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Survey of Communication Protocols for Internet-of-Things and Related Challenges of Fog and Cloud Computing Integration [article]

Jasenka Dizdarevic, Francisco Carpio, Admela Jukan, Xavi Masip-Bruin
2018 arXiv   pre-print
The fast increment in the number of IoT (Internet of Things) devices is accelerating the research on new solutions to make cloud services scalable.  ...  To this end, the paper first presents a comparative analysis of the main characteristics of IoT communication protocols, including request-reply and publish-subscribe protocols.  ...  For many IoT developers, MQTT and HTTP are protocols of choice in their IoT, fog and cloud implementations.  ... 
arXiv:1804.01747v1 fatcat:7atg7lzsqjervlgkevjoljqqay

A formal model and analysis of an IoT protocol

Benjamin Aziz
2016 Ad hoc networks  
We explain the modelling choices that we made, including pointing out ambiguities in the original protocol specification, and we carry out a static analysis of the formal protocol model, which is based  ...  This paper presents a formal model of the MQTT protocol above based on a timed process algebra, called TPi, and then defines an abstract static analysis that approximates the behaviour of processes by  ...  Within the domain of sensor network protocols, there is more focus of effort on the formal analysis and verification of such protocols.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.adhoc.2015.05.013 fatcat:rssydh4uqzfnvjeopgvqqznu4a

Exploiting Internet of Things Protocols for Malicious Data Exfiltration Activities

Ivan Vaccari, Sara Narteni, Maurizio Aiello, Maurizio Mongelli, Enrico Cambiaso
2021 IEEE Access  
Internet of Things is a widely adopted and pervasive technology, but also one of the most relevant in cyber-security, given the volume and sensitivity of shared data and the availability of affordable  ...  An attacker can exploit the MQTT protocol for various purposes such as steal information or access to not-allowed websites/servers.  ...  Particularly, by focusing on the MQTT protocol, in [23] a threat model is built in order to identify and mitigate possible attacks addressing MQTT brokers and IoT devices.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3099642 fatcat:eginyrsxczcbpfvti7l7oiu5j4

Extensions and Enhancements to "the Secure Remote Update Protocol"

2017 Future Internet  
This paper builds on the original protocol and introduces a number of additional message types: adding additional capabilities to the protocol.  ...  This paper builds on previous work introducing the Secure Remote Update Protocol (SRUP), a secure communications protocol for Command and Control applications in the Internet of Things, built on top of  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/fi9040059 fatcat:lgi7ipldanelbaa5ax647jqqye

An IoT Surveillance System Based on a Decentralised Architecture

Amilcare Santamaria, Pierfrancesco Raimondo, Mauro Tropea, Floriano De Rango, Carmine Aiello
2019 Sensors  
The adoption of the IoT protocols in a hierarchical architecture provides high scalability allowing an easy and painless join of other smart objects.  ...  In this work, we propose a novel approach to create a decentralized architecture to manage patrolling drones and cameras exploiting lightweight protocols used in the internet of things (IoT) domain.  ...  Formal methods are tools that enable analysts to consider all of the possible system interactions using a combination of formal modeling, specification, and proof-based verification.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s19061469 fatcat:d6wzps6owjbeng4r3u3jcbtgou

A Toolkit for Construction of Authorization Service Infrastructure for the Internet of Things

Hokeun Kim, Eunsuk Kang, Edward A. Lee, David Broman
2017 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation - IoTDI '17  
The challenges posed by the Internet of Things (IoT) render existing security measures ineffective against emerging networks and devices.  ...  In this paper, we propose SST (Secure Swarm Toolkit), an open-source toolkit for construction and deployment of an authorization service infrastructure for the IoT.  ...  performed a formal analysis on a model of our authorization protocol using an automated verification tool.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3054977.3054980 dblp:conf/iotdi/KimKLB17 fatcat:4yrg53ibnzbgvha6ugeqgs6cku

Study of Security Threats and Challenges in Internet of Things Systems

Rohit Chawla, Et. al.
2021 Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education  
The NIST models provides the secured communication channel in the environments of mobility.  ...  The process of key generation and authentication provides the authorization and authentication of data over the internet of things.  ...  Maglaras, Helge Janicke, Jianmin Jiang and Lei Shu 1. Surveys Articles for the IoT 2. Threat Models 3. Countermeasure s and Formal Security Verification Techniques 4.  ... 
doi:10.17762/turcomat.v12i2.1137 fatcat:4b76bsbfn5eqnl4kyjtidninri

Multiprotocol Authentication Device for HPC and Cloud Environments Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Antonio F. Díaz, Ilia Blokhin, Mancia Anguita, Julio Ortega, Juan J. Escobar
2020 Electronics  
We have evaluated different types of possible attacks and the impact on communications. The proposed system offers an efficient solution to increase security in access to services and systems.  ...  The proposed electronic token (eToken), based on the system-on-chip ESP32, provides an extra layer of security based on elliptic curve cryptography.  ...  The protocol is open, allowing the development and implementation of various solutions, with different public/private key models.  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics9071148 fatcat:muydtjy2jbaq5p46pqcgdety2m

Smart City IoT Platform Respecting GDPR Privacy and Security Aspects

Claudio Badii, Pierfrancesco Bellini, Angelo Difino, Paolo Nesi
2020 IEEE Access  
The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm enables computation and communication among tools that everyone uses daily.  ...  The Snap4City solution addresses the full stack security, ranging from IoT Devices, IoT Edge on premises, IoT Applications on the cloud and on premises, Data Analytics, and Dashboarding, presenting a number  ...  Snap4City and Km4City are 100% open source technologies and the platform of DISIT Lab can be accessed at https://www.snap4city.org.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2968741 fatcat:dohuxuc4a5eb5ctidgu5wvsaca

Edge-based Runtime Verification for the Internet of Things

Christos Tsigkanos, Marcello M. Bersani, Pantelis A. Frangoudis, Schahram Dustdar
2021 IEEE Transactions on Services Computing  
This paper presents a service-based software architecture and technical framework supporting runtime verification for widely deployed, volatile IoT systems.  ...  We illustrate how specification and runtime verification can be achieved in practice on a characteristic case study of smart parking.  ...  Runtime verification for the IoT Runtime verification has recently been attracting attention in the context of the IoT.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tsc.2021.3074956 fatcat:j7kt5k6vv5azvmy7kcbbydp2cu

A Formal Model and Analysis of the MQ Telemetry Transport Protocol

Benjamin Aziz
2014 2014 Ninth International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security  
We explain the modeling choices that we made, including pointing out ambiguities in the original protocol specification, and we carry out a static analysis of the formal protocol model, which is based  ...  We present a formal model of the MQ Telemetry Transport version 3.1 protocol based on a timed messagepassing process algebra.  ...  Thanks also to Paul Fremantle, WSO2, for providing useful comments on the MQTT specification and for raising the issue to OASIS (https://tools.oasisopen.org/issues/browse/MQTT-209).  ... 
doi:10.1109/ares.2014.15 dblp:conf/IEEEares/Aziz14 fatcat:547za4aucjb4bksuto76vopju4

Current Industry 4.0 Platforms – An Overview

Sauer Christian, Eichelberger Holger, Ahmadian Amir Shayan, Dewes Andreas, Jürjens Jan
2021 Zenodo  
For example, a wide range of communication protocols is often provided and a wide variety of cloud services are integrated.  ...  The focus is on topics such as interconnectivity, digital twins, openness, security and the use of AI in the context of smart manufacturing.  ...  ProtocolsMQTT and -HTTP protocols (ZigBee, Bluetooth)T3.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4485756 fatcat:f4m2swkalnh3biy5vjypsix32y

IoT Blockchain Data Veracity with Data Loss Tolerance

Kwai Cheong Moke, Tan Jung Low, Dodo Khan
2021 Applied Sciences  
Recent years have witnessed the advancement of the Internet of Things (IoT) and its emergence as a technology that could revolutionize many businesses.  ...  As such, this research presents a blockchain based IoT model (framework) with the aim of circumventing data loss.  ...  Moving further up to the data exchange between nodes and application, it continues to leverage on similar stream-based messaging protocols: message queuing telemetry transport protocol (MQTT) and advanced  ... 
doi:10.3390/app11219978 fatcat:lhl7yf4ncnbxxgvk5kmokctpmi

A Comprehensive Study of the IoT Cybersecurity in Smart Cities

Roberto O. Andrade, Sang Guun Yoo, Luis Tello-Oquendo, Ivan Ortiz-Garces
2020 IEEE Access  
The use of IoT allows detecting and reporting specific parameters related to different domains of the city, such as health, waste management, agriculture, transportation, and energy.  ...  Besides, we propose and validate a model based on risk levels to evaluate the IoT cybersecurity maturity in a smart city.  ...  [31] , IoT services operate via network protocols, such as DNS, HTTP, and MQTT, and attackers try to exploit vulnerabilities in such protocols using techniques like polymorphic code, DNS Spoofing, DNS  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3046442 fatcat:o7pbraolzbcgxjj5camkkz73pe

Pulverization in Cyber-Physical Systems: Engineering the Self-Organizing Logic Separated from Deployment

Roberto Casadei, Danilo Pianini, Andrea Placuzzi, Mirko Viroli, Danny Weyns
2020 Future Internet  
However, the infrastructures providing networking and computing services to support these systems are becoming increasingly complex, layered and heterogeneous—consider the case of the edge–fog–cloud interplay  ...  This model can then be instantiated in the aggregate computing framework, whereby self-organizing behavior is specified compositionally.  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/fi12110203 fatcat:42v5fo2bxrd27prqmn32ev645e
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