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Hypothalamic abnormalities in schizophrenia have been associated with endocrine dysfunctions and stress response. The hypothalamus is involved in several pathways found disrupted in schizophrenia (e.g. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, HPA axis); however the available results on potential structural hypothalamic alterations are still controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the volumes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies in patients with schizophrenia and healthydoi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.10.006 pmid:23217575 fatcat:uftjio4qtbd3zaa5g33bmgfbeu
more »... ols. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls underwent a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Hypothalamus and mammillary bodies were manually traced by a rater who was blind to subjects' identity. The General Linear Model was used in group comparisons of the volumes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies. The hypothalamus and mammillary body volumes were significantly larger in patients with schizophrenia than controls, with significant enlargement of the left hypothalamus and trends for significantly increased right hypothalamus and right mammillary body. The size of the mammillary bodies was inversely correlated with negative symptoms and directly correlated with anxiety. This study showed abnormally increased sizes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies in schizophrenia. Mammillary bodies volumes were associated to negative symptoms and anxiety. Future longitudinal studies on the volumes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies with respect to the levels of related hormones will clarify their role in modulating HPA axis in schizophrenia.
Resting-state networks (RSNs) and functional connectivity (FC) have been increasingly exploited for mapping brain activity and identifying abnormalities in pathologies, including epilepsy. The majority of studies currently available are based on blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in combination with either independent component analysis (ICA) or pairwise region of interest (ROI) correlations. Despite its success, this approach has several shortcomings as BOLD is only an indirectdoi:10.3389/fninf.2018.00101 pmid:30894811 pmcid:PMC6414423 fatcat:fdx3iguwqzer7arqfuky2ew4iq
more »... nd non-quantitative measure of brain activity. Conversely, promising results have recently been achieved by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI, primarily developed to quantify brain perfusion. However, the wide application of ASL-based FC has been hampered by its complexity and relatively low robustness to noise, leaving several aspects of this approach still largely unexplored. In this study, we firstly aimed at evaluating the effect of noise reduction on spatio-temporal ASL analyses and quantifying the impact of two ad-hoc processing pipelines (basic and advanced) on connectivity measures. Once the optimal strategy had been defined, we investigated the applicability of ASL for connectivity mapping in patients with drug-resistant temporal epilepsy vs. controls (10 per group), aiming at revealing between-group voxel-wise differences in each RSN and ROI-wise FC changes. We first found ASL was able to identify the main network (DMN) along with all the others generally detected with BOLD but never previously reported from ASL. For all RSNs, ICA-based denoising (advanced pipeline) allowed to increase their similarity with the corresponding BOLD template. ASL-based RSNs were visibly consistent with literature findings; however, group differences could be identified in the structure of some networks. Indeed, statistics revealed areas of significant FC decrease in patients within different RSNs, such as DMN and cerebellum (CER), while significant increases were found in some cases, such as the visual networks. Finally, the ROI-based analyses identified several inter-hemispheric dysfunctional links (controls > patients) mainly between areas belonging to the DMN, right-left thalamus and right-left temporal lobe. Conversely, fewer connections, predominantly intra-hemispheric, showed the opposite pattern (controls < patients). All these elements provide novel insights into the pathological modulations characterizing a "network disease" as epilepsy, shading light on the importance of perfusion-based approaches for identifying the disrupted areas and communications between brain regions.
To evaluate the extent of intrathecal inflammation in patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS) at the time of diagnosis and to define markers and a specific inflammatory profile capable of distinguishing progressive from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Levels of 34 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the CSF were evaluated at the diagnosis in 16 patients with PPMS and 80 with RRMS. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, including Expanded Disabilitydoi:10.1212/nxi.0000000000001083 pmid:34588298 pmcid:PMC8482414 fatcat:36ayewjsdvf3hdkrx3f6erpewe
more »... us Scale assessment and a 3T brain MRI to detect white matter and cortical lesion number and volume and global and regional cortical thickness. Higher levels of CXCL12 (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% CI [1.34-11.7]) and the monocyte-related osteopontin (OR = 2.24, 95% CI [1.01-4.99]) were detected in patients with PPMS, whereas levels of interleukin-10 (IL10) (OR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.09-0.96]) were significantly increased in those with RRMS. High CXCL12 levels were detected in patients with increased gray matter lesion number and volume (p = 0.001, r = 0.832 and r = 0.821, respectively). Pathway analysis confirmed the chronic inflammatory processes occurring in PPMS. At the time of diagnosis, a specific CSF protein profile can recognize the presence of early intrathecal inflammatory processes, possibly stratifying PPMS with respect to RRMS. Elevated CSF levels of CXCL12 and osteopontin suggested a key role of brain innate immunity and glia activity in MS. These molecules could represent useful candidate markers of MS progression, with implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of progressive MS. This study provides Class III evidence that CXCL12 and monocyte-related osteopontin may be correlated with PPMS, and IL-10 may be related to RRMS. It is may be correlated due to Bonferroni correction negating the statistical correlations found in the study.
The central vein sign (CVS) is a radiological feature proposed as a multiple sclerosis (MS) imaging biomarker able to accurately differentiate MS from other white matter diseases of the central nervous system. In this work, we evaluated the pooled proportion of the CVS in brain MS lesions and to estimate the diagnostic performance of CVS to perform a diagnosis of MS and propose an optimal cut-off value. Methods: A systematic search was performed on publicly available databases (PUBMED/MEDLINEdoi:10.3390/diagnostics10121025 pmid:33260401 fatcat:mptgqile4jevzkbm5rhbpoyjye
more »... d Web of Science) up to 24 August 2020. Analysis of the proportion of white matter MS lesions with a central vein was performed using bivariate random-effect models. A meta-regression analysis was performed and the impact of using particular sequences (such as 3D echo-planar imaging) and post-processing techniques (such as FLAIR*) was investigated. Pooled sensibility and specificity were estimated using bivariate models and meta-regression was performed to address heterogeneity. Inclusion and publication bias were assessed using asymmetry tests and a funnel plot. A hierarchical summary receiver operating curve (HSROC) was used to estimate the summary accuracy in diagnostic performance. The Youden index was employed to estimate the optimal cut-off value using individual patient data. Results: The pooled proportion of lesions showing a CVS in the MS population was 73%. The use of the CVS showed a remarkable diagnostic performance in MS cases, providing a pooled specificity of 92% and a sensitivity of 95%. The optimal cut-off value obtained from the individual patient data pooled together was 40% with excellent accuracy calculated by the area under the ROC (0.946). The 3D-EPI sequences showed both a higher pooled proportion compared to other sequences and explained heterogeneity in the meta-regression analysis of diagnostic performances. The 1.5 Tesla (T) scanners showed a lower (58%) proportion of MS lesions with a CVS compared to both 3T (74%) and 7T (82%). Conclusions: The meta-analysis we have performed shows that the use of the CVS in differentiating MS from other mimicking diseases is encouraged; moreover, the use of dedicated sequences such as 3D-EPI and the high MRI field is beneficial.
Electrophysiological and hemodynamic data can be integrated to accurately and precisely identify the generators of abnormal electrical activity in drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL), a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for quantitative noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), can provide a direct measure of variations in cerebral perfusion associated with the epileptic focus. In this study, we aimed to confirm the ASL diagnostic value in thedoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123975 pmid:25946055 pmcid:PMC4422723 fatcat:3mm7g6wmvjbwdclcq7yblsebdm
more »... ication of the epileptogenic zone, as compared to electrical source imaging (ESI) results, and to apply a template-based approach to depict statistically significant CBF alterations. Standard video-electroencephalography (EEG), high-density EEG, and ASL were performed to identify clinical seizure semiology and noninvasively localize the epileptic focus in 12 drug-resistant focal epilepsy patients. The same ASL protocol was applied to a control group of 17 healthy volunteers from which a normal perfusion template was constructed using a mixed-effect approach. CBF maps of each patient were then statistically compared to the reference template to identify perfusion alterations. Significant hypo-and hyperperfused areas were identified in all cases, showing good agreement between ASL and ESI results. Interictal hypoperfusion was observed at the site of the seizure in 10/12 patients and early postictal hyperperfusion in 2/12. The epileptic focus was correctly identified within the surgical resection margins in the 5 patients who underwent lobectomy, all of which had good postsurgical outcomes. The combined use of ESI and ASL can aid in the noninvasive evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients. Multimodal approaches combining several imaging methods may further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the epileptic process and aid in more accurately localizing abnormal neuronal activity, especially in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy   . In such patients, the mainstay therapeutic option for reducing or suppressing seizures is surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone    . Therefore, precise preoperative localization of the epileptogenic zone is crucial to spare non-epileptogenic brain tissue as best as possible and minimize postoperative neurological deficits  . Although highly invasive and burdened by potential risks limiting its use in clinical settings  , invasive electroencephalography (EEG) (e.g., stereo-EEG [sEEG]) remains the gold standard to localize the epileptogenic focus when noninvasive presurgical evaluation fails to yield clear-cut information    . Noninvasive presurgical workup will usually include long-term EEG, video-EEG and neuropsychological testing, which do not always provide the localization accuracy and precision required for surgical planning. Morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are also routinely acquired in epileptic patients to identify structural brain lesions such as tumors, cortical dysplasia or hippocampal sclerosis, which can define the seizure onset zone and guide surgical resection  . In the absence of these findings, however, the MRI scans may be inconclusive for delineating the location of the focal abnormality and will therefore need to be integrated with complementary neuroimaging studies. Imaging techniques such as positron-emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)     , dipole localization or electrical source imaging (ESI)     , and EEG-functional MRI (fMRI)     can all offer additional localization information and improve the yield of routine imaging studies. However, functional neuroimaging techniques (as PET, SPECT, fMRI), though each providing data on metabolism, perfusion, and blood oxygenation, have poor temporal resolution. Conversely, EEG, and high-density EEG (hdEEG) in particular, provide a direct measurement of neuronal activity with high temporal resolution which allows investigation of epileptic activity on a millisecond scale, from the initiation of seizure activity through to the propagation phase  . When combined, they can be used to evaluate the same phenomenon from different perspectives, overcoming the limitations inherent to each modality and thus obtain a more complete picture of the dynamics of the epileptic focus      . Since the 1980s, perfusion changes during epileptic processes have been investigated using SPECT in combination with technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) or Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m ECD), especially during the ictal and postictal phases  . While ictal and postictal SPECT demonstrate high sensitivity in focus localization (97-100% and 75-77%, respectively), their sensitivity during the interictal phase is about 50% lower   . Moreover, the technique has several limitations, including relatively low spatial resolution, high cost, and difficult logistics that restrict its availability to a few specialized neuroimaging centers  . In addition, the localization accuracy of SPECT during the ictal/early postictal phases depends critically on injecting the tracer as early as possible after seizure onset. If the timing is not precise, ambiguous blood flow changes may result, leading to misinterpretation of the main generator of seizure activity. Recently, newer MRI methods to study local cerebral perfusion have been proposed, offering several substantial advantages over nuclear medicine techniques, including noninvasiveness, no radiation exposure, easier accessibility, and higher spatial resolution   . Among these innovative techniques, Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) MRI has been applied to noninvasively study and quantify perfusion changes related to the epileptic focus. ASL provides a quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) without the need for contrast Patient-Specific CBF Alterations in Epilepsy PLOS ONE |
Using a white-matter selective double inversion recovery sequence (WM-DIR) that suppresses both grey matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signals, some white matter (WM) lesions appear surrounded by a dark rim. These dark rim lesions (DRLs) seem to be specific for multiple sclerosis (MS). They could be of great usefulness in clinical practice, proving to increase the MRI diagnostic criteria specificity. The aims of this study are the identification of DRLs on 1.5 T MRI, the exploration ofdoi:10.3390/diagnostics11040686 pmid:33921278 fatcat:quod3ukfozeeveud4jzmr5l6hq
more »... he relationship between DRLs and disease course, the characterization of DRLs with respect to perilesional normal-appearing WM using magnetization transfer imaging, and the investigation of possible differences in the underlying tissue properties by assessing WM-DIR images obtained at 3.0 T MRI. DRLs are frequent in primary progressive MS (PPMS) patients. Amongst relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, DRLs are associated with a high risk of the disease worsening and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) conversion after 15 years. The mean magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of DRLs is significantly different from the lesion without the dark rim, suggesting that DRLs correspond to more destructive lesions.
Recent literature highlights the importance of identifying factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Actual validated biomarkers include neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid assessments; however, we investigated non-Aβ-dependent factors associated with dementia in 12 MCI and 30 AD patients. Patients were assessed for global cognitive function (Mini-Mental state examination—MMSE), physical function (Physical Performance Test—PPT), exercise capacitydoi:10.3390/jcm8020224 pmid:30744116 pmcid:PMC6406356 fatcat:o5cm2ht2sbfyliuoa5umabxo4q
more »... in walking test—6MWT), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), brain volume, vascular function (flow-mediated dilation—FMD), inflammatory status (tumor necrosis factor—α ,TNF- α, interleukin-6, -10 and -15) and neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR and Tropomyosin receptor kinase A -TrkA). Baseline multifactorial information was submitted to two separate backward stepwise regression analyses to identify the variables associated with cognitive and physical decline in demented patients. A multivariate regression was then applied to verify the stepwise regression. The results indicated that the combination of 6MWT and VO2max was associated with both global cognitive and physical function (MMSE = 11.384 + (0.00599 × 6MWT) − (0.235 × VO2max)); (PPT = 1.848 + (0.0264 × 6MWT) + (19.693 × VO2max)). These results may offer important information that might help to identify specific targets for therapeutic strategies (NIH Clinical trial identification number NCT03034746).
., 2008; Pizzini et al., 2013; Storti et al., 2014; Boscolo Galazzo et al., 2015; Sierra-Marcos et al., 2016) . [ 18 F]-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography ...doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2016.04.005 pmid:27222796 pmcid:PMC4872676 fatcat:qvgjz5ju7neqthfgaj4qsvoe2q
Human Brain Mapping
Having the means to share research data openly is essential to modern science. For human research, a key aspect in this endeavor is obtaining consent from participants, not just to take part in a study, which is a basic ethical principle, but also to share their data with the scientific community. To ensure that the participants' privacy is respected, national and/or supranational regulations and laws are in place. It is, however, not always clear to researchers what the implications of thosedoi:10.1002/hbm.25351 pmid:33522661 pmcid:PMC8046140 fatcat:5yalypqdlzdnxlh6sobcw5h4oy
more »... e, nor how to comply with them. The Open Brain Consent (https://open-brain-consent.readthedocs.io) is an international initiative that aims to provide researchers in the brain imaging community with information about data sharing options and tools. We present here a short history of this project and its latest developments, and share pointers to consent forms, including a template consent form that is compliant with the EU general data protection regulation. We also share pointers to an associated data user agreement that is not only useful in the EU context, but also for any researchers dealing with personal (clinical) data elsewhere.
Francesca Benedetta Pizzini (F.B.P.) and Mr. Francesco Tanzi (F.T.). First drafting was done by FBP and revised by Prof. Marek Sasiadek. Editing and final approval was done by all the authors. ...doi:10.1186/s13244-020-00881-8 pmid:32444958 fatcat:xoltsagxaza4vpyf2dcx5pk3uq
Preliminary exploration of coronavirus anxiety in transplant patients Benedetta Muzii 1 1 Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Naples Federico II Abstract The Covid-10 outbreak has affected ... Maria Casagrande 1 , Francesca Favieri 2 , Giuseppe Forte 2 , Renata Tambelli 1 1 Dipartimento di Psicologia Dinamica e Clinica e Salute, "Sapienza" Università di Roma 2 Dipartimento di Psicologia, "Sapienza ...doi:10.13129/2282-1619/mjcp-3224 fatcat:enw4t7bujzaehehs6t3mbc7weq
Il vol., come chiarisce la Prefazione di Pietro Bocchia, Benedetta Quadrio, Carlo Sacconaghi, Luca Tizzano (pp. VII-IX) raccoglie le lecturae dantesche del 2008 dedicate all'Inferno. ... GIUSEPPE FRASSO, Paolo, Francesca e Ciacco (pp. 63-78) dedica minute attenzioni al tessuto fonico e stilistico di Inf. V-VI. ...fatcat:qlo3qtevjzeufnrq7wrvp42cey