this paper, we survey the evolution of lattice-based key sharing schemes (public key encryption and key encapsulation schemes) and cover various aspects ranging from theoretical security guarantees,  ...  general algorithmic frameworks, practical implementation aspects and physical attack security, with special focus on lattice-based key sharing schemes competing in the NIST's standardization process.  ...  Frodo: Frodo is a family of IND-CCA secure KEMs and the only candidate based on standard LWE (referred as FrodoKEM) [10] .  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/RaviHCB20 fatcat:gwfp7xfzbbgxnldzbngfc4ru7q

Saber: Module-LWR Based Key Exchange, CPA-Secure Encryption and CCA-Secure KEM [chapter]

Jan-Pieter D'Anvers, Angshuman Karmakar, Sujoy Sinha Roy, Frederik Vercauteren
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We first describe a secure Diffie-Hellman type key exchange protocol, which is then transformed into an IND-CPA encryption scheme and finally into an IND-CCA secure key encapsulation mechanism using a  ...  A constant-time AVX2 optimized software implementation of the KEM with parameters providing more than 128 bits of post-quantum security, requires only 101K, 125K and 129K cycles for key generation, encapsulation  ...  In addition, this work was supported by the European Commission through the Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No H2020-ICT-2014-645622 PQCRYPTO, H2020-ICT-2014-644209  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-89339-6_16 fatcat:ltt7pn6cx5b75apwy2bej5ywfm

Generic Side-channel attacks on CCA-secure lattice-based PKE and KEMs

Prasanna Ravi, Sujoy Sinha Roy, Anupam Chattopadhyay, Shivam Bhasin
2020 Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems  
In this work, we demonstrate generic and practical EM side-channel assisted chosen ciphertext attacks over multiple LWE/LWR-based Public Key Encryption (PKE) and Key Encapsulation Mechanisms (KEM) secure  ...  We subsequently exploit these vulnerabilities to demonstrate practical attacks applicable to six CCA-secure lattice-based PKE/KEMs competing in the second round of the NIST standardization process.  ...  The work was done during the visit of second author to NTU. The visit and the work was partially funded by BMW Asia Pte Ltd (Award no. M4062657.B60.500000).  ... 
doi:10.13154/tches.v2020.i3.307-335 dblp:journals/tches/RaviRCB20 fatcat:vxjrhqhmffcm5a5pdo5tqpk624
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