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Previous studies have recognized WM changes in survivors [23, 29] , and metabolic changes during antileukemic therapy have been detected with 1 H MR spectroscopy  . ...doi:10.1007/s00234-007-0262-9 pmid:17653705 pmcid:PMC2386666 fatcat:7oo7y2m535h4nigqr4z43myd5u
Representative examples of lower cervical (top row; 3A-D) and lower thoracic (bottom row; 3E-H) spinal cord positron emission tomography-computed tomography images from each of four age groups. ...doi:10.1016/j.acra.2009.01.022 pmid:19427802 pmcid:PMC3680129 fatcat:soxl3hh37ncmvfm5hbogbrnofi
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Human brain atlases are indispensable tools in model-based segmentation and quantitative analysis of brain structures. However, adult brain atlases do not adequately represent the normal maturational patterns of the pediatric brain, and the use of an adult model in pediatric studies may introduce substantial bias. Therefore, we proposed to develop a digital atlas of the pediatric human brain in this study. The atlas was constructed from T1-weighted MR data set of a 9-year old, right-handeddoi:10.1007/11866763_41 fatcat:tihhedyqcjdj7alew7nyao46sa
more »... Furthermore, we extracted and simplified boundary surfaces of 25 manually defined brain structures (cortical and subcortical) based on surface curvature. We constructed a 3D triangular mesh model for each structure by triangulation of the structure's reference points. Kappa statistics (cortical, 0.97; subcortical, 0.91) indicated substantial similarities between the mesh-defined and the original volumes. Our brain atlas and structural mesh models (www.stjude.org/brainatlas) can be used to plan treatment, to conduct knowledge and model-driven segmentation, and to analyze the shapes of brain structures in pediatric patients.
CT (left) and MR (center T2-weighted, right T1-weighted) images were obtained 72 h apart. ... These two sets of non-contrast-enhanced CT images, obtained 50 h apart, show progressive development of cerebral edema. ...doi:10.1007/s00234-007-0300-7 pmid:17924103 pmcid:PMC2386669 fatcat:tch6rz7iwrasvmrb5dqhsmagxa
Background-To extend investigation beyond global cognitive measures prevalent in the literature, this study examined attention and working memory (WM) abilities of survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the separate contributions of attention and WM to IQ and their association with neuroimaging changes. Methods-Ninety seven children with ALL received risk-directed therapy based on presenting clinical and biological factors. During consolidation therapy, low-risk patientsdoi:10.1002/cncr.25343 pmid:20572038 pmcid:PMC2946517 fatcat:n4jfbh4pqvdzhgrvzu6kuo6dcq
more »... ived half the dose of intravenous methotrexate that standard-/high-risk patients received, and fewer doses of triple intrathecal therapy. Patients were classified according to end of consolidation MRIs (normal or leukoencephalopathy) and continuous measures of white matter structure were computed. As part of the protocol study, children completed cognitive assessment two years later (completion of therapy), utilizing Digit Span Forward (DSF) for attention and Digit Span Backward (DSB) for WM. Results-For the total sample and standard/high risk group, Total Digit Span (TDS), DSF, and DSB were impaired relative to norms (p < .05). In the low risk group, only DSB was impaired (p <.0001). Across groups, a higher percentage of patients performed below the average range (scale score < 7) on DSB (66%) than DSF (14%) or TDS (18%). Regression analysis indicated that DSB predicted Estimated IQ (p <.05), after accounting for DSF. Leukoencephalopathy was predictive of lower TDS (p <.05). Conclusions-WM appears especially sensitive to treatment-related changes in ALL survivors, detecting difficulties potentially missed by global intelligence measures. These findings ma y facilitate identification of vulnerable neural pathways and development of targeted cognitive interventions.
In this paper, we have developed a digital atlas of the pediatric human brain. Human brain atlases, used to visualize spatially complex structures of the brain, are indispensable tools in model-based segmentation and quantitative analysis of brain structures. However, adult brain atlases do not adequately represent the normal maturational patterns of the pediatric brain, and the use of an adult model in pediatric studies may introduce substantial bias. Therefore, we proposed to develop adoi:10.1117/12.651922 dblp:conf/miigp/ShanPJOZLR06 fatcat:zuph7pftava2ji7zlvdq52vcw4
more »... atlas of the pediatric human brain in this study. The atlas was constructed from T1 weighted MR data set of a 9 year old, right-handed girl. Furthermore, we extracted and simplified boundary surfaces of 25 manually defined brain structures (cortical and subcortical) based on surface curvature. Higher curvature surfaces were simplified with more reference points; lower curvature surfaces, with fewer. We constructed a 3D triangular mesh model for each structure by triangulation of the structure's reference points. Kappa statistics (cortical, 0.97; subcortical, 0.91) indicated substantial similarities between the mesh-defined and the original volumes. Our brain atlas and structural mesh models (www.stjude.org/BrainAtlas) can be used to plan treatment, to conduct knowledge and modeldriven segmentation, and to analyze the shapes of brain structures in pediatric patients.
Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare brain structure morphology of survivors of posterior fossa brain tumor (PFBT) with that of normal sibling controls to investigate disease-or cancer treatment-induced changes. Two different spatial normalization approaches that are available in public domain software (free-form deformation (FFD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT)) were compared for accuracy of normalization in the PFBT patients. Anatomical landmark matching demonstrated that spatialdoi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.04.181 pmid:18539046 pmcid:PMC2591023 fatcat:dyoscteocvafzi5yyrfjj2dwza
more »... rmalization was more accurate with FFD than with DCT. Voxel-based morphometry of the FFD-normalized magnetic resonance images from PFBT survivors and sibling controls detected reduced gray matter density in the thalamus and entorhinal cortex and reduced white matter density in the internal capsule, hypothalamus, corpus callosum, and cuneus of the occipital lobe in the PFBT survivors. Identification of these morphologic lesions may help localize the neural substrates of disease-or therapy-induced cognitive deficits in survivors of childhood cancer. †Corresponding author: Robert J. Ogg,
Etoposide, obtained from commercial suppliers, was infused intravenously over 1 h daily for 3 days, beginning immediately after the oxaliplatin infusion. ... Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, MD (NSC 266046, IND 57004), was reconstituted in 250-500 mL sterile water with 5% dextrose and infused intravenously over 2 h ...doi:10.1002/cncr.24054 pmid:19117350 pmcid:PMC2852396 fatcat:gkc3cvwlwvfmzk7uhex4e5cive
The purpose of this study was to use objective quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods to develop a computer-aided detection (CAD) tool to differentiate white matter (WM) hyperintensities into either leukoencephalopathy (LE) induced by chemotherapy or normal maturational processes in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia without irradiation. A combined MRI set consisting of T1-weighted, T2-weighted, proton-density-weighted and fluidattenuated inversion recovery imagesdoi:10.1016/j.mri.2006.02.001 pmid:16824973 pmcid:PMC2396783 fatcat:iptbqyv3cnb5notf5zrvtfawi4
more »... nd WM, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid proportional volume maps from a spatially normalized atlas were analyzed with a neural network segmentation based on a Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM). Segmented maps were manually classified to identify the most hyperintense WM region and the normal-appearing genu region. Signal intensity differences normalized to the genu within each examination were generated for four time points in 228 children. A second Kohonen SOM was trained on the first examination data and divided the WM into normal-appearing or LE groups. Reviewing labels from the CAD tool revealed a consistency measure of 89.8% (167 of 186) within patients. The overall agreement between the CAD tool and the consensus reading of two trained observers was 84.1% (535 of 636), with 84.2% (170 of 202) agreement in the training set and 84.1% (365 of 434) agreement in the testing set. These results suggest that subtle therapy-induced LE can be objectively and reproducibly detected in children treated for cancer using this CAD approach based on relative differences in quantitative signal intensity measures normalized within each examination.
H. ... Laningham, David Ashley, Stewart J. Kellie, James W. Langston, Charles W. McCluggage, Shaio Woo, Mehmet Kocak, Kevin Krull, Larry E. Kun, Raymond K. ...doi:10.1200/jco.2004.03.058 pmid:15542806 fatcat:up3h26tro5bo7hsm6lfutalwuq
The Children's Oncology Group trial ACNS0121 estimated event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival for children with intracranial ependymoma treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and-selectively-with chemotherapy. Treatment was administered according to tumor location, histologic grade, and extent of resection. The impacts of histologic grade, focal copy number gain on chromosome 1q, and DNA methylation profiles were studied for those undergoing surgery and immediate postoperativedoi:10.1200/jco.18.01765 pmid:30811284 pmcid:PMC7186586 fatcat:ywca4gqconboxep7coevxtfav4
more »... l radiation therapy (CRT). ACNS0121 included 356 newly diagnosed patients (ages 1 to 21 years). Patients with classic supratentorial ependymoma were observed after gross total resection (GTR). Those undergoing subtotal resection received chemotherapy, second surgery, and CRT. The remaining patients received immediate postoperative CRT after near-total resection or GTR. CRT was administered with a 1.0-cm clinical target volume margin. The cumulative total dose was 59.4 Gy, except for patients who underwent GTR and were younger than age 18 months (who received 54 Gy). Patients were enrolled between October 2003 and September 2007 and were observed for 5 years. Supratentorial tumors were evaluated for RELA fusion; infratentorial tumors, for chromosome 1q gain. Classification of posterior fossa groups A and B was made by methylation profiles. The 5-year EFS rates were 61.4% (95% CI, 34.5% to 89.6%), 37.2% (95% CI, 24.8% to 49.6%), and 68.5% (95% CI, 62.8% to 74.2%) for observation, subtotal resection, and near-total resection/GTR groups given immediate postoperative CRT, respectively. The 5-year EFS rates differed significantly by tumor grade (P = .0044) but not by age, location, RELA fusion status, or posterior fossa A/posterior fossa B grouping. EFS was higher for patients with infratentorial tumors without 1q gain than with 1q gain (82.8% [95% CI, 74.4% to 91.2%] v 47.4% [95% CI, 26.0% to 68.8%]; P = .0013). The EFS for patients with ependymoma younger than 3 years of age who received immediate postoperative CRT and for older patients is similar. Irradiation should remain the mainstay of care for most subtypes.
Journal of Clinical Oncology
Vogelbaum and John H. Suh Advances Toward an Understanding of Brain-Stem Gliomas Sarah S. Donaldson, Fred Laningham, and Paul G. ...
Journal of Clinical Oncology
Donaldson, Fred Laningham, and Paul G. Fisher Diagnosis and Treatment of Recurrent High-Grade Astrocytoma Nicholas A. Butowski, Patricia K. Sneed, and Susan M. ... Vogelbaum and John H. Suh Whole-Brain Radiation in the Management of Brain Metastasis Deepak Khuntia, Paul D. Brown, Jing Li, and Minesh P. ...
Donaldson, Fred Laningham, Paul G. Fisher | Final approval of manuscript: Sarah S. Donaldson, Fred Laningham, Paul G. Fis 1272 JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY ... Donaldson, Fred Laningham, and Paul Graham Fisher the sup horizon weakne Presa ee additio1 The diagnosis of brainstem glioma was long considered a single entity. ...doi:10.1200/jco.2005.04.6599 pmid:16525181 fatcat:i5mr3rrpbjagdn55broatwj7om
Spunt Collection and assembly of data: Maryam Fouladi, Fred Laningham, Melinda A. O’Shaughnessy, Kristen Molina, Clinton F. ... VOLUME 25 - NUMBER 30 - OCTOBER 20 2007 JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY IGINAL REPORT Phase I Study of Everolimus in Pediatric Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors Maryam Fouladi, Fred Laningham, Jianrong ...doi:10.1200/jco.2007.11.4017 pmid:17947729 fatcat:7qjnzemg2zdklejiev4poi4cvq
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