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some scientists may have adapted to these reward principles in their environment by showing a greater reward signal in the brain's reward structures in the prospect of an own high impact publication (Paulus ...doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01487 pmid:30177900 pmcid:PMC6109637 fatcat:d6l5vgd3areefpr5jgkl4a2n5u
Copyright © 2021 Leong, Bzdok, Paulus, Pelphrey, Redcay and Schilbach. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). ...doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.683158 pmid:33995155 pmcid:PMC8116529 fatcat:td3br3hjwzcg3m2ztgbqfpb5yq
., 2012; Paulus et al., 2013) . Thus, the social target is unaware about the ongoing threats to her social integrity in this situation (Krach et al., 2011) . ... source of e.g., autistic symptomatology might rather originate from disturbed anchoring and adjustment and the inflexibility to modulate the simulation process according to social contextual demands (Paulus ...doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00196 pmid:23720621 pmcid:PMC3654216 fatcat:gib3s3tzsngr3d5oaijan2jbum
51.60%, SD=12.36, t(39)=0.818, two-sided p=.418, MC: 696 M=48.23%, SD=6.60, t(39)=-1.70, two-sided p=.097, HC: M=50.70%, SD=14.78, t(39)=.300, two-sided 697 p=.766; study 2: MC: M=48.13%, SD=6.37, t(37 ... t(39)=1.272, two-sided p=.211, HC: M=50.01%, SD=2.20, t(39)=0.030, two-sided p=.977; study 2: MC: 689 M=50.10%, SD=1.14, t(38)=0.556, two-sided p=.581, HC: M=49.88%, SD=1.70, t(38)=-0.437, two-sided 690 ...doi:10.1101/637207 fatcat:nzpc2yfblnhqhbvvwr6fby4t3m
Objective: Despite the fact that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common psychiatric diagnosis, knowledge about the special behavioral and neurobiological female phenotype is still scarce. The present study aimed to investigate neural correlates of empathy for physical and social pain and to assess the impact of egocentric perspective taking on social pain empathy in complex social situations in women and girls with ASD. Methods: Nine female individuals with high functioning ASD weredoi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00428 pmid:31275180 pmcid:PMC6591689 fatcat:yges2syvzvh73kvz2zy3k7uz3m
more »... to nine matched peers without ASD during two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, examining empathy for physical and social pain using well-established paradigms. Participants viewed multiple pictorial stimuli depicting a social target in either physically painful or socially unpleasant situations. In the social situations, the participant either shared the social target's knowledge about the inappropriateness of the situation (observed social target is aware about the embarrassment of the situation; e.g., tripping in public) or not (observed social target is unaware about the embarrassment of the situation; e.g., open zipper). Results: Females with ASD did not rate the physical pain stimuli differently from non-clinical controls. Social pain situations, however, posed a greater challenge to females with ASD: For non-shared knowledge situations, females with ASD rated the social target's embarrassment as more intense. Thus, compared to non-clinical controls, females with ASD had a stronger egocentric perspective of the situation rather than sharing the social target's perspective. On the neural systems level, both groups showed activation of areas of the so-called empathy network that was attenuated in females with ASD during empathy for physical and social pain with a particular reduction in insula activation. Conclusion: Females with high functioning ASD are able to share another person's physical or social pain on the neural systems level. However, hypoactivation of the anterior insula in contrast to individuals without ASD suggests that they are less able to rely on their shared representations of emotions along with difficulties to take over a person's perspective and to make a clear distinction between their own and someone else's experience of embarrassment.
Thus, data from 27 men aged between 22 and 35 years (M = 28.78, SD = 3.41), could be analyzed. ... There are several other adaptation experiments of the original Hariri paradigm (2002), for example by Paulus and colleagues 46 , who focused on emotional matching, thereby presenting three different ...doi:10.1038/s41598-018-37163-9 pmid:30728379 pmcid:PMC6365558 fatcat:luqrizlkf5ahvdeffwfd57sx3i
α PE+ ) = 0.07, SD = 0.06; Public: M(α PE− ) = 0.08, SD = 0.08, M(α PE+ ) = 0.06, SD = 0.06). ... α PE−(S) ) = 0.14, SD = 0.09; M(α PE+(S) ) = 0.12, SD = 0.06). ...doi:10.1038/s41598-019-50821-w pmid:31594967 pmcid:PMC6783436 fatcat:p6qmg7pnuzgijkx5qe7m6tuybe
The mechanisms underlying hemispheric specialization of memory are not completely understood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to develop and test models of hemispheric specialization. In particular for memory tasks however, the interpretation of fMRI results is often hampered by the low reliability of the data. In the present study we therefore analyzed the test-retest reliability of fMRI brain activation related to an implicit memory encoding task, with a particulardoi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00163 pmid:24367338 pmcid:PMC3856399 fatcat:vwkgye2v5nbczbf4ecyoql7734
more »... us on brain activity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Fifteen healthy subjects were scanned with fMRI on two sessions (average retest interval 35 days) using a commonly applied novelty encoding paradigm contrasting known and unknown stimuli. To assess brain lateralization, we used three different stimuli classes that differed in their verbalizability (words, scenes, fractals). Test-retest reliability of fMRI brain activation was assessed by an intraclass-correlation coefficient (ICC), describing the stability of inter-individual differences in the brain activation magnitude over time. We found as expected a left-lateralized brain activation network for the words paradigm, a bilateral network for the scenes paradigm, and predominantly right-hemispheric brain activation for the fractals paradigm. Although these networks were consistently activated in both sessions on the group level, across-subject reliabilities were only poor to fair (ICCs ≤ 0.45). Overall, the highest ICC values were obtained for the scenes paradigm, but only in strongly activated brain regions. In particular the reliability of brain activity of the MTL was poor for all paradigms. In conclusion, for novelty encoding paradigms the interpretation of fMRI results on a single subject level is hampered by its low reliability. More studies are needed to optimize the retest reliability of fMRI activation for memory tasks.
Similarly, β 1 was significantly negative (M = −17.21, SD = 19.67; t(49) = −6.19, one-sided p < 0.001), Fig. 6 6 Connectivity dynamics of left VS for outcomes obtained under high internal control. a ... Across participants, the mean value of the model's intercept β 0 was significantly negative (M = −3.49, SD = 4.18, t(49) = −6.00, one-sided p < 0.001) indicating that participants preferred the HC option ...doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14800-4 pmid:32144259 fatcat:2foofr6gpfbhnehjkeal6o4ziy
AbstractNarcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) entails severe impairments in interpersonal functioning that are likely driven by selfish and exploitative behavior. Here, we investigate the underlying motivational and neural mechanisms of prosocial decision-making by experimentally manipulating motivational conflict between selfish and prosocial incentives. One group of patients diagnosed with NPD and a group of healthy controls (CTL) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imagingdoi:10.1101/2021.03.01.21252656 fatcat:7dftta62rbdbtfzxhrnfy4duge
more »... e performing a prosocial decision-making task. In this task, we systematically varied the level of conflict between selfish and prosocial options on each trial. We analyzed choice behavior, response times, and neural activity in regions associated with conflict monitoring to test how motivational conflict drives prosocial choice behavior. Participants in the NPD group behaved less prosocially than the CTL group overall. Varying degrees of motivational conflict between selfish and prosocial options induced response variability in both groups, but more so in the CTL group. The NPD group responded faster than the CTL group, unless choosing prosocially, which slowed response times to a level comparable to the CTL group. Additionally, neural activity tracking motivational conflict in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex was reduced in the NPD group. Collectively, low generosity in NPD appears to arise from reduced consideration of prosocial motives, which obviates motivational conflict with selfish motives and entails reduced activity in neural conflict monitoring systems. Yet, our data also indicate that NPD is not marked by an absolute indifference to others' needs. This points to potentials for improving interpersonal relationships, effectively supporting the well-being of patients and their peers.
(A) Examples of the presented stimuli. ¼ 0.61 (stranger), M ¼ 3.10, s.d. ¼ 0.50 (friend)] compared with the neutral condition [M ¼ 1.04, s.d. ¼ 0.11 (stranger), M ¼ 1.02, s.d. ¼ 0.07 (friend)] across ... et al., 2013 Paulus et al., , 2015 . ...doi:10.1093/scan/nsv130 pmid:26516170 pmcid:PMC4769632 fatcat:ql6xxlkanfahjnoqxj7fhz5mxq
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be combined with genotype assessment to identify brain systems that mediate genetic vulnerability to mental disorders ("imaging genetics"). A data analysis approach that is widely applied is "functional connectivity". In this approach, the temporal correlation between the fMRI signal from a pre-defined brain region (the so-called "seed point") and other brain voxels is determined. In this technical note, we show how the choice of freelydoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026354 pmid:22220190 pmcid:PMC3248388 fatcat:44d3cffefjbyfkgtlznmsvcqqy
more »... data analysis parameters strongly influences the assessment of the genetic modulation of connectivity features. In our data analysis we exemplarily focus on three methodological parameters: (i) seed voxel selection, (ii) noise reduction algorithms, and (iii) use of additional second level covariates. Our results show that even small variations in the implementation of a functional connectivity analysis can have an impact on the connectivity pattern that is as strong as the potential modulation by genetic allele variants. Some effects of genetic variation can only be found for one specific implementation of the connectivity analysis. A reoccurring difficulty in the field of psychiatric genetics is the non-replication of initially promising findings, partly caused by the small effects of single genes. The replication of imaging genetic results is therefore crucial for the long-term assessment of genetic effects on neural connectivity parameters. For a meaningful comparison of imaging genetics studies however, it is therefore necessary to provide more details on specific methodological parameters (e.g., seed voxel distribution) and to give information how robust effects are across the choice of methodological parameters.
Group INC/VIEW EXC/VIEW INC/CRA EXC/CRA M SD M SD t df p M SD t df p M SD t df p CTL 2.20 1.25 6.67 1.92 − 10.68 14 < 0.001 1.50 0.78 2.59 14 0.022 3.67 2.50 − 2.07 ... Groups did not differ in age (CTL: M = 24.00 years, SD = 3.12; REMS: M = 23.06, SD = 2.22; SWSS: M = 24.60, SD = 2.91; F(2,39) = 1.09, p = 0.346) or gender (CTL: 8 female, 7 male; REMS: 12 female, 5 male ...doi:10.1101/2020.06.15.148759 fatcat:wy2vixsxpffmpmzl6fapttejje
., 2011; Paulus et al., 2018) . ... et al., 2013 (Paulus et al., , 2015 . ...doi:10.3389/fcomm.2019.00011 fatcat:n76v7nkkgjdjtehbhs3esnsbhy
Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental conditions with severe impairments in social communication and interaction. Pioneering research suggests that oxytocin can improve motivation, cognition and attention to social cues in patients with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this clinical trial is to characterize basic mechanisms of action of acute oxytocin treatment on neural levels and to relate these to changes in different levels of socio-affective and -cognitive functioning.doi:10.1186/s12888-016-1036-x pmid:27655235 pmcid:PMC5031348 fatcat:6pwbeyelwfeajogt56qenrdjca
more »... s: This clinical study is a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled, multicenter functional magnetic resonance imaging study with two arms. A sample of 102 male autism spectrum disorder patients, diagnosed with Infantile Autistic Disorder (F84.0 according to ICD-10), Asperger Syndrome (F84.5 according to ICD-10), or Atypical Autism (F84.1 according to ICD-10) will be recruited and will receive oxytocin and placebo nasal spray on two different days. Autism spectrum disorder patients will be randomized to determine who receives oxytocin on the first and who on the second visit. Healthy control participants will be recruited and case-control matched to the autism spectrum disorder patients. The primary outcome will be neural network activity, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants perform socioaffective and -cognitive tasks. Behavioral markers such as theory of mind accuracy ratings and response times will be assessed as secondary outcomes in addition to physiological measures such as skin conductance. Trait measures for alexithymia, interpersonal reactivity, and social anxiety will also be evaluated. Additionally, we will analyze the effect of oxytocin receptor gene variants and how these potentially influence the primary and secondary outcome measures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessments will take place at two time points which will be scheduled at least two weeks apart to ensure a sufficient wash-out time after oxytocin treatment. The study has been approved by an ethical review board and the competent authority.
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