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Fraud and Data Availability Proofs: Maximising Light Client Security and Scaling Blockchains with Dishonest Majorities [article]

Mustafa Al-Bassam, Alberto Sonnino, Vitalik Buterin
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We present, implement, and evaluate a novel fraud and data availability proof system.  ...  Fraud and data availability proofs are key to enabling on-chain scaling of blockchains (e.g. via sharding or bigger blocks) while maintaining a strong assurance that on-chain data is available and valid  ...  Thanks to George Danezis, Alexander Hicks and Sarah Meiklejohn for helpful discussions about the mathematical proofs.  ... 
arXiv:1809.09044v5 fatcat:wom4cnote5ea7kjwfsa4awmvs4

Babylon: Reusing Bitcoin Mining to Enhance Proof-of-Stake Security [article]

Ertem Nusret Tas, David Tse, Fisher Yu, Sreeram Kannan
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Babylon provides a data-available timestamping service, securing PoS chains by allowing them to timestamp data-available block checkpoints, fraud proofs and censored transactions on Babylon.  ...  Bitcoin is the most secure blockchain in the world, supported by the immense hash power of its Proof-of-Work miners, but consumes huge amount of energy.  ...  blocks 𝑏 1 and 𝑏 2 by Proposition 3.  ... 
arXiv:2201.07946v1 fatcat:laivwqzisjfwlarfpjphmzmgce

Bitcoin-Enhanced Proof-of-Stake Security: Possibilities and Impossibilities [article]

Ertem Nusret Tas, David Tse, Fisher Yu, Sreeram Kannan, Mohammad Ali Maddah-Ali
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Bitcoin is the most secure blockchain in the world, supported by the immense hash power of its Proof-of-Work miners.  ...  Proof-of-Stake chains are energy-efficient, have fast finality and some accountability, but face several security issues: susceptibility to non-slashable long-range safety attacks, non-accountable transaction  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Joachim Neu, Lei Yang and Dionysis Zindros for several insightful discussions on this project.  ... 
arXiv:2207.08392v1 fatcat:zmcovpjwczdxvj4b2nibnf5d34

On Federated and Proof Of Validation Based Consensus Algorithms In Blockchain

K. N. Ambili, M. Sindhu, M. Sethumadhavan
2017 IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering  
In this paper, we conduct a survey on existing attempts to achieve consensus in block chain. A federated consensus method and a proof of validation method are being compared.  ...  Almost all real world activities have been digitized and there are various client server architecture based systems in place to handle them. These are all based on trust on third parties.  ...  The data structure involved in a blockchain is a chain of blocks which grows in the forward direction only.  ... 
doi:10.1088/1757-899x/225/1/012198 fatcat:ptggsqqq4ze67jqaw6cv6g2teq

Information Dispersal with Provable Retrievability for Rollups [article]

Kamilla Nazirkhanova, Joachim Neu, David Tse
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Compared to Data Availability Oracles, under no circumstance do we fall back to returning empty blocks.  ...  Finally, we discuss an application of our Semi-AVID-PR scheme to data availability verification schemes based on random sampling.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors thank Mohammad Ali Maddah-Ali and Dionysis Zindros for fruitful discussions.  ... 
arXiv:2111.12323v3 fatcat:fp4vqkfn55cjvp4m5x5gau2cky

ACeD: Scalable Data Availability Oracle [article]

Peiyao Sheng, Bowen Xue, Sreeram Kannan, Pramod Viswanath
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The key innovation is a new protocol that requires each of the N nodes to receive only O(1/N) of the block, such that the data is guaranteed to be available in a distributed manner in the network.  ...  The straightforward solution of broadcasting all blocks to the entire network sidesteps this data availability attack, but it is not scalable.  ...  This research is supported in part by a gift from IOHK Inc., an Army Research Office grant W911NF1810332 and by the National Science Foundation under grant CCF 1705007.  ... 
arXiv:2011.00102v2 fatcat:knydtwxrcfek3ebhtelerlvcri

Coded Merkle Tree: Solving Data Availability Attacks in Blockchains [article]

Mingchao Yu, Saeid Sahraei, Songze Li, Salman Avestimehr, Sreeram Kannan, Pramod Viswanath
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We provide a modular library for CMT in Rust and Python and demonstrate its efficacy inside the Parity Bitcoin client.  ...  Our algorithm enables any node to verify the full availability of any data block generated by the system by just downloading a Θ(1) byte block hash commitment and randomly sampling Θ(log b) bytes, where  ...  Therefore, for fraud proofs to work, light nodes must determine data availability by themselves.  ... 
arXiv:1910.01247v2 fatcat:jqsgrjuf2zbmhpfnxdkvppjhtq

LazyLedger: A Distributed Data Availability Ledger With Client-Side Smart Contracts [article]

Mustafa Al-Bassam
2019 arXiv   pre-print
This reduces the problem of block verification to data availability verification, which can be achieved probabilistically with sub-linear complexity, without downloading the whole block.  ...  Responsibility for executing and validating transactions is shifted to only the clients that have an interest in specific transactions relating to blockchain applications that they use.  ...  Thanks to George Danezis for helpful discussions about the design of LazyLedger, and Alberto Sonnino for comments.  ... 
arXiv:1905.09274v4 fatcat:7sr3ibbfnzggll2xkr6fljuzya

Optimization of a Reed-Solomon code-based protocol against blockchain data availability attacks [article]

Paolo Santini, Giulia Rafaiani, Massimo Battaglioni, Franco Chiaraluce, Marco Baldi
2022 arXiv   pre-print
ASBK (named after the authors' initials) is a recent blockchain protocol tackling data availability attacks against light nodes, employing two-dimensional Reed-Solomon codes to encode the list of transactions  ...  As a concrete application of our analysis, we consider relevant blockchain parameters and find network settings that minimize the amount of data downloaded by light nodes.  ...  invalid transactions, they will produce the fraud proof and deliver it to light nodes, that will consequently reject the block.  ... 
arXiv:2201.08261v1 fatcat:rifg5pdilzg5jooo5sngye23by

AdVeil: A Private Targeted-Advertising Ecosystem [article]

Sacha Servan-Schreiber, Kyle Hogan, Srinivas Devadas
2021 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
By running ad targeting in this way, users of AdVeil have full control over and transparency into the contents of their targeting profile.  ...  A selection of ads from a database of 1 million ads can be targeted to a user in approximately 4.5 seconds with a single 32-core server, and can be parallelized further with more servers.  ...  We also gratefully acknowledge Nirvan Tyagi and Michael Specter for pointing out some subtleties in secure use of ad targeting and tokens respectively.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/Servan-Schreiber21 fatcat:7v3prq5awfh6tjtxarnwmxlq6m

CertLedger: A New PKI Model with Certificate Transparency Based on Blockchain [article]

Murat Yasin Kubilay, Mehmet Sabir Kiraz, Haci Ali Mantar
2018 arXiv   pre-print
TLS clients in the CertLedger also do not require to make certificate validation and store the trusted CA certificates anymore.  ...  In conventional PKI, CAs are assumed to be fully trusted. However, in practice, CAs' absolute responsibility for providing trustworthiness caused major security and privacy issues.  ...  Merkle Audit Proof and Consistency Proof name. T S store entries in read and append only are generated from different hash trees and the data structures.  ... 
arXiv:1806.03914v2 fatcat:jcsbujoy5nbbze5ae7uhp45n7m

Security Properties of Light Clients on the Ethereum Blockchain

Santeri Paavolainen, Christopher Carr
2020 IEEE Access  
Light clients are unable to maintain blockchain state internally, and as a consequence can only perform partial validation on blocks.  ...  In fact, the implicit security assumptions of light clients have not been formally characterised in the literature.  ...  Colin Boyd for the work he put into a draft of another earlier article, which eventually lead us to the topic considered in this article.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3006113 fatcat:5uwjj3367zcrldqt343uyesq54

Overcoming Data Availability Attacks in Blockchain Systems: LDPC Code Design for Coded Merkle Tree [article]

Debarnab Mitra, Lev Tauz, Lara Dolecek
2022 arXiv   pre-print
In certain blockchains, light nodes are vulnerable to a data availability (DA) attack where a malicious node makes the light nodes accept an invalid block by hiding the invalid portion of the block from  ...  Light nodes are clients in blockchain systems that only store a small portion of the blockchain ledger.  ...  Since the absence of a fraud proof also corresponds to the situation that the block is valid, light nodes accept the invalid header 2 .  ... 
arXiv:2108.13332v2 fatcat:kp25sbrsdrch5cklnuzblewxby

An approach for detecting ID frauds in a traditional voting system using a smartphone

Paul Strimbeanu, Alexandru Butean, Florica Moldoveanu
2015 Romanian Conference on Human-Computer Interaction  
This solution is based on a stand containing a mobile device that takes a quality picture of that ID and sends it to a server to extract the data.  ...  Nowadays mobile smart devices are equipped with high performance lens and cameras, therefore they can capture high quality pictures in almost no time.  ...  Client or server fraud attempts are eliminated as no crucial vote related information is stored and cloud processing ensures the process moves fast and without any delays.  ... 
dblp:conf/rochi/StrimbeanuBM15 fatcat:lasju3czkrd2bkg4zyjejshwua

SoK: Validating Bridges as a Scaling Solution for Blockchains [article]

Patrick McCorry, Chris Buckland, Bennet Yee, Dawn Song
2021 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
This Systematization of Knowledge focuses on presenting the emerging field in an accessible manner and to bring forth the immediate research problems that must be solved before we can extend Ethereum's  ...  security to new (and experimental) off-chain systems.  ...  Some approaches include building a light-client smart contract that can verify proofs which assert the inclusion of a transaction, event, or state on the off-chain system like BTC Relay or the Rainbow  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/McCorryBYS21 fatcat:ruon6moh4vdhjhugxnhsfnawci
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