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With the appointment of a bacteriologist to the Dunedin (Otago) Medical School in 1911, the bacteriology course for medical students was extended, and a beginning was made in investigative work on tuberculosis, bacterial meningitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, diphtheria and scarlet fever, all of which were prevalent at that time. A second medical school was established at the University of Auckland in 1968, and the University of Otago Medical School established Clinical Schools indoi:10.1071/ma14049 fatcat:f3pcf3pg4nb2bebknodskpmrc4
more »... h and Wellington. Several other universities (e.g. Canterbury, Massey and Waikato) also formed new departments specialising in various aspects of clinical microbiology. The teaching of immunology flourished at Otago, as recognised by the renaming (in 2004)
Introduction This study aims to identify the prevalence and pattern of bruises in preschool children over time, and explore influential variables Methods Prospective longitudinal study of children (<6 years) where bruises were recorded on a body chart, weekly for up to 12 weeks. The number and location of bruises were analysed according to development. Longitudinal analysis was performed using multilevel modelling. Results 3523 bruises recorded from 2570 data collections from 328 children (meandoi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-307120 pmid:25589561 pmcid:PMC4413862 fatcat:ssjcspzmafazbgvmvzl53i5ozq
more »... age 19 months); 6.7% of 1010 collections from premobile children had at least one bruise (2.2% of babies who could not roll over and 9.8% in those who could), compared with 45.6% of 478 early mobile and 78.8% of 1082 walking child collections. The most common site affected in all groups was below the knees, followed by 'facial T' and head in premobile and early mobile. The ears, neck, buttocks, genitalia and hands were rarely bruised (<1% of all collections). None of gender, season or the level of social deprivation significantly influenced bruising patterns, although having a sibling increased the mean number of bruises. There was considerable variation in the number of bruises recorded between different children which increased with developmental stage and was greater than the variation between numbers of bruises in collections from the same child over time. Conclusions These data should help clinicians understand the patterns of 'everyday bruising' and recognise children who have an unusual numbers or distribution of bruises who may need assessment for physical abuse or bleeding disorders.
The recombinant adenovirus was amplified, purified, and titered to 10 12 particles/ml as described (Bennett, Zeng, Gupta, & Maguire, 2000) . ... These vectors are highly efficient at targeting photoreceptors and lead to stable transgene expression (Auricchio et al., 2001; Bennett, Duan, Engelhardt, & Maguire, 1997; Bennett et al., 1999; Dudus ...doi:10.1016/s0042-6989(02)00389-9 pmid:12668061 fatcat:24z2ntx5irfcbjudnqmolihcii
AXL is one of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL and MERTK) receptor tyrosine kinases and may affect numerous immune-related health conditions. However, the role for AXL in asthma, including its epigenetic regulation, has not been extensively studied. Methods: We investigated the association between AXL DNA methylation at birth and risk of childhood asthma symptoms at age 6 years. DNA methylation of multiple CpG loci across the regulatory regions of AXL was measured in newborn bloodspots using the Illuminadoi:10.1186/s13148-017-0421-8 pmid:29177020 pmcid:PMC5688797 fatcat:vknwndxzk5hhlaohzafcga7upa
more »... anMethylation450 array on a subset of 246 children from the Children's Health Study (CHS). Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between asthma symptoms and DNA methylation. Findings were evaluated for replication in a separate population of 1038 CHS subjects using Pyrosequencing on newborn bloodspot samples. AXL genotypes were extracted from genome-wide data. Results: Higher average methylation of CpGs in the AXL gene at birth was associated with higher risk of parent-reported wheezing, and the association was stronger in girls than in boys. This relationship reflected the methylation status of the gene-body region near the 5′ end, for which a 1% higher methylation level was significantly associated with a 72% increased risk of ever having wheezed by 6 years. The association of one CpG locus, cg00360107 was replicated using Pyrosequencing. Increased AXL methylation was also associated with lower mRNA expression level of this gene in lung tissue from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Furthermore, AXL DNA methylation was strongly linked to underlying genetic polymorphisms. Conclusions: AXL DNA methylation at birth was associated with higher risk for asthma-related symptoms in early childhood.
Does TEN4 categorisation of bruises to the torso, ear or neck or any bruise in <4-month-old children differentiate between abuse, accidents or inherited bleeding disorders (IBDs)? Prospective comparative longitudinal study. Community. Children <6 years old. The number and location of bruises compared for 2568 data collections from 328 children in the community, 1301 from 106 children with IBD and 342 abuse cases. Likelihood ratios (LRs) for the number of bruises within the TEN and non-TENdoi:10.1136/archdischild-2020-320491 pmid:33602690 pmcid:PMC8311104 fatcat:z5lb24523vdgljc37w66jhhi54
more »... ons for pre-mobile and mobile children: abuse vs accidental injury, IBD vs accident, abuse vs IBD. Any bruise in a pre-mobile child was more likely to be from abuse/IBD than accident. The more bruises a pre-mobile child had, the higher the LR for abuse/IBD vs accident. A single bruise in a TEN location in mobile children was not supportive of abuse/IBD. For mobile children with more than one bruise, including at least one in TEN locations, the LR favouring abuse/IBD increased. Applying TEN4 to collections from abused and accidental group <48 months of age with at least one bruise gave estimated sensitivity of 69% and specificity for abuse of 74%. These data support further child protection investigations of a positive TEN4 screen in any pre-mobile children with a bruise and in mobile children with more than one bruise. TEN4 did not discriminate between IBD and abuse, thus IBD needs to be excluded in these children. Estimated sensitivity and specificity of TEN4 was appreciably lower than previously reported.
Table 1 1 EMG values and temporo-spatial gait parameters Baseline Walking with cane Walking with tape Walking with TheraTogs C Maguire et al. C Maguire et al. ...doi:10.1177/0269215509342335 pmid:19906767 fatcat:icgrime3ibazxceoy4pvm46624
The valorization of agro-industrial residues using yeasts as biocatalysts requires efficient methods for biomass separation. Filtration with ceramic membranes is suitable for this task, however, the challenge of flux decline and the unavoidable cleaning must be taken into account. We investigated the filtration of fermentation broth and its components using tubular microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes, and hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membranes, with cut-offs of 30 and 200 nm. Thedoi:10.3390/membranes11060402 pmid:34071382 fatcat:h3nqqs52jne4zkyzuofl6mndl4
more »... y-state flux was limited by fouling under comparable wall shear stress conditions but increased when the wall shear stress was higher. Single-component filtration with two 30 nm tubular ultrafiltration membranes, whose average surface roughness ranged from 1.0 to 3.9 µm, showed that smoother surfaces experience less biomass fouling under more intense hydrodynamic conditions. Furthermore, we showed experimentally and by scanning electron microscopy in filtration with 30 nm tubular membranes that the thickness of the first separation layer is responsible for the degree of irreversible resistance caused by the deposition of organic material in the membrane pores. The thickness of this layer should therefore be minimized without compromising mechanical stability.
The Escherichia coli zupT (formerly ygiE) gene encodes a cytoplasmic membrane protein (ZupT) related to members of the eukaryotic ZIP family of divalent metal ion transporters. Previously, ZupT was shown to be responsible for uptake of zinc. In this study, we show that ZupT is a divalent metal cation transporter of broad substrate specificity. An E. coli strain with a disruption in all known iron uptake systems could grow in the presence of chelators only if zupT was expressed. Heterologousdoi:10.1128/jb.187.5.1604-1611.2005 pmid:15716430 pmcid:PMC1064025 fatcat:p3aciyzylfde3ntwu26yso5f6a
more »... ession of Arabidopsis thaliana ZIP1 could also alleviate iron deficiency in this E. coli strain, as could expression of indigenous mntH or feoABC. Transport studies with intact cells showed that ZupT facilitates uptake of 55 Fe 2؉ similarly to uptake of MntH or Feo. Other divalent cations were also taken up by ZupT, as shown using 57 Co 2؉ . Expression of zupT rendered E. coli cells hypersensitive to Co 2؉ and sensitive to Mn 2؉ . ZupT did not appear to be metal regulated: expression of a ⌽(zupT-lacZ) operon fusion indicated that zupT is expressed constitutively at a low level.
Over a 3 month period blood was collected in the Phlebotomy Department from adult diabetics attending at outpatients. Further blood samples were obtained from adult diabetic patients in the hospital's diabetic ward. From the total of 262 blood samples, 82 were fasting and 180 were non-fasting. Capillary blood samples were analysed with the Medisense Precision G system using a new biosensor electrode (G2b). Venous blood samples were taken at the same time from the patients and were assayed usingdoi:10.1002/1528-252x(200006)17:4<123::aid-pdi30>3.3.co;2-l fatcat:wu5fnmmel5davmfiuzgwykbmum
more »... the laboratory's plasma glucose method on the Synchron CX7 (Beckman, CA, USA). Comparison of the Precision G results with the laboratory Synchron CX7 plasma assay was performed using comparison of means and examination of the differences between the two methods. Despite differences in specimen source, specimen type and test methodology, the Precision G system gave results on capillary samples almost equivalent to plasma glucose results in the same patients on the Synchron CX7. Mean bias was x4.2% in 180 non-fasting specimens and x3.0% in 82 fasting specimens. Blood glucose results were not affected between haematocrit values of 0.34 and 0.50 in a study on 62 diabetic patients. We conclude that the Precision G system for blood glucose analysis is rapid, precise, accurate, easy to use and clinically acceptable.
Maguire, MD Primary mentor: University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 616,000 African American Urban/Rural Poor FY03 Singing River Hospital; Pascagoula, Mississippi Program name: The Mississippi ...doi:10.3389/fonc.2014.00303 pmid:25405101 pmcid:PMC4217306 fatcat:dfcz2ajtufbqxioafsfpovunwm
There are currently no data available regarding the normal levels of DNA found on the skin of children engaging in routine day to day activities to assist with the forensic interpretation of DNA profiles generated from skin surface swabs. To address this deficit, skin surface swab samples were collected from 12 face/neck sites and 20 body sites on 50 children less than 5 years old. After exclusion of spoilt samples, 60 sets of swabs from 47 children (30 face/neck, 30 body) comprising of 944doi:10.1007/s00414-013-0906-8 pmid:23989286 pmcid:PMC3940854 fatcat:5fu4cutlcfhgfim6rsxc2jmyii
more »... vidual samples were analysed. The number of alleles observed which could have originated from the child and the number which must have come from another source (non-child) were analysed. The following variables were evaluated: age, kissing, feeding and washing practices, number of contacts and application of cream. Overall, extremely small amounts of nonchild DNAwere retrieved from skin swabs. Child only (46.3 %) or no DNA at all (18.6 %) was observed for 64.9 % of all swabbed samples. Low levels of non-child DNA (1-5 alleles) were observed on 31.6 % of all swabs tested with only 3.4 % of swabs showing six or more alleles. A great deal of variation between children and between sites in the levels of both child DNA and non-child DNA was observed. A multilevel model, taking account of clustering within children, showed that there was a strong direct association between the amounts of child and non-child DNA observed. There was no relationship between the amount of DNA recovered and the demographic and biographic variables analysed. These background data have the potential to assist the analysis of DNA from the skin of children during criminal investigation. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (
Protected Areas are the most widely applied policy tool for biodiversity conservation. In Europe, protected areas are expected to significantly increase as the new EU Biodiversity strategy sets an ambitious target of 30% of land and 30% of water to be protected by 2030. Despite the popularity of this environmental policy, understanding variations in the level of public support for protected areas remains underexplored. This is an important area of research, considering that, in order fordoi:10.3390/land11050733 fatcat:rpiaaif3fbdpfi6grt3gfn7x2q
more »... ed areas to be effective, they need to be supported by most users, including local communities and visitors. In this paper, we reviewed theoretical and empirical evidence explaining the level of support for protected areas and proposed a new approach when designing and designating protected areas in Europe. This approach models the process of the introduction of a new protected area as a policy intervention within a socio-ecological system. Specifically, it models how protected area social outcomes or impacts are conditioned and contextualised by numerous intervening factors relating to the social context and governance and management system to influence local actors' attitude and active support for the protected area. This new approach aims to assist policy makers, conservation practitioners and scientists to plan actions that assist in increasing the level of public support for protected areas in the context of the post 2020 Biodiversity Strategy of the European Union.
Objective The extent that inherited bleeding disorders affect; number, size and location of bruises in young children <6 years. Design Prospective, longitudinal, observational study. Setting Community. Patients 105 children with bleeding disorders, were compared with 328 without a bleeding disorder and classified by mobility: premobile (non-rolling/rolling over/ sitting), early mobile (crawling/cruising) and walking and by disease severity: severe bleeding disorder factor VIII/IX/XI <1 IU/dL ordoi:10.1136/archdischild-2015-310196 pmid:27449675 pmcid:PMC5754865 fatcat:2aqgicqig5fhdoiurigqnsbnqe
more »... type 3 von Willebrand disease. Interventions Number, size and location of bruises recorded in each child weekly for up to 12 weeks. Outcomes The interventions were compared between children with severe and mild/moderate bleeding disorders and those without bleeding disorders. Multiple collections for individual children were analysed by multilevel modelling. Results Children with bleeding disorders had more and larger bruises, especially when premobile. Compared with premobile children without a bleeding disorder; the modelled ratio of means (95% CI) for number of bruises/ collection was 31.82 (8.39 to 65.42) for severe bleeding disorders and 5.15 (1.23 to 11.17) for mild/moderate, and was 1.81 (1.13 to 2.23) for size of bruises. Children with bleeding disorders rarely had bruises on the ears, neck, cheeks, eyes or genitalia. Conclusions Children with bleeding disorder have more and larger bruises at all developmental stages. The differences were greatest in premobile children. In this age group for children with unexplained bruising, it is essential that coagulation studies are done early to avoid the erroneous diagnosis of physical abuse when the child actually has a serious bleeding disorder, however a blood test compatible with a mild/moderate bleeding disorder cannot be assumed to be the cause of bruising.
Millions of people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. Anti-trypanosomal drug therapy can cure infected individuals, but treatment efficacy is highest early in infection. Vector control campaigns disrupt transmission of T. cruzi, but without timely diagnosis, children infected prior to vector control often miss the window of opportunity for effective chemotherapy. Methods and Findings: We performed a serological survey in children 2-18doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000103 pmid:18160979 pmcid:PMC2154390 fatcat:6h5oo4nlmbfglfvfxy3nlod7ju
more »... rs old living in a peri-urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and linked the results to entomologic, spatial and census data gathered during a vector control campaign. 23 of 433 (5.3% [95% CI 3.4-7.9]) children were confirmed seropositive for T. cruzi infection by two methods. Spatial analysis revealed that households with infected children were very tightly clustered within looser clusters of households with parasite-infected vectors. Bayesian hierarchical mixed models, which controlled for clustering of infection, showed that a child's risk of being seropositive increased by 20% per year of age and 4% per vector captured within the child's house. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) plots of best-fit models suggest that more than 83% of infected children could be identified while testing only 22% of eligible children. Conclusions: We found evidence of spatially-focal vector-borne T. cruzi transmission in peri-urban Arequipa. Ongoing vector control campaigns, in addition to preventing further parasite transmission, facilitate the collection of data essential to identifying children at high risk of T. cruzi infection. Targeted screening strategies could make integration of diagnosis and treatment of children into Chagas disease control programs feasible in lower-resource settings.
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