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Foundational Oracle Patterns: Connecting Blockchain to the Off-chain World [article]

Roman Mühlberger, Stefan Bachhofner, Eduardo Castelló Ferrer, Claudio Di Ciccio, Ingo Weber, Maximilian Wöhrer, Uwe Zdun
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we address this gap by studying foundational blockchain oracle patterns in two foundational dimensions characterising the oracles: (i) the data flow direction, i.e., inbound and outbound  ...  However, blockchains are closed-world systems which do not have access to external state. To overcome this limitation, oracles have been introduced in various forms and for different purposes.  ...  The authors want to thank the Research Institute for Computational Methods at WU Vienna for supplying computational resources. E.  ... 
arXiv:2007.14946v1 fatcat:vfcwtvdwubehbpcc4a7b72f56m

Blockchain Oracle Design Patterns [article]

Amirmohammad Pasdar, Zhongli Dong, Young Choon Lee
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Although promising, blockchains and smart contracts have no access to the external systems (i.e., off-chain) where real-world data and events resides; consequently, the usability of smart contracts in  ...  In this paper, we will study and analyze blockchain oracles with regard to how they provide feedback to the blockchain and smart contracts.  ...  In the latter, the off-chain state is sent to the on-chain component by the off-chain component. The outbound mode is where information from the blockchain is transmitted to the external world.  ... 
arXiv:2106.09349v1 fatcat:jcobgywz2zfgvfragre5qpolc4

Patterns for Blockchain-Based Payment Applications [article]

Qinghua Lu, Xiwei Xu, H.M.N. Dilum Bandara, Shiping Chen, Liming Zhu
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The lifecycle and the annotated patterns provide a payment-focused systematic view of system interactions and a guide to effective use of the patterns.  ...  As the killer application of blockchain technology, blockchain-based payments have attracted extensive attention ranging from hobbyists to corporates to regulatory bodies.  ...  The captured attributes can be digitally recorded on the blockchain through oracles to ensure immutability and transparency. Consequences: Benefits: • Connectivity.  ... 
arXiv:2102.09810v3 fatcat:dhdl6sl42zc7xe2dtxfwb64keq

Blockchain software patterns for the design of decentralized applications: A systematic literature review

Nicolas Six, Nicolas Herbaut, Camille Salinesi
2022 Blockchain: Research and Applications  
The purpose of this collection is to map, classify, and describe all available patterns across the literature to help readers make adequate decisions regarding blockchain pattern selection.  ...  This study also shows potential applications of those patterns and identifies the relationships between blockchain patterns and other non-blockchain software patterns.  ...  The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.bcra.2022.100061 fatcat:2mtvohc5p5ejrfpught7efkupm

Design Patterns for Blockchain-based Self-Sovereign Identity [article]

Yue Liu, Qinghua Lu, Hye-Young Paik, Xiwei Xu
2020 arXiv   pre-print
The proposed patterns provide a systematic and holistic guide for architects to design the architecture of blockchain-based self-sovereign identity systems.  ...  We collect and propose 12 design patterns for blockchain-based self-sovereign identity systems to help the architects understand and easily apply the concepts in system design.  ...  Problem: Blockchain can ensure data integrity via storing data on-chain, but it costs real money to process the transaction in Off-chain data Off-chain data hashing On-chain Off-chain Fig. 15 .  ... 
arXiv:2005.12112v3 fatcat:7gli7txgyvdyjgysfsenvaltzm

Satellite-Aided Consensus Protocol for Scalable Blockchains

Xintong Ling, Zheng Gao, Yuwei Le, Li You, Jiaheng Wang, Zhi Ding, Xiqi Gao
2020 Sensors  
Then, we analyze the maximum blockchain throughput under network capacity limits and evaluate the impact of information propagation delay via a Markov model.  ...  Based on the proposed protocol, we demonstrate how such a space–terrestrial blockchain grows and evolves through several typical cases in the presence of adversarial nodes, user misbehavior, and transmission  ...  Therefore, there exists a trade-off between security and cost in the oracle generation, which should be selected according to the purposes and requirements of blockchain.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s20195616 pmid:33019567 fatcat:acf4thegvjhe3kpudzk2bfkntu

Towards Blockchain-enabled Open Architectures for Scalable Digital Asset Platforms [article]

Denis Avrilionis, Thomas Hardjono
2021 arXiv   pre-print
A digital twin container is utilized to permit off-chain state persistence and on-chain state traceability, where the container can be deployed on the blockchain as well as on traditional application servers  ...  We introduce the notion of the digital twin to capture the relationship between a real-world asset and its on-chain representation.  ...  (see Section 5) -sits in between the two worlds (on-chain and off-chain).  ... 
arXiv:2110.12553v1 fatcat:pr6v5j3s4fd3lhpsq3sblsajvy

A comprehensive survey on smart contract construction and execution: paradigms, tools, and systems [article]

Bin Hu, Zongyang Zhang, Jianwei Liu, Yizhong Liu, Jiayuan Yin, Rongxing Lu, Xiaodong Lin
2021 Patterns   accepted
We then review the execution mechanisms in the last category and further divide the state-of-the-art solutions into three classes: private contracts with extra tools, off-chain channels, and extensions  ...  Smart contracts are regarded as one of the most promising and appealing notions in blockchain technology.  ...  [81] analyze the suitable scenarios of off-chain computation and storage, and give several design patterns for off-chain schemes.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.patter.2020.100179 pmid:33659907 pmcid:PMC7892363 arXiv:2008.13413v2 fatcat:2k4v2olwobe2vnajvpw5qd2p3e

The Blockchain Oracle Problem in Decentralized Finance—A Multivocal Approach

Giulio Caldarelli, Joshua Ellul
2021 Applied Sciences  
The decentralized platforms utilize oracles to retrieve asset data from the external world, but their choice and management criteria are often unknown to the end-users.  ...  The issue, known as "the oracle problem", which makes real-world applications controversial and debated due to the loss of decentralization, had recently drawn attention to DeFi, given the crescent number  ...  The Oracle Problem Oracles bridge the on-chain blockchain world with the off-chain world by interfacing with external data providers [10] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/app11167572 fatcat:653dx7vgavgmjph7nriczrbrbq

Decentralised Blockchain-based Solutions for Electronic Healthcare Record with Interacting Social Networking Components [article]

Daniel-Jesus Munoz, Denisa-Andreea Constantinescu
2021 Zenodo  
Our goal is to provide a summary of the state-of-the-art efforts in the development of decentralised blockchain-based solutions for electronic healthcare records, in which social networking and wearable  ...  However, given how fast completely new technologies evolve, healthcare stakeholders are struggling to find the correct usage of blockchain ecosystem developments.  ...  Work by Constantinescu is supported by the projects TIN2016-80920-R, PID2019-105396RB-I00 and UMA18-FEDERJA-108. This work has been supported by IMFAHE Foundation Nodal Award of 2018.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5554350 fatcat:qul6xlos2vhfdimnfk52sz7qni

Blockchain-Based Reputation Systems: Implementation Challenges and Mitigation

Ammar Battah, Youssef Iraqi, Ernesto Damiani
2021 Electronics  
Recently, several researchers have put forward the idea of using Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) as the foundation for implementing trustworthy RMSs.  ...  The paper proposes some practical solutions and describes methods to deploy them on top of standard DLT of the Ethereum family.  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Abbreviations The following abbreviations are used in this manuscript:  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics10030289 fatcat:ar6etzoe4nhuxjikhh343wqnpe

Blockchain Technology for Intelligent Environments

Spyros Voulgaris, Nikos Fotiou, Vasilios A. Siris, George C. Polyzos, Mikael Jaatinen, Yannis Oikonomidis
2019 Future Internet  
In the last few years, we have been witnessing the convergence of the physical with the digital world.  ...  Blockchain technology thus has the potential to become a key component of many IoT systems, offering them an unprecedented level of accountability, transparency, and reliability.  ...  ChainLink [59] provides a decentralized oracle network, which includes on-chain components for smart contracts to request external connectivity and an off-chain consensus mechanism, reputation, and bidding  ... 
doi:10.3390/fi11100213 fatcat:4uogmpgl2jee5f4eurgfnpvwte

Blockchain Reference System Architecture Description for the ISA95 Compliant Traditional and Smart Manufacturing Systems

Erkan Yalcinkaya, Antonio Maffei, Mauro Onori
2020 Sensors  
Our former research effort concluded that blockchain technology has promising features to address these challenges.  ...  However, no blockchain reference architecture explicitly focuses on the ISA95 compliant traditional and smart manufacturing systems available in the literature.  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Sensors 2020, 20, 6456  ... 
doi:10.3390/s20226456 pmid:33198154 pmcid:PMC7696017 fatcat:ez2f5ldkcre6xjp2lr2q6tgo3m

Blockchain for Environmental Governance: Can Smart Contracts Reinforce Payments for Ecosystem Services in Namibia?

Daniel Oberhauser
2019 Frontiers in Blockchain  
The case presented here is an example for linking the digital Blockchain sphere to practical challenges of natural resource management in the physical world.  ...  To this end, the paper presents a proof-of-concept of a blockchain-based wildlife conservation performance payments scheme in Namibia: the habitat integrity of an elephant corridor is assessed by remote  ...  Another common problem of current blockchain-based applications is the reliance on oracles for connecting to the off-chain world.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fbloc.2019.00021 fatcat:24tqporurffsnl6yeddf6dgmka

A Survey on Blockchain Interoperability: Past, Present, and Future Trends [article]

Rafael Belchior, André Vasconcelos, Sérgio Guerreiro, Miguel Correia
2021 arXiv   pre-print
This fact makes it challenging for academics and the industry to seamlessly achieve interoperability among blockchains.  ...  Blockchain interoperability is emerging as one of the crucial features of blockchain technology, but the knowledge necessary for achieving it is fragmented.  ...  Hyperledger Avalon [147] defers intensive processing from the main blockchain to an off-chain channel to support centralized yet trustable oracles (by using trusted execution environments).  ... 
arXiv:2005.14282v3 fatcat:svd3ltjeenfsjerwa2sgwz6nzy
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