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Flexonics [chapter]

John Canny, Jeremy Risner, Vivek Subramanian
2004 Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics  
Flexonics integrates structural, mechanical and electronic elements based on 3D printing techniques, in particular inkjet printing.  ...  This paper outlines some principles for flexonic design, which is based on flexion rather than sliding or rolling motion as in traditional mechanics.  ...  Current techniques for fabricating planar dielectric elastomer actuators are quite primitive. Dielectric elastomer is first stretched across a rigid frame.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-45058-0_13 fatcat:psphihgis5gyhbzjoaxnwcq7eu

Review of dielectric elastomers for actuators, generators and sensors

Yu Zhao, Li-Juan Yin, Shao-Long Zhong, Jun-Wei Zha, Zhi-Min Dang
2020 IET Nanodielectrics  
Dielectric elastomer (DE) is an important member of the EAP.  ...  DE has the characteristics of excellent performance, such as light weight, low noise, low cost, and so on, which guarantee its wide applications in the fields of actuators, generators, sensors.  ...  The plane-parallel capacitor model is used to illuminate the conversion between electrical energy and mechanical energy through DEs.  ... 
doi:10.1049/iet-nde.2019.0045 fatcat:wdpssprlujcmjbsq5lri6jhi3m

Polymer artificial muscles

Tissaphern Mirfakhrai, John D.W. Madden, Ray H. Baughman
2007 Materials Today  
Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes.  ...  The performance of the emerging polymer actuators exceeds that of natural muscle in many respects, making them particularly attractive for use anywhere where a muscle-like response is desirable, including  ...  Stacking in layers 14 or rolling into tubes produces larger forces by making multiple thin layers of DEAs apply their actuation forces in parallel.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1369-7021(07)70048-2 fatcat:wy3rivte3nfllj7m456t45oqba

Increasing the performance of dielectric elastomer actuators: A review from the materials perspective

L.J. Romasanta, M.A. Lopez-Manchado, R. Verdejo
2015 Progress in polymer science  
Among EAPs, dielectric elastomer (DE) devices are soft or flexible capacitors, composed of a thin elastomeric membrane sandwiched between two compliant electrodes, that are able to transduce electrical  ...  Initial studies concentrated mainly on dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) and identified the electro-mechanical principles and material requirements for an optimal performance.  ...  Unimorph actuators are made of a DE bonded to a flexible substrate; whereas in bimorph actuators the flexible substrate is sandwiched between two DE films.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2015.08.002 fatcat:uhnekf2ub5am7nv4oi34aylf6q

Electroactive Polymers as Artificial Muscles: A Review

Yoseph Bar-Cohen
2002 Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets  
This characteristic allows producing longi- tudinal actuators using dielectric elastomer films with flexible elec- trodes that appear to act similarly to biological muscles.  ...  This dielectric EAP, also known as electrostat- ically stricted polymer actuators, can be represented by a parallel plate capacitor.  ... 
doi:10.2514/2.3902 fatcat:7ptj7yjejfbtlm5ym373vknite

Mechanics of dielectric elastomers: materials, structures, and devices

Jin QIAN
2016 Journal of Zhejiang University: Science A  
Dielectric elastomers (DEs) respond to applied electric voltage with a surprisingly large deformation, showing a promising capability to generate actuation in mimicking natural muscles.  ...  A theoretical foundation of the mechanics of DEs is of crucial importance in designing DE-based structures and devices.  ...  Various types of smart materials have been used as artificial muscles with assumed response to external stimuli, including dielectric elastomers (DEs), ferroelectric polymers (FPs), ionic polymer-metal  ... 
doi:10.1631/jzus.a1500125 fatcat:5kuzzf37q5edxhdd6fxwwi5sbm

Biorobotics: An Overview of Recent Innovations in Artificial Muscles

Matthew Craddock, Emmanuel Augustine, Sam Konerman, Minchul Shin
2022 Actuators  
to actuate artificial muscles as a whole.  ...  In this overview of recent developments in the field of biorobotics we cover the developments in materials such as the use of polyester fabric being used as artificial skin and the start of whole new ways  ...  It consists of several parallel elastomer tubes being wound into a matrix by wires perpendicular to the tubes.  ... 
doi:10.3390/act11060168 fatcat:aqxzsfspy5a73o4jjh6yupmfq4

Flexible and stretchable electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

Samuel Rosset, Herbert R. Shea
2012 Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing  
Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are flexible lightweight actuators that can generate strains of over 100 %.  ...  The electrodes are required for electrostatic actuation, but also enable resistive and capacitive sensing of the strain, leading to self-sensing actuators.  ...  Introduction Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs), also known as artificial muscles, are a new type of soft transducer consisting of a thin elastomer membrane sandwiched between two compliant electrodes  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00339-012-7402-8 fatcat:whtbvvsrhnhubenvrhwnrrlr4y

Review of Soft Fluidic Actuators: Classification and Materials Modeling Analysis

Amir Pagoli, Frederic Chapelle, Juan Antonio Corrales Ramón, Youcef Mezouar, Yuri Lapusta
2021 Smart materials and structures (Print)  
Regarding the fact that the performance of soft actuators is dependent on material selection, we then focus on the behaviors and mechanical properties of the various types of silicone which can be found  ...  Soft actuators can be classified into five categories: tendon-driven actuators, electroactive polymers (EAPs), shape-memory materials, soft fluidic actuators (SFAs), and hybrid actuators.  ...  Like DEA, HASEL actuators include two flexible layers but use liquid dielectric instead of elastomers.  ... 
doi:10.1088/1361-665x/ac383a fatcat:ztuwjwuygrbsfasedfdj5wtlda

Small, fast, and tough: Shrinking down integrated elastomer transducers

Samuel Rosset, Herbert R. Shea
2016 Applied Physics Reviews  
We review recent progress in miniaturized dielectric elastomer actuators, sensors and energy harvesters.  ...  We focus primarily on configurations where the large strain, high compliance, stretchability and high level of integration o↵ered by dielectric elastomer transducers provide significant advantages over  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank the many authors who have accepted to share their results with us and agreed to the use of their pictures and figures.  ... 
doi:10.1063/1.4963164 fatcat:5c3hppd7nvd7rbsp4famocc5hu

Artificial Muscles for Humanoid Robots [chapter]

Bertrand Tondu
2007 Humanoid Robots, Human-like Machines  
actuators used in industrial robot-arms.  ...  But if this technology simplifies actuator mechanical integration and leads to the use of simple joint linear control, despite the highly non-linear character of robot dynamics, it is well-known that the  ...  Electroactive polymers : Dielectric elastomers Dielectric elastomer actuator technology appeared in the middle of the 1990s.  ... 
doi:10.5772/4799 fatcat:hxaw6avadrg3vbn6a45t6aejve

Soft Robotic Grippers

Jun Shintake, Vito Cacucciolo, Dario Floreano, Herbert Shea
2018 Advanced Materials  
Soft grippers using dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) and ionic-polymer-metal composites (IPMCs). a) Dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES). Reproduced with permission.  ...  ., has a layered structure composed by a stretchable circuit, a dielectric elastomer, and a flexible substrate (Figure 11f ).  ... 
doi:10.1002/adma.201707035 pmid:29736928 fatcat:ysjvdzllnneirolc6hmkxc5k2e

Highly sensitive strain sensor from topological-structure modulated dielectric elastic nanocomposites [article]

Youjun Fan, Zhonghui Shen, Xinchen Zhou, Zhenkang Dan, Le Zhou, Weibin Ren, Tongxiang Tang, Shanyong Bao, Cewen Nan, Yang Shen
2021 arXiv   pre-print
An interdigital capacitive strain sensor is designed using the topological structured elastic dielectric nanocomposite.  ...  The prepared integrated strain sensor arrays are able to measure local strain of convoluted surfaces and monitor the motion of soft actuators in real time, and they would make conditions for intelligent  ...  PDMS SWCNT Parallel-plate capacitive 0.4 50% 1 Silicone elastomer Aluminum & silver Parallel-plate capacitive 0.9 85% 2 Acrylic elastomer AgNW-PU composite Parallel-plate capacitive 0.5  ... 
arXiv:2110.04949v1 fatcat:kuu773djdjehlmmlv6jv6wopv4

Recent Progress on Electroactive Polymers: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

Md Hafizur Rahman, Harmony Werth, Alexander Goldman, Yuki Hida, Court Diesner, Logan Lane, Pradeep L. Menezes
2021 Ceramics  
Such interactions could reduce their useful life and need significant research attention for enhancing their life.  ...  Moreover, their mechanical interactions have been investigated from a tribological perspective as all these EAPs undergo surface interactions.  ...  Dielectric elastomers, known for their high deformability and ease of production, could be useful in these types of robotic applications.  ... 
doi:10.3390/ceramics4030038 fatcat:slf4zocosfbnbosa5usucrox2m

Biology and bioinspiration of soft robotics: Actuation, sensing, and system integration

Luquan Ren, Bingqian Li, Guowu Wei, Kunyang Wang, Zhengyi Song, Yuyang Wei, Lei Ren, Qingping Liu
2021 iScience  
Organisms in nature grow with senses, nervous, and actuation systems coordinated in ingenious ways to sustain metabolism and other essential life activities.  ...  Here, the actuation and sensing strategies in the natural biological world are summarized along with their man-made counterparts applied in soft robotics.  ...  Park et al. reported a flexible piezoelectric sensor based on microporous dielectric elastomer with superior sensitivity and stable pressure sensing ability (Figure 8C , bottom) (Kwon et al., 2016) .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.isci.2021.103075 pmid:34568796 pmcid:PMC8449090 fatcat:4darud5p5nainos6zggpqrg35a
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