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Subtyping First-Class Polymorphic Components [chapter]

João Costa Seco, Luís Caires
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We present a statically typed, class-based object oriented language where classes are first class polymorphic values.  ...  A main contribution of this work is the design of a type system that combines first class polymorphic values with structural equirecursive types and admits a subtyping algorithm which is arguably much  ...  Subtyping Some approaches to the problem of defining a first-order subtyping relation between recursive types exist for quite a while [2, 3, 17] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-31987-0_24 fatcat:jisomytf2fdofipf7fzevmk6qy

A Type System for First-Class Layers with Inheritance, Subtyping, and Swapping [article]

Hiroaki Inoue, Atsushi Igarashi
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The language models main features of the type-safe version of JCop, including dynamically activated first-class layers, inheritance of layer definitions, layer subtyping, and layer swapping.  ...  Subtyping for first-class layers is subtle because there are two kinds of substitutability.  ...  The above notion of subtyping is called weak because it does not guarantee safe substitutability for first-class layers.  ... 
arXiv:1905.01453v1 fatcat:w4pregi6uzhjbjypno2lxrtk3m

A type system for first-class layers with inheritance, subtyping, and swapping

Hiroaki Inoue, Atsushi Igarashi
2019 Science of Computer Programming  
The language models main features of the type-safe version of JCop, including dynamically activated first-class layers, inheritance of layer definitions, layer subtyping, and layer swapping.  ...  Subtyping for first-class layers is subtle because there are two kinds of substitutability.  ...  The above notion of subtyping is called weak because it does not guarantee safe substitutability for first-class layers.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.scico.2019.03.008 fatcat:cfoln5hclnfufchyuxfm3mjldu

First-class subtypes

Jeremy Yallop, Stephen Dolan, Apollo-University Of Cambridge Repository, Apollo-University Of Cambridge Repository
2019
However, first-class representations of other relations between types, such as subtyping, are not yet directly supported in most functional programming languages.  ...  We present several encodings of first-class subtypes using existing features of the OCaml language (made more convenient by the proposed modular implicits extension), show that any such encodings are interconvertible  ...  Bounded quantification Dual to abstraction, combining first-class subtypes with OCaml's first-class polymorphism encodes bounded quantification.  ... 
doi:10.17863/cam.40595 fatcat:fiog6lt7abamnitqf46llaa6fu

First-in-class thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-based compound binds to a pharmacologically distinct TRH receptor subtype in human brain and is effective in neurodegenerative models

Julie A. Kelly, Noreen T. Boyle, Natalie Cole, Gillian R. Slator, M. Alessandra Colivicchi, Chiara Stefanini, Oliviero L. Gobbo, Gaia A. Scalabrino, Sinead M. Ryan, Marwa Elamin, Cathal Walsh, Alice Vajda (+12 others)
2015 Neuropharmacology  
., First-in-class thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-based compound binds to a pharmacologically distinct TRH receptor subtype in human brain and is effective in neurodegenerative models, Neuropharmacology  ...  In summary, we describe a first-in-class, centrally-acting TRH-based compound, which offers an innovative, multifunctional approach to treating CNS disorders.  ...  M A N U S C R I P T A C C E P T E D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT ABSTRACT JAK4D, a first-in-class thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-based compound, is a prospective therapeutic candidate offering a multifaceted  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.09.024 pmid:25281210 fatcat:6bq6siuybbbkbk5uyjdk5dokoq

Towards a Java Subtyping Operad [article]

Moez A. AbdelGawad
2017 arXiv   pre-print
, contravariant subtyping and invariant subtyping.  ...  The self-similarity in Java subtyping is interesting and intricate due to the existence of wildcard types and, accordingly, the existence of three subtyping rules for generic types: covariant subtyping  ...  More concretely, using the generic class C and the covariant subtyping rule, in the first iteration of the construction process the rank 1 types C<? <: O> and C<? <: C<?> > and C<?  ... 
arXiv:1706.00274v2 fatcat:hq6yre3b2nbsznihs55t5whuje

Java Subtyping as an Infinite Self-Similar Partial Graph Product [article]

Moez A. AbdelGawad
2018 arXiv   pre-print
In these languages, the subtyping relation between ground object types, i.e., ones with no type variables, is the basis for defining the full OO subtyping relation, i.e., that includes type variables.  ...  In order to better understand some of the subtleties of the subtyping relation in Java, in this paper we present how the subtyping relation between ground Java types can be precisely constructed using  ...  generic OO subtyping using class D<T> {}.  ... 
arXiv:1805.06893v2 fatcat:6dxsxqqrcfefvicqweoohrnfb4

The Green language type system

José de Oliveira Guimarães
2009 Computer languages, systems & structures  
However, popular statically-typed object-oriented languages do not consider classes as first-class objects because this concept is difficult to integrate with static type checking.  ...  To treat every value, including basic values (integers, chars, ...) and classes as objects increases polymorphism and makes the language easier to use.  ...  Subtyping of objects follows from subtyping of classes.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cl.2008.09.001 fatcat:mtsec7mvjvf4bl2yv4vhjopswi

Java interfaces in CS 1 textbooks

Thomas VanDrunen
2006 Companion to the 21st ACM SIGPLAN conference on Object-oriented programming systems, languages, and applications - OOPSLA '06  
Java's interface construct allows for a clear distinction between subtype polymorphism based on a shared interface and code reuse based on class extension or inheritance.  ...  Design Patterns argues that in an object-oriented setting, programming should be done to an interface, not to an implementation, that class inheritance is a mechanism for code reuse rather than for subtyping  ...  Subclassing is given first billing, confusing the notions of code reusing and subtyping.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1176617.1176738 dblp:conf/oopsla/VanDrunen06 fatcat:c3w3wdnf6zgrvecygkbaukcgxa

Identifying Informative Genes for Prediction of Breast Cancer Subtypes [chapter]

Iman Rezaeian, Yifeng Li, Martin Crozier, Eran Andrechek, Alioune Ngom, Luis Rueda, Lisa Porter
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We conducted computational experiments to select the minimal number of genes that would reliably predict a given subtype.  ...  Appropriate diagnosis of the specific subtypes of this disease is critical for ensuring the best possible patient response to therapy.  ...  First of all, feature selection and classification are conducted, in a cross-validation fashion, for each class against the other classes.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39159-0_13 fatcat:djkfwf6i4zccbbaagl4bfyaflu

Prevalence, subtypes, and correlates of DSM-IV conduct disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

MATTHEW K. NOCK, ALAN E. KAZDIN, EVA HIRIPI, RONALD C. KESSLER
2006 Psychological Medicine  
Latent class analysis identified five CD subtypes characterized by rule violations, deceit/theft, aggression, severe covert behaviors, and pervasive CD symptoms.  ...  Although both active and remitted CD is associated with increased risk of the subsequent first onset of other mental disorders, remitted CD is associated with significantly lower risk of subsequent disorders  ...  extent to which CD class membership (i.e., subtype) predicts first onset of later mental disorders in discrete-time survival models statistically controlling for age, sex, and race-ethnicity (Table 5  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0033291706007082 pmid:16438742 pmcid:PMC1925033 fatcat:f2skkdx7ovcktakyzxrwq3tw6q

Subtyping in Java is a Fractal [article]

Moez A. AbdelGawad
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Java, the graph of the subtyping relation is no longer a simple directed-acyclic graph (DAG), as in pre-generics Java, but is rather a fractal.  ...  Accordingly, the shape of the subtyping relation in these OO languages is more complex than a tree or a simple DAG, and indeed is also a fractal.  ...  Illustrated: Constructing The Subtyping Fractal Figure 3 . 1 :Figure 3 . 2 : 3132 Subtyping: (First) Inductive Step.  ... 
arXiv:1411.5166v5 fatcat:o5qtzelp3rb4zicw2nkqbsrysa

Semantic Subtyping for Objects and Classes [chapter]

Ornela Dardha, Daniele Gorla, Daniele Varacca
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Semantic subtyping is an approach to defining subtyping relation based on set-theoretic models, rather than syntactic rules.  ...  While semantic subtyping is naturally linked to the structural one, we show how the framework can also accommodate the nominal subtyping.  ...  Castagna et al [8, 13] extend the XDuce with first-class functions and arrow types defining a higher-order language, named CDuce, and adopting the semantic approach to subtyping.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38592-6_6 fatcat:zkpx2dqzrzeg7dwuukj74xrprm

Inducing Fine-Grained Semantic Classes via Hierarchical and Collective Classification

Md. Altaf ur Rahman, Vincent Ng
2010 International Conference on Computational Linguistics  
Motivated by this observation, we examine the under-studied problem of semantic subtype induction, where the goal is to automatically determine which of a set of 92 fine-grained semantic classes a noun  ...  Research in named entity recognition and mention detection has typically involved a fairly small number of semantic classes, which may not be adequate if semantic class information is intended to support  ...  The first row of results shows the system performance after removing just one feature class.  ... 
dblp:conf/coling/RahmanN10 fatcat:2rr52ynsurdrvgkba6ng274ev4

Subtyping first-episode non-affective psychosis using four early-course features: potentially useful prognostic information at initial presentation

Michael T. Compton, Mary E. Kelley, Dawn F. Ionescu
2013 Early Intervention in Psychiatry  
Derived subtypes were then compared along a number of clinical dimensions using analyses of variance. Results-Using four early-course features, three classes were derived.  ...  This study aimed to identify interpretable subtypes of first-episode nonaffective psychosis based on four early-course features (premorbid academic functioning, premorbid social functioning, duration of  ...  Acknowledgments This research was supported by grants K23 MH067589 and R01 MH081011 to the first author from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).  ... 
doi:10.1111/eip.12026 pmid:23343467 pmcid:PMC3672389 fatcat:mezxl5ensrfpthem7qwvhleqwm
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