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Autonomous driving in urban environments: approaches, lessons and challenges

M. Campbell, M. Egerstedt, J. P. How, R. M. Murray
<span title="2010-09-06">2010</span> <i title="The Royal Society"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ercgg4vn2fenngurcnadfzdfri" style="color: black;">Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences</a> </i> &nbsp;
Much of the work described in this paper was supported by the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), under the DARPA Grand Challenge programme (Norm Whitaker, programme manager).  ...  R.M.M. would also like to acknowledge support from the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) and the Boeing Corporation.  ...  Improvements in verification require new languages, formalisms and tools for specification, design and verification of autonomous systems.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0110">doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0110</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20819826">pmid:20819826</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/saebpmc4kbh7xhs7ggt7laa7am">fatcat:saebpmc4kbh7xhs7ggt7laa7am</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190307111029/http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/df5b/21c21ab80c5e21b563f59930d7683069e3f6.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/df/5b/df5b21c21ab80c5e21b563f59930d7683069e3f6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0110"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

On Using Ilities of Non-Functional Properties for Subsystems and Components

James Lee, George Collins
<span title="2017-07-28">2017</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/v6wkcofcp5ea5olg3r652yfvmi" style="color: black;">Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
The premise of this work is that ilities can be applied with benefit, and in some cases out of necessity, to lower levels of systems as well.  ...  The veracity of this premise is established by providing examples that demonstrate how some ilities are passed and used as a non-functional property of electrical and structural subsystems in aircraft.  ...  For instance, brakes of early automobiles were equipped with brakes only on the rear wheels, and the automobiles would swerve and skid when drivers applied the brakes, which posed threats to the safety  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/systems5030047">doi:10.3390/systems5030047</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/che23icjqzblhc5bhvduawhnpa">fatcat:che23icjqzblhc5bhvduawhnpa</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180726055414/https://res.mdpi.com/def50200c067ac0748db25e12408a6a7b27c092bb7497cee4af6fe014091178ac13030260cedc6153961d179cd24a1f552a2a786ef61a2d9840c6a725b1535c226fa9ac68bde40897d7be87d6513e3402beb41cc16c621c06753ee73b0bb3fc8fdcd1071e81433961078bf082c0fcce2fe09caf4e8e4507d3ef9dda36abaf6266c8c186d23bc8fb111d73bfaf61265db?filename=&amp;attachment=1" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/f1/70/f170d02772f800e5cf5461b3ea631643aab2372f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/systems5030047"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

Functional Resonance Analysis in an Overtaking Situation in Road Traffic: Comparing the Performance Variability Mechanisms between Human and Automation

Niklas Grabbe, Alain Gales, Michael Höcher, Klaus Bengler
<span title="2021-12-27">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/eeeotn276bgs3mrwr57fevr7jy" style="color: black;">Safety</a> </i> &nbsp;
In conclusion, the FRAM analysis supports decision-makers in enhancing safety enriched by the identification of non-linear and complex risks.  ...  Automated driving promises great possibilities in traffic safety advancement, frequently assuming that human error is the main cause of accidents, and promising a significant decrease in road accidents  ...  However, his or her driving behaviour changes with the better brakes in that the driver drives faster because he/she can brake harder [80] , which can be explained by the risk homeostasis of Wilde [97  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010003">doi:10.3390/safety8010003</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4ex3pyphzzfnro5b7rvclfnihu">fatcat:4ex3pyphzzfnro5b7rvclfnihu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220103004242/https://mdpi-res.com/d_attachment/safety/safety-08-00003/article_deploy/safety-08-00003-v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/23/dd/23dd118b5ef5df62410be9876361543c4d6cea21.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010003"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

From Mackworth's clock to the open road: A literature review on driver vigilance task operationalization

C.D.D. Cabrall, R. Happee, J.C.F. de Winter
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/4kcpyrxktzahjo2e3g6eamu4yi" style="color: black;">Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour</a> </i> &nbsp;
., from monitoring the alertness of manual drivers to verifications of readiness in transitions of control between automated and manual driving).  ...  Objective: This review aimed to characterize tasks applied in driving research, in terms of instructions/conditions, signal types/rates, and component features in comparison to the classic vigilance literature  ...  Acknowledgments The research presented in this paper was conducted within the project HFAuto -Human Factors of Automated Driving (PITN-GA-2013-605817).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2016.04.001">doi:10.1016/j.trf.2016.04.001</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4zfofnl67repblyysfrj4ettuy">fatcat:4zfofnl67repblyysfrj4ettuy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200505151655/https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid%3A3d6e44c8-b86d-4eb9-9854-b7c9e1943fc8/datastream/OBJ/download" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/2a/5a/2a5adb8d1a7f7a054eb5e344a20917448aeb6f73.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2016.04.001"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

Evaluation approach for a combined implementation of Day 1 C-ITS and Highway Chauffeur – v.1.0

Serio Angelo Maria Agriesti, Marco Ponti, Giovanna Marchionni, Paolo Gandini, Roberto Maja, Fabio Borghetti, Valeria Paglino, Maurizio Bruglieri, Luca Studer
<span title="2018-11-30">2018</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
This activity is aimed to a first definition of these impacts, mainly in the four impact areas defined in Fot-net 2017 [87] and currently used also within the activities of C-Roads Europe.  ...  This Ex-Ante evaluation has been carried out as one of the activities of C-Roads Italy, in order to assess the expected impacts deriving from a jointed implementation of both C-ITS day 1 Services and the  ...  performing abrupt braking or swerving and perturbing the surrounding traffic flow.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3637982">doi:10.5281/zenodo.3637982</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/75uics7gfzcezir3z6ixm5ccu4">fatcat:75uics7gfzcezir3z6ixm5ccu4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200206121649/https://zenodo.org/record/3637982/files/Ex%20Ante%20Highway%20Chauffeur%20-%20v.1.0.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/6e/1d/6e1ddc4b402bdafdde7e6cdba7adea9d0a53e757.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3637982"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> zenodo.org </button> </a>

Safety-relevant mode confusions—modelling and reducing them

Jan Bredereke, Axel Lankenau
<span title="">2005</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/rzixovqh2vd4vaspoqcbcb77hq" style="color: black;">Reliability Engineering &amp; System Safety</a> </i> &nbsp;
A mode confusion occurs when the observed behaviour of a technical system is out of sync with the user's mental model of its behaviour. But the notion is described only informally in the literature.  ...  We present a rigorous way of modelling the user and the machine in a shared-control system. This enables us to propose precise definitions of "mode" and "mode confusion" for safety-critical systems.  ...  One should fix the perception first and then perform the formal verification of the rest.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2004.07.020">doi:10.1016/j.ress.2004.07.020</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7v7b37yrdndfxkmgwch3cz6bti">fatcat:7v7b37yrdndfxkmgwch3cz6bti</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180728155520/http://homepages.hs-bremen.de:80/~jbredereke/downloads/BrLa05.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/e4/b2/e4b2ad28aea6c0c0f446f07bc5059165171d7c17.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2004.07.020"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

Automated Driving [chapter]

Jorge Villagra, Leopoldo Acosta, Antonio Artuñedo, Rosa Blanco, Miguel Clavijo, Carlos Fernández, Jorge Godoy, Rodolfo Haber, Felipe Jiménez, Carlos Martínez, José E. Naranjo, Pedro J. Navarro (+2 others)
<span title="">2018</span> <i title="Elsevier"> Intelligent Vehicles </i> &nbsp;
Following the Webster definition, an autonomous vehicle "has the right or power of self-government," "exists or act separately from other things 275 Intelligent Vehicles  ...  http://Ptolemy.berkeley.edu/ hyvisual/ Scicos/ Syndex Modeling and simulation of HS, has toolbox, real-time code generation, provides formal verification tools.  ...  VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION While Automated Driving is becoming nowadays a key topic for the future of the automotive industry, the technology behind it has been evolving since some years ago and it is  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-812800-8.00008-4">doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-812800-8.00008-4</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/5isovjlginfclaihxsjfmjpszm">fatcat:5isovjlginfclaihxsjfmjpszm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201103064538/https://digital.csic.es/bitstream/10261/218249/1/Automated_driving.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/fc/0e/fc0e647f882c8bb3da866ff66b50617092a4d270.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-812800-8.00008-4"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

Autonomous driving in urban environments: Boss and the Urban Challenge

Chris Urmson, Joshua Anhalt, Drew Bagnell, Christopher Baker, Robert Bittner, M. N. Clark, John Dolan, Dave Duggins, Tugrul Galatali, Chris Geyer, Michele Gittleman, Sam Harbaugh (+30 others)
<span title="">2008</span> <i title="Wiley"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/hozy4uxohvhslew6ka2x3ecogy" style="color: black;">Journal of Field Robotics</a> </i> &nbsp;
The motion planning layer selects actions to avoid obstacles while making progress toward local goals.  ...  A three-layer planning system combines mission, behavioral, and motion planning to drive in urban environments. The mission planning layer considers which street to take to achieve a mission goal.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work would not have been possible without the dedicated efforts of the Tartan Racing team and the generous support of our sponsors, including General Motors, Caterpillar, and Continental  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1002/rob.20255">doi:10.1002/rob.20255</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ivab3r3m6bdfvhdlwnd5mdrzne">fatcat:ivab3r3m6bdfvhdlwnd5mdrzne</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161020082208/http://www.ri.cmu.edu:80/pub_files/pub4/urmson_christopher_2008_1/urmson_christopher_2008_1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/c0/b1/c0b125fb68761ed48f1c3a784e0142cbdf743bbd.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1002/rob.20255"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> wiley.com </button> </a>

Autonomous Driving in Urban Environments: Boss and the Urban Challenge [chapter]

Chris Urmson, Joshua Anhalt, Drew Bagnell, Christopher Baker, Robert Bittner, M. N. Clark, John Dolan, Dave Duggins, Tugrul Galatali, Chris Geyer, Michele Gittleman, Sam Harbaugh (+30 others)
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/lirc5icuifhy7ln5rynpn4ak2e" style="color: black;">Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics</a> </i> &nbsp;
The motion planning layer selects actions to avoid obstacles while making progress toward local goals.  ...  A three-layer planning system combines mission, behavioral, and motion planning to drive in urban environments. The mission planning layer considers which street to take to achieve a mission goal.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work would not have been possible without the dedicated efforts of the Tartan Racing team and the generous support of our sponsors, including General Motors, Caterpillar, and Continental  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03991-1_1">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03991-1_1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/l6hb3cyxcraijctglkr2mobcxu">fatcat:l6hb3cyxcraijctglkr2mobcxu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161020082208/http://www.ri.cmu.edu:80/pub_files/pub4/urmson_christopher_2008_1/urmson_christopher_2008_1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/c0/b1/c0b125fb68761ed48f1c3a784e0142cbdf743bbd.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03991-1_1"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Bicycle Safety Highway Users Information Report

<span title="">1978</span>
automobile.  ...  Our investigation of the accidents revealed the following: swerved over and then started to swerve back to the right.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.21949/1524990">doi:10.21949/1524990</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/2ilthnpcqnhh7pqhpjoa5pqq2a">fatcat:2ilthnpcqnhh7pqhpjoa5pqq2a</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220408175625/https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1211/dot_1211_DS1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/00/4c/004c6ae402daa2edd0e61e29522cd8c240aeb3cd.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.21949/1524990"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Drivers' Reliance on Lane-Keeping Assistance Systems as a Function of the Level of Assistance

Anke Popken, Josef Krems, Lena Nilsson
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/l54zakegrvdrzmkybealxiahdm" style="color: black;">Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft</a> </i> &nbsp;
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This driving simulator study was conducted in the framework of the European Network of Excellence HUMANIST (HUMAN centred design for Information Society Technologies) and was supported  ...  In conclusion, it appears important to distinguish between formal and operational definitions of reliance.  ...  Maximum braking force Drivers' maximum braking force was measured in N.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03373945">doi:10.1007/bf03373945</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/seskzsk6qncjbao2gnnrjvfc34">fatcat:seskzsk6qncjbao2gnnrjvfc34</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170812155758/http://www.qucosa.de/fileadmin/data/qucosa/documents/5973/data/DISS_POPKEN_FINAL_v3Online_geschuetzt.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/f0/54/f0541d4e32f2fc460879bd8b279b0dd000da3d34.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03373945"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Examination of Supplemental Driver Training and Online Basic Driver Education

<span title="">2012</span>
Traffic Safety Administration, in the interest of information exchange.  ...  The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Transportation or the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank all of the driver training providers who gave us information on their programs, especially the programs that provided full access to their facilities for the site visits  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.21949/1525712">doi:10.21949/1525712</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ghbv4tztonhzrgjpnciitlz56y">fatcat:ghbv4tztonhzrgjpnciitlz56y</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220618142908/https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1920/dot_1920_DS1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ab/80/ab809cfcecfd9d91d0d8a231416dedf0bb8f5143.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.21949/1525712"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Microscopic and Macroscopic Risk Metrics for the Safety Validation of Automated Driving

Philipp Matthias Junietz
<span title="">2019</span>
Automated Driving is one of the trends in the automobile industry. Latest developments in technology and prototypes suggest that the introduction of automated driving is near.  ...  Without further research and improvement in verification and validation methods, a safe introduction of automated driving is not justifiable.  ...  Formal Verification Formal verification is technically not a dynamic testing method, because the OuT is not executed.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.25534/tuprints-00009282">doi:10.25534/tuprints-00009282</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zoufakkbzjcerdmhqnyufwavlq">fatcat:zoufakkbzjcerdmhqnyufwavlq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200207193738/https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/9282/1/Dissertation_Junietz_2019_V1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/61/0f/610fa1cdc218599bf9a4766429b8940c99e4542c.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.25534/tuprints-00009282"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Tri-level Study of the Causes of Traffic Accidents. Volume 1, Causal Factor Tabulations and Assessments

<span title="">1977</span>
This is the Final Report of the "Tri-Level Study of the Causes of Traffic Accidents," performed by the Indiana University Institute for Research in Public Safety (IRPS), under contract to the National  ...  Phase I data differed in format, and were presented in a previous report.  ...  At yet an earlier stage in the project this role was filled by Mr. John M.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.21949/1525022">doi:10.21949/1525022</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/vydg7eu4t5h5zpiw5t47qyovq4">fatcat:vydg7eu4t5h5zpiw5t47qyovq4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220517055354/https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1243/dot_1243_DS1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.21949/1525022"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Les chauffeurs du dimanche : un examen empirique des effets des stéréotypes négatifs sur les réactions au volant des conducteurs âgés en contexte de simulation

Mélanie Joanisse, Université D'Ottawa / University Of Ottawa, Université D'Ottawa / University Of Ottawa
<span title="2012-04-25">2012</span>
., driving on sidewalks, inappropriate braking, frequent crashes, loss of control, and an inability to maintain an appropriate speed) in the last 8 km of the orientation course (of 15 km).  ...  All participants gave their formal consent prior to testing in compliance with the University of Ottawa Research Ethics Board requirements. Material Induction of the stereotype threat.  ...  If some of the following questions cause any inconvenience to the participant (emotional, physical, or other), then the participant has the right to refuse to answer those specific questions.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.20381/ruor-5657">doi:10.20381/ruor-5657</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/yudy43cdk5afje6vmyd57i7r2y">fatcat:yudy43cdk5afje6vmyd57i7r2y</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200217215029/https://ruor.uottawa.ca/bitstream/10393/22789/1/Joanisse_Melanie_2012_these.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/87/a9/87a99a47fe6c01ab9180bca2598deeb4b40778fd.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.20381/ruor-5657"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>
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