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Anonymous RAM [chapter]

Michael Backes, Amir Herzberg, Aniket Kate, Ivan Pryvalov
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We define the concept of and present provably secure constructions for Anonymous RAM (AnonRAM), a novel multi-user storage primitive that offers strong privacy and integrity guarantees.  ...  AnonRAM combines privacy features of anonymous communication and oblivious RAM (ORAM) schemes, allowing it to protect, simultaneously, the privacy of content, access patterns and user's identity, from  ...  .: Circuit ORAM: on tightness of the goldreichostrovsky lower bound. In: CCS. pp. 850-861 (2015) 30. Williams, P., Sion, R., Tomescu, A.: PrivateFS: a parallel oblivious file system.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-45744-4_17 fatcat:p3nwnpbex5gfpd36ncyi6xa4ju

Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

Joshua Gancher, Adam Groce, Alex Ledger
2017 Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies  
We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM).  ...  We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition.  ...  Introduction Oblivious RAM (ORAM) protocols allow clients to store data on an untrusted server and to access it as if it was stored locally.  ... 
doi:10.1515/popets-2017-0021 dblp:journals/popets/GancherGL17 fatcat:o3cbyeyckrdx3dlrppqgden2fi

Onion ORAM: A Constant Bandwidth Blowup Oblivious RAM [chapter]

Srinivas Devadas, Marten van Dijk, Christopher W. Fletcher, Ling Ren, Elaine Shi, Daniel Wichs
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We present Onion ORAM, an Oblivious RAM (ORAM) with constant worst-case bandwidth blowup that leverages poly-logarithmic server computation to circumvent the logarithmic lower bound on ORAM bandwidth blowup  ...  Attempts to "Break" the Goldreich-Ostrovsky Lower Bound Traditionally, ORAM constructions are evaluated by their bandwidth, client storage and server storage.  ...  However, existing Garbled RAM constructions incur poly(λ) · polylog(N ) client work and bandwidth blowup, and therefore Garbled RAM does not give a server-computation RAM with constant bandwidth blowup  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-49099-0_6 fatcat:vlbwtfqrc5foheq5gtxsyskakq

FedORAM: A Federated Oblivious RAM Scheme

Alexandre Pujol, Liam Murphy, Christina Thorpe
2020 IEEE Access  
The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions. We also thank Thomas Laurent for the valuable discussions and reviews.  ...  work was supported, in part by Irish Research Council grant GOIPG2016479 (research.ie), in part by Science Foundation Ireland grant 10CEI1855 to Lero -the Irish Software Research Centre (www.lero.ie) and  ...  Conceptually, in an attempt to increase the speed of ORAM, because classic Path ORAM schemes are limited to a lower bound [24] , some researchers looked to a multi-server approach.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3027516 fatcat:gxc5y7xjynelhmakkuod3m34wi

Sub-logarithmic Distributed Oblivious RAM with Small Block Size [article]

Eyal Kushilevitz, Tamer Mour
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Oblivious RAM (ORAM) is a cryptographic primitive that allows a client to securely execute RAM programs over data that is stored in an untrusted server.  ...  Distributed Oblivious RAM is a variant of ORAM, where the data is stored in m>1 servers.  ...  [PPRY18] , succeeds to achieve optimal logarithmic overhead with general block size (due to known lower bounds [GO96, LN18] ).  ... 
arXiv:1802.05145v3 fatcat:o45iuuoegjgrzaiic63rmcrw3y

Towards Practical Oblivious RAM [article]

Emil Stefanov, Elaine Shi, Dawn Song
2012 arXiv   pre-print
We take an important step forward in making Oblivious RAM (O-RAM) practical.  ...  On the theoretic front, we propose a fundamentally novel technique for constructing Oblivious RAMs: specifically, we partition a bigger O-RAM into smaller O-RAMs, and employ a background eviction technique  ...  Acknowledgments We would like to thank Hubert Chan, Yinian Qi, and Alina Oprea for insightful feedback, helpful discussions, and proofreading.  ... 
arXiv:1106.3652v5 fatcat:xi2topft25ggjbfpwaqhwdk4fm

Cryptography for Parallel RAM from Indistinguishability Obfuscation

Yu-Chi Chen, Sherman S.M. Chow, Kai-Min Chung, Russell W.F. Lai, Wei-Kai Lin, Hong-Sheng Zhou
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science - ITCS '16  
With this encoding, both rely on encryption and oblivious RAM (ORAM) to hide the memory content and access pattern of the RAM computation respectively.  ...  , but reveals nothing else regarding both P and x (except the size/time/space bound of P (x)).  ...  Application: Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) In the previous sections, we show how RE-RAM and PRAM can be extended to support a wide range of properties, including persistent database (Section 9.2  ... 
doi:10.1145/2840728.2840769 dblp:conf/innovations/ChenCCLLZ16 fatcat:cfa7xtsypfhulof2diazknhn7m

Flat ORAM: A Simplified Write-Only Oblivious RAM Construction for Secure Processors [article]

Syed Kamran Haider, Marten van Dijk
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Oblivious RAM (ORAM) is a cryptographic primitive which obfuscates the access patterns to a storage thereby preventing privacy leakage.  ...  Instead, a simple 'write-only' ORAM is sufficient, and, more interestingly, is preferred as it can offer far more performance and energy efficiency than a fully functional ORAM.  ...  Memory bound applications su er from higher performance degradation than compute bound applications.  ... 
arXiv:1611.01571v4 fatcat:ljfj4crpnfgllig3hhjdybzkiq

Octopus ORAM: An Oblivious RAM with Communication and Server Storage Efficiency

Qiumao Ma, Wensheng Zhang
2019 EAI Endorsed Transactions on Security and Safety  
Motivated by the observation that, the server storage efficiency is as important as communication efficiency when the storage capacity is very large and/or the outsourced data are not frequently accessed  ...  Through extensive security analysis and performance comparison, we demonstrate that, Octopus ORAM is secure; also, it significantly improves the server storage efficiency, achieves a comparable level of  ...  The client re-encrypts pieces in Segment 2 with its secret key and the pieces in Segment 0 as the IV pieces.  ... 
doi:10.4108/eai.29-4-2019.162405 fatcat:rqk2if6cwnbm5mc77zee4jtdl4

Suppressing the Oblivious RAM timing channel while making information leakage and program efficiency trade-offs

Christopher W. Fletchery, Ling Ren, Xiangyao Yu, Marten Van Dijk, Omer Khan, Srinivas Devadas
2014 2014 IEEE 20th International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA)  
First, we show how a secure processor can bound ORAM timing channel leakage to a user-controllable leakage limit.  ...  Oblivious RAM (ORAM) is an established cryptographic technique to hide a program's address pattern to an untrusted storage system.  ...  Thus, for our experiments we will use a 256/32768 cycle lower/upper bound for rates.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hpca.2014.6835932 dblp:conf/hpca/FletcherRYDKD14 fatcat:kr7ult7xdbfrlolpdbdbwmgpce

Design space exploration and optimization of path oblivious RAM in secure processors

Ling Ren, Xiangyao Yu, Christopher W. Fletcher, Marten van Dijk, Srinivas Devadas
2013 SIGARCH Computer Architecture News  
To prevent this address leakage, the security community has proposed ORAM (Oblivious RAM).  ...  Even if we encrypt all data that leaves the trusted processor, however, the address sequence that goes off-chip may still leak information.  ...  Generate a random 128-bit key K and encrypt K using the processor's secret key K (i.e., AESK (K )). 2.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2508148.2485971 fatcat:zapbyu3fkjbk5ln5z3x6pi7kyq

Design space exploration and optimization of path oblivious RAM in secure processors

Ling Ren, Xiangyao Yu, Christopher W. Fletcher, Marten van Dijk, Srinivas Devadas
2013 Proceedings of the 40th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture - ISCA '13  
To prevent this address leakage, the security community has proposed ORAM (Oblivious RAM).  ...  Even if we encrypt all data that leaves the trusted processor, however, the address sequence that goes off-chip may still leak information.  ...  Generate a random 128-bit key K and encrypt K using the processor's secret key K (i.e., AESK (K )). 2.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2485922.2485971 dblp:conf/isca/RenYFDD13 fatcat:b4cq6azqazelhgvub6dycwmfji

Sublinear Zero-Knowledge Arguments for RAM Programs [chapter]

Payman Mohassel, Mike Rosulek, Alessandra Scafuro
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In each proof, the computation/communication cost for both the prover and the verifier is proportional only to the running time of an oblivious RAM program implementing Ri (in particular, this can be sublinear  ...  The prover commits to a large dataset M , and can thereafter prove many statements of the form ∃w : Ri(M, w) = 1, where Ri is a public function.  ...  resulting in its use in real-world applications such as Zerocash [5] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-56620-7_18 fatcat:vdww6gveljdgzahdjnvfojbasq

Fast reductions from RAMs to delegatable succinct constraint satisfaction problems

Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Daniel Genkin, Eran Tromer
2013 Proceedings of the 4th conference on Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science - ITCS '13  
For general computation tasks, the most natural and efficient representation is typically as random-access machine (RAM) algorithms, because such a representation can be obtained very efficiently by applying  ...  We thus study efficient reductions from RAM to other problem representations for which succinct arguments are known.  ...  resulting "processor" under fully-homomorphic encryption in order to hide the registers and the Oblivious RAM's secrets.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2422436.2422481 dblp:conf/innovations/Ben-SassonCGT13 fatcat:q3dkmogkevhp5j6ljdcxb6iw5m

Periodic Virtual Hierarchy: A Trust Model for Smart Grid Devices

Arezou Moussavi-Khalkhali, Ram Krishnan, Mo Jamshidi
2016 International Journal of Security and Its Applications  
Due to the large-scale, distributed, and heterogeneous nature of a smart grid, authenticating devices based on their credentials such as secret keys is often not practical.  ...  In this paper, we propose a periodic hierarchical trust relationship model suitable for real-time applications in a smart grid and robust to the single point of failure problem, which is common in hierarchies  ...  that the lower bound of T´m ax is less than the lower bound of T max .  ... 
doi:10.14257/ijsia.2016.10.11.21 fatcat:5op5trrjzbbrzmorpmtxzcysm4
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